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Brown Burthogge 

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Brown Burthogge 






V 7 




O. A.. . . . . Osmund Airt. 

A. J. A. . . . Sib A. J. Abbdthhot, K.C.S.I. 

T. A. A. . . T. A. Abchbb. 

P. B.-A. ... P. BBUC»-AOTTiir, LL.D. 

W. E. A. A. W. E. A. Axon. 

G. F. R. B. G. F. Russell Barker. 

T. B Thomas Batns. 

G. V. B. . . G. Vbbb Bbnson. 

G. T. B. . . G. T. Bbttaot. 

A. C. B. . . A. C. BiCTOBT. 

W. G. B. . . THBRBV.PR0PBfl80RBLAnaB,D.D. 

G. 0. B. . . G. C. BoASB. 

H ^ Henbt Bradley. 

J. B Jambs Bbittbn. 

J. T. B.. . . J. Tatlob Bbown. 
R. C. B. . . R. C. Bbownb. 
A. H. B. . . A. H. ^ULLEN. 

G. W. R . . G. W. BUBNETT. 

H. M. C. . . H. Mankebs Chichesteb. 
J. W. C. . . J. W. Clabx. 

A. M. C. • 4ii jiHB A. M. Clebke. 

T. C Thompson Goofbb, F.S.A. 

C. H. C. . . C. H. CooTB. 

W. P. C. . . W. P. Coubtnet. 

0. C Chabum Cbbiohton, MJ). 

B. W. D. . . The Bby; Canon Dixon. 
A« D.^. . . • Aijvrnf Dobboh. 

L. F Louis Faoan. 

C. H. F. . . C. H. FiBTu. 

F. B. G. . . F. B. Gabnett. 

R. G RicHABD Gabnett, LL.D. 

J. W.-G. . . John Westbt-Gibson, LL.D. 
J. T. G. . . J. T. Gilbebt, F.SJI. 
A. G^N. . . . Alfred Goodwin. 

G. G Gt>BDON Goodwin. 

A. G The Ret. Alexandbb Gk>Bi>ON. 

A. H. G. . . A. H. Gbant. 
R. E. G. . . R. E. Gbaybs. 

W. A. G. . . W. A. Grbbnhill, M.D. 

N. G Newcomen Grotbs. 

J. A. H. . . J. A. Hamilton. 

R. H Robert Harrison. 

T. F. H. . . T. F. Henderson. 
W. H-H. . . Walter Hepwobth. 

J. H Miss Jennett Humphbets. 

R. H-t. . . . Robebt Hunt, F.R.S. 
W. H The Rev. William Hunt. 

B. D. J. . . B. D. Jackson, 

A. J The Ret. Augustus Jessopp, D.D. 

C. K Chables Kent. 

J. K Joseph Knight. 

J. K. L. . . Pbofbssob J. K. Lauohton. 
S. L. L. . . S. li. liEE. 
I A. L. .... Abthub Locxbb. 


List of Writers. 

A. M-L. . . 
JE. M. . . 
W. M. . . 
C. T. M. . 
J. M. . . . 
A. M. . . . 
N. M.. . . 
H. F. M. . 
T. 0. . . . 
J. H. 0. . 
J. F. P. . 

A. Xi. X. . 

S. Xi.-F. . . 

E. R. . . . 

£. P. R» • 

J. M. R. . 

ix* Jtttt ... 
C* Ja R, . 

J« M. R. . 

. Miss Macdonsll. 

. ^N£A.s Mackat, LL.D. 

. Wbstland Mabston, LL.D. 

. C. Tbicb Mabtik. 

. Jambs Mew. 

. Abthxtb Millbb. 


. nobman moobe, md. 

. h. fobstbb moblet, 

. The Rby. Thomas Olden. 

. The Rev. Canon Oyebton. 

. J. F. Payne, M.D. 

. R. L. Poole. 

. Stanley Lane-Poole. 

. Ebnest Radfobd. 

. Ebmbst Rhys. 

. J. M. Rioo. 

. Mbs. Richmond Ritchie. 

. The Rey. C. J. Robinson. 

. J. H. Round. 

J. A. E. R. Mbs. Roundell. 

a J. A. S. . S. J. A. Saltbb, F.R.S. 

J. M. S. . . J. M. Scott. 

B. C. S. . . . B. 0. Skottowb. 
E. S Edwabd Smith. 

G. B. S. . . G. Babnett Smith. 
W. B. S. . . W. Babclay Sqxtibb. 

L. S Leslie Stephen. 

H. M. S. . . H. M. Stephens. 

W. R W. S. The Rev. W. R. W. Stephens. 

C. W. S. . . C. W. Sutton. 
J. H. T. . . J. H. Thobpe. 

T. F. T. . . Pbofessob T. F. Tout. 

E. V The Rey. Canon Vekables. 

C. W The late Cobnelius Walpobd. 

A. W. W. . . Pbofessob A. W. Wahd, LL.D. 
M. G. W. . . The Rev. M^G. Watkins. 

F. W-T. . . . Fbancis Watt. 

H. T. W. . . H. Tbueman Wood. 
W. W. . . . Wabwick Wboth. 








BROWW, CHARLES (d. 1753), 
dore, entered the navT about 1093, Through 
the potromige of Sir George Byng, afterwords 
LoM Torriiigton, he was appintiW cuptain of 
tile StromboU in 1709. He commundad the 
York in 1717, and the Advice in 172fl in the 
cruiBC4 up the Daltic. In 1727, during the 
ai^e or Oibraltar b; tlie Spaniards, he com- 
m&ndMl the (Oxford, o»k1 iu 1731 the Buek- 
ingliam in the Mediterranean. In 1738 he 
was appointed to command the Hampton 
Court, and wns senior otficer at Ihia station 
until tlie nrriial of Admiral Vernon in the 
&ll(nring jesr. Hia opportunity arrived in 
1739, when, during the war with Spain, he 
wrved under Vernon in the attack on Porto- 
bello, in the isthmue of Dorien. ICc led the 

auadron into Boca Chica, placing bis v easel, 
f Hampton Court, alongside the strongest 
part of the fortifications. When the fortress 
•urrendered, the Spanish governor preeeiited 
his ewonl in token of submission. Brown 
VMj properly declined to receive it, sayiiw 
bti was but ' second in command,' and took 
the governor in his boat to Admiral Vernon. 
But llie Spaniard was obstinate, declaring 
that but for the insupportable fire of the com- 
modore lie never would have yielded. There- 
npan Vernon, very handsomely tumine to 
I&own, [ir«Mnted to him tlie Bword, which 
U still in the possvasion of Itis descendants. 
In 1741 Brown was appointed to the office 
of commisisioatr of the nuvy at Chatham, a 
■itaatioD which bo held with unbleoiished 
r^DtaLion until bis death, 23 March 1753. 
lua danahtnr, l.ucy, Iwcome the wife of 
Admiral AVillinm I'lirry, cummander-in-chiyf 
of the Leeward Islands ; and her dougbtifr and 
nameaiko tnnrricd Ouptnin Locker, under 
whum Lord Nelson served in bis early days, 
oiu] who EutMMjiwntlv bfcnme lieuieuitut' 
gortraot uf Onxtuwicu lloapital. Tliera Is 

[Cbamock's Biug. Nav. W. 1 ; Beatson's Nav. 
and Mil. MerDoin. i. Jt> ; E. H. Lackers Naval 
Memoirs, 1831 ; H. A. Lui^kar'ii Naral Oullery of 

Groonwich HoBpiial, 18*2.1 A- 1^ 


(1787 ?-184a P), writer on Shakespeare's son- 
nets and friend of Keats, went lo St. Peters- 
burgatthe age of eighteen to conduct the buai- 
nesB of a Kuasia merchant started there by 
hia eldest brother John. Working on very 
little capital, and hampered by political dis- 
turbances, the firm soon collapsed, and about 
1810, at the age of tweaty-ttree, Brown re- 
turned to this country utterly ruined. For 
some Tears aHerwardshe struggled bard for a 
livelihood, but the death of another brother 
who had settled in Sumatra put him at length 
in the poaaesalon of a small competence, and 
he devoted himself lo literary pursuits. In 
1S14 he wrote a serio-comic opera on a Kus- 
sian subject, entitled ' Narensby, or the Road 
It was acted at Drury Lane, under Arnold's 
mansgcmeut, for several nights from 11 Jon. 
lS14,with Brahamin the chief part (Gbubst, 
viii.40o). ThelibrettowaspubfishedinlSl*, 
but its literary quality is poor. Brown made 
theacquaintanceofKJeats and his brothers be- 
fore September 1817. At the time Brown was 
living at Wentworth Place, Hampstead, a 
double house part of which was in the occu- 

fiation of Gbarle« Wentworth Dilke, and 
Ceats was living in Well Walk, near at hand. 
In July 1818 Brown and Keats mode a tour 
together in the north of Scotland. Brown 
sent a number of amusing letters to Dilke 
describing the trip, some of which have be<iu 
printed iuDilke's "Papers of a Critic,' and in 
Buston Forman's elaborate edition of Eeats's 



works. A diary kept by Brown at the same 
time is unfortunately lost. On the return 
from Scotland in August, Brown induced 
Keats to * keep house with him at Went- 
worth Place, each paying his own expenses ; 
and there Brown introduced the poet to 
Fanny Brawne and her mother, who had 
hired Brown's rooms during his absence in 
the north, and had thus made his acquaint- 
ance. At Wentworth Place Keats wrote his 
play of *Otho,' the plot of which he owed to 
Brown. In April 1819 Keats wrote some hu- 
morous Spenserian stanzas on Brown, which 
are printed in the various editionsof the poet's 
works. In 1820 Keats left for Rome, with 
his health rapidly breaking. In 1822, shortly 
after Keats's death. Brown paid a long visit 
to Italy. He met Byron at Florence, and 
tried to induce him to take a just view of 
Keats*s poetry and character. In 1824 Kirk- 
patrick introauced Brown to Landor, and the 
introduction led to a long intimacy. For 
many years Brown was a rrequent visitor at 
Landor*s villa at Fiesole. In April 1836 
Brown returned to England and lived near 
Plymouth. He busied himself in public lec- 
turing on Keats and Shakespeare, and in 
writing for newspapers and reviews. Landor 
visited him in 1837. In the middle of 1841 
he suddenly left England for New ^Zealand, 
in the hope partly oi improving his fortune 
and partly of recovering his health, which 
had been failing for some time. He obtained 
a government grant of land at Taranaky, New 
Pfymouth, but he was so dissatisfied with its 
quality and situation that he resolved to re- 
turn to England. He wrote from New Zea- 
land to Joseph Severn, under date 22 Jan. 
1842, announcing this resolve, but he appa- 
rently died before beginning the journey. In 
this, his last extant letter, he mentions that 
he was engaged on a * Handbook of New 

A number of Keats's manuscripts came 
into Brown's possession on the poet's death, 
and Brown determined to publish some of 
them with a memoir by himself. He printed 
a few of Keats's unpublished works in the 

* New Monthly Magazine,' but a short bio- 
graphical sketch which he wrote of his friend 
was refused by the booksellers and by the 

* Morning Chronicle.' On leaving England, 
Brown made overall his manuscripts relating 
to Keats to R. Monckton Milnes, afterwards 
Lord Houghton, whom he first met at Fiesole 
in April 18^33. In his well-known book on 
Keats, Lord Houghton made a free use of 
Brown's papers. 

Brown 8 best-known literary work is his 
' Shakespeare's Autobiographical Poems, be- 
ing his Sonnets clearly developed, with his 

Character drawn chiefly from his Works,*" 
London, 1838. Brown aedicated the book to 
Landor, with whom he had first discussed 
its subject at Florence in 1828. It is Brown's 
endeavour to show that Shakespeare's sonnets 
conceal a fairly complete autobiography of 
the poet, and although Boaden had suc^gested 
a similar theory in 1812, Brown was the first 
to treat it with adequate fulness or know- 
ledge. Brown often illustrates Shakespeare 
from Italian literature, with which he was 
widely acquainted. Lord Houghton saya 
that Keats learned from Brown all that ne 
knew of Ariosto, and that Brown scarcely let 
a day pass in Italy without translating m>m 
the Italian. His 'complete and admirable 
Version of the first five Cantos of Boiardo's 
"Orlando Innamorato'" (Houghton) was 
unfortunately never published. Of Brown's 
contributions to periodical literature, his pa- 
pers in the * Liberal,' signed Oarlone and Cfar- 
lucci, are very good reading. One called * Les 
Charmettes and Rousseau has been wrongly 
assigned to Charles Lamb, and another, * On 
Shakespeare's Fools,' equally wrongly to 
Charles Cowden Clarke. A stoiy in the 'Ex- 
aminer' for 1823 entitled *La Bella Tabao- 
caia ' is also by Brown. Various references 
to Brown in the letters of his literary friends, 
among whom Hazlitt and Leigh Hunt are 
to be included, prove that he was at alT 
times excellent company. Leigh Hunt is 
believed to refer to him in the * Tatler' for 
14 Jan. 1831, as ' one of the most genuine 
wits now living.' Joseph Severn, Keats's 
friend, maintained a fairly regular corre- 
spondence with Brown for more than twenty 
years (1820-42), and many of Brown's letters 
to Severn and other literary friends will be 
printed in the * Severn Memoirs,' edited by- 
Mr. William Sharp. 

[Information from the lat« W. Dilko of Chi- 
chester, from the late Lord Houghton, from Mr. 
William Sharp, and from Mr. Sidney Colvin; 
Buxton Forman's complete edition of Keats^s 
works (1883) : Dilke's Papers of a Critic ; Lord 
Houghton's Life of Keats (1848); Forster's Life 
of Landor; Notes and Queries, 6th ser. vii. 388, 
6th spr. viii. 392. Mr. W. Dilke was of opinion 
that Brown was never known by the second 
name of Armitage until the publication of Lord 
Houghton's Life of Keats. On the title-page of 
the opera Narensky (1814) Brown is called 
Mr. Charles Brown, but on that of his work on 
Shakespeare's sonnets he is called Charles Armi- 
ttigo Brown. His eldest brother's name was John 
Armitage Brown. A son Charles or Carlino, 
who settled with him in New Zealand, survived 
him.] S. L. L. 

1884), Telugu scholar, son of the Rev. David 


Brown [q. v.], provost of the college of Cal- 
cutta, entered the Madras Civil Service in 
1817, was employed for many years in revenue, 
magisterial, and judicial duties in the districts 
of Cuddapah and Masulipatam, where, in ad- 
dition to a knowledge of Persian, Sanskrit, 
and Hindustani, he acquired that mastery over 
the hitherto neglected language and literature 
of Telugu which entitles him to a foremost 
place among South Indian scholars. He was 
appointed in 1838 Persian translator, and in 

; Brown 

and Hindustani. On his return to England 
he accepted the post of professor of Telugu 
at University College. Among his titles to 
fame must be reckoned the fine collection of 
manuscripts, incluyling over 2,000 Sanskrit 
and Telugu work^, which he presented in 
1846 to the Madiias Literary Society, and 
which now form part of the government 
college library. 

[Autobiography (privately printed), with pre- 
face by D. F. Caraiichael; Athenaeum, No. 2984 ; 

im postmaster-general and Telugu trans- Times, 20 Dec. 1884; Ann. EeportKoyal Asiatic 
lator to the Madras government, and became ' Society, 1885.1 S. L-P. 

at the same time a member of the council of * 

education, a government director of the 
Madras bank, and curator of manuscripts in 
the college library. He resigned in 1855, after 

BROWN, DAVID (/. 1795), landscape- 
painter, commenced his artistic career by 
painting signboards. At the age of thirty- 

thirty-eight years of service. His principal j "V© he placed himself for some time under 
worlu were his valuable dictionaries of Telu- | George Morland, and made copies of that ar- 
cru-English (Madras, 1852), English-Telugu ! tist's pictures, which are stated to have been 
(Madras, 1862), and * Mixed Dialects and ' since frequently sold as originals. Being un- 
Foreign Words used in Telugu ' (Madras, ' able to endure the excesses of his master, he 
1854), published at the expense of the Society j left the metropolis and obtained employment 
for Promoting Christian Knowledge. His in the country as a drawing-master. The 
other writings included: * Prosody of the dates ofhis birth and death are unknown, but 
Telugu and Sanskrit Languages explained,' ! he exhibited at the Royal Academy ten land- 
Madras, 1827 ; * Vemana^ Verses, Moral, scapes between 1792 and 1797. 
Religious, and Satirical,' Madras, 1829 ; ' Fa- 
miliar Analysis of Sanskrit Prosody,' London, 
1837 ; ' New Telugu Version of St. Luke,' 
1838 ; ' Grammar of the Telugu Language,' 
Madras, 1840, 2nd ed. 1857 ; ' Cyclic Tables 
of Hindu and Mahomedan Chronology of the 
Telugu andKanadi Countries,' Madras, 1850 ; 
' English and Hindustani Phraseology,' Cal- 
cutta, 1860 ; ' Ephemeris, showing the cor- 
responding^ Dates according to the English, 
Telugu, Malayalam, and Mahomedan Calen- 
dars, 1751-1850 ; ' ' Telugu Reader : a Series 
of Letters, Private and on Business, and 
Revenue Matters, with English Translation,' 
Madras, 1852; 'Dialogues in Telugu and 
English,' 2nd ed. Madras, 1853; * Vakyavali; 
or, Exercises in Idioms, English and Telugu,' 
Madras, 1852 ; * Zillah Dictionary in the Ro- 
man Character,' Madras, 1852 ; * The Wars 
of the Rajahs,' Madras, 1853; 'Popular 
Telugu Tales,' 1855 ; ' A Titular Memoir,' 
London, 1861 ; * Camatic Chronology, the 
Hindu and Mahomedan Methods of reckon- 
ing Time, explained with Symbols and His- 
toric Records,' London, 1863; 'Sanskrit 
Prosody and Numerical Symbols explained,' 
London (printed), 1869. He also edited 
'Three Treatises on Mirasi Rights,' &c. ; 
translated from Mahratta the lives of Haidar 
Ali and Tippoo ; and printed in 1866 an auto- 
bic^praphy for private circulation. He was a 
frequent contributor to the ' Madras Journal 
of Literature and Science.' Some of his 
works were translated into Tamil, Canarese, 

[Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists, 1878.J 


BRpWN, DAVID (1763-1812), Bengal 
chaplain and founder of the Calcutta Bible 
Society, was bom in Yorkshire, and was edu- 
cated first under private tuition at Scarbo- 
rough, and afterwards at a grammar school 
at Hull under the Rev. Joseph Milner [q. v.],. 
author of the ' History of the Church, and 
at Magdalene College, Cambridge. Having 
taken holy orders and been appointed to a 
chaplaincy in Bengal, Brown reached Cal- 
cutta in 1786, and was immediately placed 
in char^ of an extensive orphanage in that 
city, bemg at the same time appointed chap- 
lain to the brigade at Fort William. In ad- 
dition to these duties Brown took charge of 
the mission church. In 1794 he was appointed 
presidency chaplain, in which office he is said 
to have commanded in an unusual degree the 
respect and esteem of the English at Calcutta. 
Among his most intimate friends were Henry 
Martyn, Claudius Buchanan, and Thomas 
Thomason, all of whom were successively re- 
ceived in his house on their first arrival in 
India, and regarded him as their chief guide 
and counsellor. To the cause of christian 
missions he devoted himself with untiring 
zeal, labouring in it himself and afibrding 
generous aid to missionaries, both of the church 
of England and of other denominations. 

Brown^s health failing in 1 81 2,he embarked, 

for the benefit of sea air, in a 

vessel bound 





Brown Burthogge 

Brown 6 Brown 

wr^fftMe/ Thia elicited from Welsche *A BROWN, JAMES (1709-1788), traveUer 

K«?plT against Mr. Gilbert Browne, priest,' and scholar, was son of James Brown, M.D., 

Edinburgh, 1602, 4to, afterwards reprinted of Kelso in Hoxburghshire, where he was 

under the title of * Popery anatomized/ At bom on 23 May 1709. He received his edu- 

thfr time Welsche published this reply Dum- cation at Westminster School, * where he 

fries ' had become the seat of excommimi- was well instructed in the Latin and Greek 

eated panists and Jesuits ; ' and the abbot is classics,' notwithstanding that he must have 

d««cribed as the ' famous excommunicat, left school at the early age of thirteen, as in 

foiriaultit, and perverting papist, named Mr, the year 1722 he went with his father to 

Gilbert Browne, Abbot of r^'ew Abbey, quho Constantinople. During the three years of 

evir since the reformatioun of religioune had his stay in the East on this occasion, the 

conteinit in ignorance and idolatrie allmost boy, * having a great natural aptitude for the 

the haill soutn-west partis of Scotland, and learning of languages, acquired a competent 

had been continowalue occupyit in practise- knowledge of Turkish, vulgar Greek, and 

ing of heresy.' At length Abbot Brown Italian.' In 1726 he returned home, and 

was captured near New Abbey in August * made himself master of the Spanish lan- 

1606. The country people rose in arms to guage.' About the year 1732 he conceived 

rescue him, but were overpowered by Lord tor the first time (it has been said) the idea 

Cranstoun and his guardsmen. Brown was of a * Directoir of the Principal Traders in 

first conveyed to Blackness castle, and thence London.* A * Directory ' upon a similar plan 

transferred to the castle of Edinburgh, had, however, been already published in Lon- 

* where he was interteaned upon the kings don as early as 1677. After having been at 

expences till his departure out of the coiin- some pains to lay the foundation of it, hegave 

trie* (Calderwood, Historie of the Kirk it to Ilenry Kent, printer, in Finch LMie,Com- 

of Scotland, vi. 296). Eventually he was hill,whomade a fortune by the publication. In 

l^nished, and he died at Paris on 14 May 1741 he attempted to carry out a more ambi- 

161 2. tious project, namely, to establish a trade with 

[Cat. of Printed Books in Brit. Mus. ; Calder- ^^"^"^^ ^la Russia. Having entered into an 
wooil's Hist, of the Kirk of Scotland (Wodrow agreement for the purpose with twenty-four 
See), V. 39, 416, vi. 296, 367, 576, 764 ; Gordon's oi the princmal merchants of London, mem- 
Catholic Church in Scotland, 526 ; Keith's Cat. hers of the Kussia Company, he sailed for 
of Scottish Bishops (1824), 425; McCrio'R Life Riga on Michaelmas day 1741, 'passed 
of Melville, ii. 208; Murray's Lit. llist. of Gal- through Russia, down the Volga to Astra- 
loway, 66-8, 121-3.] T. C. chan, and sailed along the Caspian Sea to 
Reshd in Persia, where he established a 

BROWN, IGNATIUS (1630-1679), Irish factory, in which he continued near four 
writer, was bom m the county of Water- years.^ While there he was the bearer of a 
ford in 1630, but educated m Spain. In his letter from George II to Nadir Shah. Dis- 
twenty-first year he was admitted into the satisfied with his employers, and impressed 
society of iesuits at Compostella. After ^ith the dangers to which the factory was 
teaching belles-lettres for some time in Cas- exposed from the unsettled nature of the 
tile, he was sent on a mission into his own Persian government, he resigned his post, 
country, whence removing mto France, he and reached London on Christmas day 1746. 
became rector, in 1676, of the newly founded The following year the factory at Reshd 
Irish seminary at Poitiers. Having been was plundered, and a final period put to the 
appointed confessor to the Queen of Spain, Persia trade. His old aptitude for languages 
he died at Valladolid in 1679, during a enabled him during his four years' stay at 
journey to Madrid. He was the author of Reshd to acquire such proficiency in Persian 
' The Unerring and Unerrable Church, in tliat on his return he compiled * a copious 
Answer to a Sermon of Andrew Sall,preached Persian Dictionary and Grammar,' which, 
at Christ Church, Dublin, in July 1674' however, was never published. Lysons states 
(dedicated in ironical terms to the Earl of that Brown was also the author of a trans- 
Essex), 1 675, and * An Unerrable Church or lation of two orations of Isocrates, published 
None. Being a Rejoinder to " The Unemng anonymouslv. He died of a paralytic stroke 
and Unerrable Church," agamst Dr. Andrew on 30 Nov. 1788, at his house in Stoke New- 

the reputed author of a treatise, * Pax Vobis.' (Ltsons, iii. 290). 

[Gent. Mag. Ivii _ 

H. Environs of London, iii. 801-2.] G. V^. B. 

[Ware's Works (Harris), ii. 186-7J [Gent. Mag. Iviii. pt. ii. p. 1128; Lysons's 

T. F. " ~ - 



BROWN, JAMES, D.D. (1812-1881), 
catholic bishop, was bom on 11 Jan. 1812, at 
Wolverhampton. There, in the old chapel 
of SS. Peter and Paul in North Street, ne 
often, when a child, served the mass of Bishop 
Milner. That prelate, taking a ^at liking 
to the boy, and observing in his little acolyte 
the signs of a vocation to the ecclesiastical 
«tate, sent him, in 1820, to Sedgeley Park 
Academy. There he remained until June 
1826, and in the following Aujg^st was placed 
by Bishop Milner, as a clerical student, at 
St. Mary s College, Old Oscott, now known 
as Maryvale. lie completed his studies as 
an Oscotian with marked success, being 
chiefly distinguished by his proficiency in 
classics. On 18 Feb. 1837 he was ordained 
priest by Bishop Walsh. For several years 
ne remained at Old and (from 1838 onwards) 
at New Oscott as professor and prefect of 
studies until, in January 1844, he returned 
to Sedgeley Park as vice-president, being af- 
terwards, before the year was out, promoted 
to the rank of president. Six years later 
on he was still holding that position when, 
in the summer of 1851, he was advanced 
to the episcopate. He was consecrated, on 
27 July 1851, the first bishop of Shrewsr 
bury iu St. George's Cathedral, Southwark, 
bv Cardinal Wiseman. Immediately after 
his consecration Brown went to reside at 
Salter's Hall, near Newport in Shropshire. 
His diocese comprised within it not only 
Shropshire and (Ilheshire, but also the six 
counties of North Wales. Such was the 
energy of his episcopal governance during 
the thirty years that elapsed between 1861 
and 1881 that within that internal he had 
increased the number of priests there from 
thirty-three to ninety-five, of churches from 
thirty to eighty-eight, of monasteries from one 
to six, and of convents from one to eleven. 
And whereas in 1851 he had found not one 
poor school at all he left flourishing, near St. 
Asaph, the fine establishment of St. Beuno s 
College, and scattered all over his diocese 
aixty-three poor schools, at which 9,273 
children were in daily attendance. Much 
of this wonderful increase was directly trace- 
able to his untiring energy and his remark- 
able power of organisation. In September 
1868 JBrown left Newport and went to re- 
side at Shrewsbury. On 8 Dec. 1869 he 
took part in the inauguration of the (Ecu- 
menical Council of the V atican. On 17 April 
1870 he was named by Pius IX one of the 
bishops assuttant at the pontifical throne. 
Some weeks before the aeclaration of the 
dogma of papal infallibility, on 18 July 
1870, Brown was released n*om his attend- 
axkce upon it on the score of ill-health, and 

received permission to return homewards. 
On 27 July 1876 the silver jubilee of his 
episcopate was celebrated in the cathedral 
church at Shrewsbury, memorial gifts to the 
value of 1,600/. beinff presented to him on 
the occasion. His health breaking down 
three years afterwards he obtained the assist- 
ance of an auxiliary, Edmund Knight, who 
was consecrated on 25 July 1879. Brown 
then went to live at St. Mary's Grange, 
a sequestered spot near Shrewsbury, then 
recently purchased by him as the site of his 
proposed seminaiy. Ilis active episcopal 
work had thenceforth to be abandoned. But 
to the close of his life he sedulously watched 
over the general administration of his diocese. 
Death came to him at last very gently, in his 
seventieth year, on 14 Oct. 1881, at St. Mary's 
Grange. He had been present at four pro- 
vincial councils (those of 1852, 1855, 1859, 
and 1873) held during the time of his episco- 
pate. He presided at his own first diocesan 
synod in December 1853, at St. Alban's, 

[Morris's Silver Jubilee Sermon at St. Beuno's, 
1876; Men of the Time, 10th ed. 153 ; Brady's 
Episcopal Succession, 445 ; Times, 15 Oct. 1881 ; 
Tablet, 22 Oct. 1881, 674; Weekly Register, 
22 Oct. 1881, 484-5.] C. K. 

(1785-1843), miscellaneous writer, was called 
to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1816, and 
practised on the northern circuit and at the 
Lancashire quarter sessions. He was ap- 
pointed judge of the Oldham court of re- 
quests in 1840, and died in November 1843. 
Brown married a sister of the Rev. Thomas 
Raffles, D.D., and was father of the Rev. 
James Baldwin Brown [q. v.] His portrait 
has been engraved. 

He was the author of: 1. * An Historical 
Account of the Laws enacted against the 
Catholics, both in England and Ireland,' Lon- 
don, 1813, 8vo. 2. * An Historical Inquiry 
into the ancient Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction 
of the Crown,' 1815, 8vo. 3. 'Poems' in 
conjunction with the Rev. Thomas Raffles 
and Jeremiah Holmes 'Wifien, 1815, 8vo. 
4. * Memoirs of the Public and Private Life 
of John Howard, the Philanthropist,' London, 
1818, 4to, 2nd edit. 1823, 8vo ; dedicated to 
WiUiam Wilberforce, M.P. 

[T. S. Raffles's Memoirs of Dr. Thomas Raffles, 
374 ; Biog. Diet, of Living^ Authors (1816), 41 ; 
Evans's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, i. 42 ; Gent. 
Mng. N.S. xxi. 93.] T. C. 

younger (1820-1884), nonconformist divine, 
was the eldest son of Dr. James Baldwin 
Brown the elder [q. v.] Bom in 1820 at 




Kinfifs Bench Walk, Temple, he was sent 
to the London University, and at the age 
of eighteen was amongst the recipients of 
the first decrees granted by that body. 
It was intended that Brown should follow 
his father's profession, and he kept his terms 
at the Inner Temple for that purpose. He 
afterwards determined to devote himself to 
the ministry, and became a student at High- 
bury College. In 1843 he accepted the 
charge of a congregational church at Derby, 
and three years later he removed to London, 
becoming minister of Claylands Chapel, 
Clapham Hoad. During his ministry here 
Brown was distinguished for the breadth of 
his theological views. When the * Rivulet ' 
controversy arose in connection with the 
Rev. T. T. Lynch and his writings, Brown 
protested with other nonconformists against 
the severe attacks made upon Mr. Lynch. He 
also threw himself into the controversy on 
the doctrine of annihilation, and published a 
collection of discourses on the subject in op- 
position to the view held by the CTcat body 
of the congregationalists. In 18/0 Brown 
removed with the greater part of his congre- 
gation to a new andmore commodious church 
m Brixton Road, with which his name was 
associated until his death. 

In 1878 Brown was elected to the chair of 
the Congregational Union of England and 
Wales. During his tenure of office he once 
more showed himself to be a fearless contro- 
versialist. A conference was held at Leices- 
ter, in which, an eftbrt was made by certain 
congregational ministers holding unorthodox 
views to fraternise with unitarians and other 
advanced thinkers. Brown warmly supported 
the ar^^uments of tlie advanced school, but the 
majority at the conference carried a resolution 
reaffirming the tenets expressed in the Con- 
gregational Declaration of Faith and Order. 
The enforced separation from friends on this 
and other occasions affected Brown keenly. 

Brown was a voluminous "WTiter, as well 
as an active preacher and lecturer. In 1809 
he published a volume entitled *The Divine 
Mvsteries.' He was also the author of: 
1.^' Studies of First Principles* (1848, &c.) 
2. 'Competition, the Labour Market, and 
Christianity' (1851). 3. * The Divine Life 
in Man' (1800). 4. 'Aids to the Develop- 
ment of the Divine Life' (1802). 5. 'The 
Home Life' (1800). 0. 'The Christian Policv 
of Life' (1870). 7. ' Buying and Selling and 
getting Gain ' ( 187 1 ). 8. ' First Principles of 
Ecclesiastical Truth' (1871). 9. ' Our Morals 

nihilation in the Light of the Gk)8pel of Love ' 

(1876) ; and a number of other works, sermons, 
and contributions to periodical literature. 

For some time before his death Brown had 
been in feeble health, and laid aside from 
active work. He was contemplating a visit 
to Switzerland when he was struck down 
with apoplexy, and died on 23 June 1884. 
Brown s reputation as a preacher extended 
far beyond his own denomination. In all 
public movements he took a great interest, 
and at such crises as the Lancashire cotton 
famine, the American civil war, the Franco- 
German war, &c., his sympathies and aid 
went out towards the distressed and the suf- 
fering. He was of a sensitive and active 
temperament, taking a great delight in work. 
His discourses were manced by much fervour, 
intellectual force, and literary finish. He 
deeply lamented the exclusiveness of the es- 
tablished church, and was a warm advocate 
of the claims of dissenters at the universi- 
ties. One of the reforms for which he had 
long striven was accomplished when Brown 
lived to see his owm son take a first-class at 
Oxford after a brilliant university career. 
In culture and versatility of parts he was 
himself justly distinguished. 

[Times, 24 June 1884; Christian World, 
26 June 1884 ; Brixton Free Press, 28 June 1884; 
In Memoriam, James Baldwin Brown, by Mrs. 
Elizabeth Baldwin Brown (1884).] G. B. 8. 

BROWN, JOHN (d. 1682), sergeant 
painter to King Henry VlII, was appointed 
to the office by patent, dated 11 Jan. 1612, 
with a salary of 2d. a day, and a livery of four 
ells of woollen cloth at 6*. Sd, a yard at 
Christmas. On 12 March 1627 this salary 
was raised to 10/. a year. The work on which 
he was employed was not of a very elevated 
character. It consisted, as far as can be dis- 
covered from the records of the king's expenses, 
of painting flags for the Great Harry and other 
ships, surcoats and trappings for tournaments, 
banners and standards for the army sent into 
France under the Duke of Suffolk in 1623, 
escutcheons of arms, gilding the roofs and 
other decorations for a banqueting house at 
Greenwich, and for the castle at Guisnes in 
preparation for the Field of the Cloth of Gold. 
The only existing picture which was ever sup- 
posed to have been by his hand is a portrait 
on panel in the British Museum. It was pre- 
sented by Sir Thomas Mantel of Dover, and 
now bears the number 93. It is inscribed 

* Maria Princeps An" Dom. 1531. LB.' * In 
some respects, says Sir Frederick Madden, 

* it resembles the Burghley picture, but it» 
authenticity has been questioned.' The fact 
is that the face does not bear the least resem- 
blance to the features of Queen Mary, and the 


costume ia Bome thiriT years or so later than 
the date g)r(!U in tbe iiiacriptioD, which 
■not be contemporary witli tbe painting. In 
1522 Brown was elected oldennan of London, 
but resigned the office in 1525, before he had 
eerred either as sheriff or mayor. During 
the last years of Uis life he sat on tlie com- 
mission of the peace in Essex and Middle- 
£ei. He was a member of the companies 
of HaberdHshere and Painter Stainers, and 
shortly before his death (24 Sopt. 1532) c( 
veyed to the latter company his Louse 

Little Trinity Lane, which lias &om that tii 

continued tobe the hall of the company. Tbe 
house had been in bis possession since liiCM. 
His portrait, dated ln04, is presen'cd in the 
boll, but is apparently a copy painted afti 
the great fire of 1660, when the hall wi 
burnt. Ilifl arms wt-re ' urgent on a fess 
counter embattled, sable, 3 e8calloi>s of the 
tirst ; on a canton, quarterly gules and azure, 
a leopard's bead ca boshed, or:' crest, ' on a 
wreath argent nnd sable, a crane's head aziuv, 
beaked gulea, winged or,tlie neck andwings 
each charged wit h an esca Hop coiinterchanged , 
and holding in its beak an oak branch fructed 
proper.' This resembles the coat borne by 
ihe Brownes of Kent. In the British Slu- 
»eum is a hook (Lansdowne KIS, 8{)8) which 
once belonged to him, and has his signature. 
It is tbe account of banners, &c., furnished to 
the Duke of Suffolk, and contains tbe shields 
nf anna in colours of sovereigns of Europe and 
English nobles. By his will, dat«d 17 Sept. 
1632, and proved 2 Dec. of the some year, it 
appears that he left a widow Anne and two 
daughters, Elizabeth and Isabel. By a pre- 
vious wife, Alice, be probably had two daugh- 
ters, married to Riehard Colard and Rdmnnd 
Lee. A house at Kingsland and lands in 
Hackney,iuid another house caUed 'The Swan 
on the Hope ' In tbe Strand, are mentioned, 
and certain books of arms and badges be- 
queathed to his sen'ant. He was buried in 
bt. Vedast's, Foster Ijine. 

[Calendar ofStaU Paper, of Hrn, VIII, vol«, 
i-T. ; Chronicle of Culms: Mnitd^n's Kxpenseit 
of Princess Mary, p. clii ; f^tow'a Suptpj of Lon- 
don, iii. 12G ; Walpolr's Anecdotot, i, 64 ; Some 
Acconnt of tho raintpm' CompHDy, 1880, p. 11 ; 
ArcbKoIoma, ziiii. 23 ; laaai. MS. 8a8.] 

C. T. M. 

BROWN, JUH.N n01O?-1679), of 
"XV'ampbray, church leader, was probably bom 
at Kirkcud bright I be graduated at the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh 24 July 1630. He 
waa probably not settled till 1655, although 
be comes first into notice in some higMy 
complimentarv references to btm in Samuel 
UntWford's letters in 1037. In the year 

I Brown 

lOGu he was ordained minister of the parish 
of ^\"am]iliray in Annandale, i'or many 
years he seems to have been quietly engaged 
in bis pastoral duties, in which he must have 
been veiy efficient, for bia name still lives 
in the district in affectionate remembrance. 
Af^er the restoration he was not only com- 
pelled by Ihe acts of parbament of 1662 to 
leave his charge, but he was one of a few 
ministers who were arrested and banished, 
owing to the ability and earnestness with 
which tbey had oppoBed the arbitrarj conduct 
of the king in tbe afliiirs of the church. On 
6 Nov. 1662 he was sentenced to be kept a 
close prisoner in the Tolbooth of Edinburgh, 
his crime being that he had called some 
ministers ' false knaves ' fur keeping synod 
with the archbishop. Tlie state ot the prison 
causing his health to break down, he was 
bauielied 11 Dec. from the king's dominionp, 
and ordered not to return on pain of death. 
He M-ent to Holland. In 16/8 Charles II 
urged the Slates-General to baniiibhim from 
their country, a step which they refused to 
take. For a few years he was minister of the 
Scotch church in Rotterdam, and shortly 
before hiH death, which occurred in IS7t), 
he took part in the ordination of Richard 
Cameron [q. v.] He lyus (he author of 
many learned nnd elaborate works, among 
which were — ' Apologetieal Relation of the 
Sufferings of Ministers of the Church of Scot- 
land since 1S60,' 1665: ' IJbri duo contra 
Woltiogenium et Velthiisium,' 1670; 'Be 
Caus& Dei nd^'ersus anti-Sabbatarios,' 2 vols. 
4to, 1674-76; 'Quakerism the Pathway to 
I'aganism,' 1878; 'An Explanation of the 
Epistle to the Romans," 16i 9 ; ' The Life of 
Justification opened,' 1695. Other treatises 
were published between 1720 and 1792, and a 
manuscript bistorj" of the church is in the uni- 
versity libraiy at Edinburgh. Uf his treatise 
onjustiticatiim a writer says: 'It is by far our 
most thorough exposition and discussion of 
the doctrine it handles; and it is all the more 
to be prized because of the particular bearing 
it has on the new views which Baiter and 
others had begun to propagate, and which in 
some shape are ever returning among our- 
selves' (JAMEa 'Walker, D.D., Camwath, 
Tke Theot(.gy and Theoloffiam of Scotland). 
[Wodrow's BIstory of the SufTeriiies of the 
Church of Scotlnnd from tho KeBtoratlon to the 
Ilevolution: Memoir prefixed to leprint of Apolo- 
getieal Rcldtion in the Prasbyteriiin Armoury, 
vol. iii. Edin. 1846 ; Scott's Fasti, ii. 083.1 

W. G. B. 

BKOWN, JOICN (1627 P-1085), the 
'christian carrier,' one of the most eminent 
names in the Scottish covenanting martyro- 




logy during the stormy period known as the 

* killing time * before the revolution of 1688, 
was bom about 1627. He lived in a desolate 
place called Priestfield or Priesthill, in the 
upland parish of Muirkirk in Kyle, Ayrshire, 
where he cultivated a small piece of ground 
tmd acted as a carrier. Wodrow describes 
him as * of shining piety,' and one who had 
' great measures of solid digested knowledge, 
•and had a singular talent of a most plain 
and affecting way of communicating his 
knowledge to others.' He had (according 
to Claverhouse's account) fought against the 
government at the battle of Bothwell Bridge 
^1679); he refused to *hear the episcopal 
ministers,' he instructed the people in the 
principles of his church, and ne was on in- 
timate terms with the leaders of the perse- 
'Cuted party. In 1682 Alexander Peden, one 
•of the chief of these, united him in marriage 
to his second wife, Marion Weir (who figures 
prominently in Brown's death-scene), and 
•on this occasion Peden, according to Walker, 
foretold the husband's early and violent end. 

* Keep linen by you for nis winding-sheet,' 
he added. 

Early in the morning of 1 May 1685 
Brown and his nephew were at work in the 
fields cutting peat. There was a thick mist , 
out of which Graham of Claverhouse with his 
dragoons suddenly appeared and seized the 
■two men. According to that commander's re- 
port, drawn up not many hours after the event, 
what followed was this : * They had no arms 
about them, and denied they had any. But 
being asked if they would take the abjurar 
•tion,theeldest of the two, called John Brown, 
refused it. Nor would he swear not to rise in 
arms against the king, but said he knew no 
king' (according to an act of the Scottish 
privy council, 22 Nov. 1684, such refusal was 

niishable with instant death, Wodrow, 
k iii. ch. viii.) * Upon which, and there 
being found bullets and match in his house, 
and treasonable papers, I caused shoot him 
dead, which he suflfered very unconcernedly ' 
(Claverhouse to Queensberry, 3 May 1685, 
quoted in Life referred to below). Many 
additional details are given by the covenant- 
ing historians. Wodrow tells us that the sol- 
diers were so moved by the manner in which 
Brown prayed before his death that they 
refused to fire at him, and that Claverhouse 

* was forced to turn executioner himself, and 
in a fret shot him with his own hand before 
his own door, his wife with a young infant 
standing by, and she very near the time of her 
delivery of another child.' Patrick Walker's 
account was drawn up from information after- 
'wards supplied to him by ' the said Marion 
Weir, sittmg upon her husband's grave.' It 

contains a striking conversation between the 
widow and Claverhouse, and an affecting 
picture of the lonely woman, after the dra- 
goons were gone, performing the last rites 
to her husband's body, covering it with her 
plaid and sitting down in the solitude to 
weep over him. According to Walker's ver- 
sion it was the dragoons, and not Claver- 
house himself, who performed the execution. 
A monument was afterwards erected to mark 
the spot where Brown was buried. 

[Wodrow's History of the Safferings of the 
Church of Scotland. Edin. 1721-2; Walker's 
Life of Peden, &c. 1727, Glasgow, 1868. Napier's 
Life and Times of John Graham, Edin. 1862, 
coDtains Claverhouse's Report, together with a 
defence of his conduct ; Thomson's edition of A 
Cloud of Witnesses (1713), Edin. 1871, gives 
(pp. 574-5) an account of the monument, with 
copy of inscription ; a chap-book Life of Brown 
was published at Stirling in 1828.] F. W-x. 

BROWN, JOHN (d. 1736), chemist, was 
elected F.KS. in 1722, and during 1723- 
1725 served on its council. He discovered 
the presence of magnesia in sea-water {PhU. 
Trans, xxxii. 348), and the nature of Prussian 
blue {Phil, Trans, xxxiii. 17). 

H. F. M. 

BROWN, JOHN (1715-1766), author of 
the * Estimate,' was bom at llothbiuy, North- 
umberland, where his father was curate, 
5 Nov. 1715. His father, John Brown, a 
member of the Haddington family, had been 
ordained by a Scotch bishop, and at the end 
of 1715 became vicar of Wig^on. The son 
was sent to the Wigton grammar school. On 
18 June 1732 he matriculated at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, and took his B. A. degree 
with distinction in 1735. He took orders, 
and was appointed minor canon and lecturer 
by the dean and chapter of Carlisle. He 
showed his loyalty by serving as a volunteer 
in 1745 at the siege of Carlisle, and his sound 
whig principles in two sermons afterwards 
published. He thus obtained the notice of ^ 
l)r. Osbaldiston, dean of York, who in 1747 
became bishop of Carlisle, and who appointed 
Brown one oi his chaplains. An accidental 
omission of the Athanasian Creed at the ap- 
pointed time brought a censure ; and Brown, 
after reading the creed out of due course, to 
show his orthodoxy, resigned his canonry. 
A poem upon * Honour ' (first published m 
1743), and an * Essay upon Satire,' appeared 
in the third volume of l)odsley's collection. 
The last was * occasioned by the death of Mr. 
Pope,' and contains a hicfh compliment to 
Pope's literary executor, Warburton. War- 
burton saw it ' by accident ' some time after 
its publication (Nichols, AnecdoteB^ v. 587), 




«nd asked Dodsley to let him know the au- 
thor's name. He published it in the collected 
edition of Pope's works before the * Essay on 
Man.' One line survives — 

And coxcombs vanquish Berkeley by a grin. 

A poem on 'Liberty/ occasioned by the peace, 
appeared in 1749. Warburton introduced 
Brown to his father-in-law, the munificent 
Kalph Allen. Whilst staying at Allen's 
Brown preached a sermon at Bath against 
^mbling (22 April 1750). It was published 
with a statement that the public tables were 
suppressed soon after the sermon was preached. 
Warburton now advised Brown to carry out 
Pope's design of an epic poem, 'Brute; ' and 
when this was begun suggested an essay upon 
Shaftesbury's * Cnaracteristics.' The essay, 
completed under Warburton's eye, appeared 
in 1761. The second part of this essay is a 
remarkably clear statement of the utilitarian 
theory as ajfterwards expounded by Paley, and 
is highly praised in J. S. Mill's essay upon 
"* Bentham.' The book provoked answers from 
C Bulkley, a dissenting minister, and an 
anonymous author, and it reached a fifth 
edition in 1764. Brown helped Avison in the 
composition of his essay upon * Musical Ex- 

fression,' published in the same year (1751). 
le showed his versatility by writing two 
tragedies, ' Barbarossa * (produced at Drury 
Lane 17 Dec. 1754) and * Athelstane ' (])ro- 
duced 27 Feb. 1756) (Genest, iv. 406, 453). 
The first obtained a considerable success. 
Oarrick acted in both, and wrote the prologue 
and epilogue of the first and the epilogue to 
the second. A line in the first epilogue, * Let 
the poor devil eat,' &c., gave great ofience to 
Brown. Neither has much literary value, 
though * Athelstane ' was preferred by the 
critics to its more successful rival. Warbur- 
ton, Allen, and Hurd lamented that a cler^- 
man should compromisehis dignity by ^making 
connections with players.' Warburton, how- 
ever, had introduced Brown to his friend 
Charles Yorke, and through Yorke's influence 
his brother. Lord Hardwicke, presented 
Brown in 1756 to the living of Great Horkes- 
ley, near Colchester, wortii 270/. a year or 
200/. clear (Nichols, Anecdotes, v. 286). 

In 1757 appeared Brown's most popular 
•work, * An Estimate of the Manners and 
Principles of the Times.' A seventh edition 
appeared in 1758, a * very large impression * 
of a second volume, and an ' explanatory de- 
fence ' in the same year. From the identity 
of the first and seventh editions of the * Es- 
timate ' Hill Burton seems to doubt whether 
the success was genuine {Life of Hume, ii. 23). 
There is no doubt, however, of the impression 
made at the time. ' The inestimable estimate 

of Brown,' says Co\\'per {Table-Talk), 'rose 
like a paper kite and charmed the town.' It 
is a well-written version of the ordinary com- 
plaints of luxury and effeminacy which gained 
popularity from the contemporary fit of na- 
tional depression. Macaulay refers to it in 
this respect in his essay on * Chat ham.' In his 
first volume Brown describes Warburton as a 
Colossus who * bestrides the world.' A cool- 
ness, however, seems to have arisen at this 
time between the two. Walpole ascribes it to 
Warburton's jealousy of his friend's success 
in a letter (to Montagu, 4 May 1578), from 
which it also appears that Brown was sup- 
posed to have been mad. Walpole says that 
ne had only seen Brown once, and then * sing- 
ing the Stabat Mater with the Mingotti behind 
a harpsichord at a great concert, at my Lady 
Carlisle's ' in * last Passion week,' a perfor- 
mance which Walpole regards as inconsistent 
with Brown's denunciations of the opera. He 
also asserts that Brown was a profane curser 
and swearer, that he tried to bully Sir 
Charles Williams, w^ho had answered the 

* Estimate,' and was supposed to be about to 
divulge the swearing story, and that he in- 
sulted Dodsley, who acted as go-between. 

B^()^vn was clearly an im])racticable per- 
son. He had complimented Pitt and the first 
I Lord Hardwicke in his * Estimate,' and the 
I failure to obtain patronage induced him, it 
is said, to resign the living received from 
I Hardwicke's son. In 1760 Warburton says 
■ that Brown is * rarely without a gloom and 
I sullen insolence on his countenance,' sympto- 
matic perhaps of mental disorder {Letters of 
an Eminent Prelate, pp. 300, 381). Bishop 
Osbaldiston, however, presented him to the 
living of St. Nicholas m Newcastle in 1761. 
Brown published several other works, which 
had little success : an * Additional Dialogue 
of the Dead, between Pericles and Cosmo, 
being a sequel to a dialogue of Lord Lyttel- 
ton's between l*ericles and Cosmo,' 1760 
(intended to defend Pitt against the supposed 
insinuations of Lyttelton, who is said to have 
afironted Brown in society) (Nichols, Anec- 
dotes, ii. 339) ; the * Cufse of Saul, a sacred 
ode ' (set to music and performed as an ora- 
torio), first prefixed to a * Dissertation on 
the Kise, Union, and Power ... of Poetry 
and Music,' 1763; * History of the Kise anil 
Progress of Poetry,' &c., 1764 (the substance 
of the last, omitting music) ; * Twelve Ser- 
mons on various Subjects,' 1764 (including 
those at Carlisle and Bath already noticed) ; 

* Thoughts on Civil Liberty, Licentiousness, 
and Fashion,' 1765, a pamphlet with some re- 
marks on education noticed by Priestlev in 
his essay on * The Course of a Liberal Edu- 
cation ; ' a sermon ' On the Female Character 




and Education/ preached 16 May 1705, with 
an appendix upon education ; and * A Letter 
to the Rev. Dr. Lowth/&c., 1706, an answer 
to an imputation made by Lowth in his con- 
troversy with Warburton upon Brown's sy- 
cophancy to Warburton. Brown advertised 
* Principles of Christian Legislation/ in eight 
books, the manuscript of which was left to 
some friends in his will for publication. It 
never appeared. In 1705 Brown engaged in a 
curious correspondence, from which long ex- 
tracts are given in the * Biographia Britannica.' 
Dr. Dumaresq had been consulted about the 
provision of a school system in Russia. A lady 
mentioned Brown to him as an authority upon 
such questions. Bumaresq wrote to Brown, 
and received in reply a paper proposing vague 
and magnificent plans for the civilisation of 
Russia. The paper was laid before the em- 
press, who immediately proposed that Brown 
should visit St. Petersburg, and upon his con- 
sent forwarded 1,000/. to the Russian ambas- 
sador for the expenses of the journey. Brown 
made preparations to start,bought a post-chaise 
and other necessaries, and obtained leave of 
absence as one of the king's chaplains. His 
health had been shattered by gout and rheu- 
matism, and the remonstrances of his friends | 
and physicians induced him to abandon the 

flan of exposing himself to a Russian climate. 
le accounted for his expenses to the Russian 
minister, and wrote a long letter (28 Aug. 
1700) to the empress, suggesting a scheme 
for sending young Russians to be educated 
abroad. He was apparently disappointed and 
vexed by the failure of the scheme. On 
23 Sept. 1700 he committed suicide by cut- 
ting his throat. A letter from a Mr. Gilpin 
of Carlisle says that he had been subject to 
fits of * frenzy ' for above thirty years, and 
would have killed himself long before but for 
the care of friends. Walpole's remark, given 
above, seems to imply tnat his partial de- 
rangement was generally known. 

[Davies's Life of Garrick, i. 206-16 ; Life by 
Kippis, with original materials in Biog. Brit. ; 
Letters of an Eminent Prelate ; Taylor's Records 
of my Life, i. 85 ; T. S. Watson's Life of War- 
burton.] L S. 

BROWN, JOHN (1722-1787), of Had- 
dington, author of the * Self-interpreting 
Bible,* was bom in 1722 at Carpow, parish 
of Abemethy, Perthshire. His father was a 
poor weaver, who could only afibrd to send him 
to school for a few * quarters.' During one 
month of this time he studied Latin. Even 
at this early period he learnt eagerly, getting 
up by heart 'Vincent's and Havel's Cate- 
chisms, and the Assembly's Larger Cate- 
chism.' When he was eleven his father died. 

His mother did not long survive. He him- 
self was brought so low by ' four fevers on 
end' that his recovery was despaired of. 
During these trials the lad thought much on 
religious matters. After his recovery, he 
began to work as a herd-boy, and his contact 
with a wider and stranger world * seemed to 
cause,* he tells us, 'not a little practical apo- 
stasy from all my former attainments. Even 
secret prayer was not always regularly per- 
formed, but I foolishly pleased myself by 
making uj> the number one day which had 
been deficient another.* A new attack of 
fever in 1741 reawakened his conscience, and 
on his recovery he * was providentially deter- 
mined, during the noontide while the sheep 
which I herded rested themselves in the fold, 
to go and hear a sermon, at the distance of 
two miles, running both to and from it.' 

During his life as a herd-boy he studied 
eagerly. He acouired a good Knowledge of 
Latin, Greek, ana Hebrew. His difficulties 
in regard to the second of those were very 
great, for he could not for some time get a 
grammar. Notwithstanding this, he man- 
aged by the exercise of patient ingenuity to 
learn tlie letters on a method he afterwards 
described in detail (paper of 6 Aug. 1745 
quoted in Biography), He scraped together 
nie price of a Greek testament, and a well- 
Imbwn story describes how he procured it. 
A companion agreed to take charge of his 
sheep for a little, so setting out at midnight, 
he reached St. Andrews, twenty-four miles 
distant, in the morning. The bookseller 
questioned the shepherd-boy, and one of the 
university professors happened to hear the 
conversation. * Boy,* said he, pointing to a 
passage, * read this, and you shall have the 
book for nothing.' Brown read the passage,, 
got the volume, and walked home again with 
it (Memoir, p. 29 ; Dr. John Brown's Letter 
to John CaimSf D.D,, p. 73). 

The herd-boy and his learning now became 
the subject of talk in the place. Some * se- 
ceding students ' accounted for the wonder 
by explaining that Brown had got his know- 
ledge from Satan. The hypothesis was widely 
accepted, nor was it till some years had passed 
away that he was able by his blameless and 
diligent life to 'live it down.* He after- 
wards took occasion to note that just when 
he was * licensed * his * primary calumniator' 
was excommunicated for immoral conduct. 

Brown now became a travelling ' chapman ' 
or pedlar. When the rebellion of 1745 broke 
out, he joined the ranks of the government sol- 
diers. He served throughout the affair, being 
for some time one of the garrison of Edin- 
burgh Castle. When the war was over, he 
agam took up his pack for a time, but soon 




found more congenial occult ion as a school- 
master. He taught at Oaimey Bridge, near 
Kinross, and at the Spittal, Tenicuik, near 
Edinburgh. He be^n teaching in 1747, 
known as the year m which the * breach * 
occurred in the secession church, to which 
he belonged. Two bodies were formed, called 
the Burghers and the Anti-burghers, of whom 
the first maintained that it was, and the se- 
cond that it was not, lawful to take the 
burgess oath in the Scottish towns (for full 
account see McKerrow*8 Ilistory, chap, vi.) 
Brown adhered to the more liberal view, and 
now began to prepare himself for the minis- 
try, lie studied theology and philosophy 
in connection with the Associate Burgher 
Synod under Ebenezer Erskine of Stirling, 
and James Fisher of Glasgow. In 1 750 he was 
licensed to preach the gospel, and next year 
was unanimously called to the associate con- 
gregation of Haddington. His congregation 
was small and poor, but though afterwards 
invited to be pastor to the Dutch church, New 
York, he never left it. His ministerial duties 
were very hard, for during most of the year he 
deliverea three sermons and a lecture every 
Sunday, whilst visiting and catechising occu- 
pied many a weekday. Still he found time 
to do much other work. In 1758 he pub- 
lished ' An Help for the Ignorant. Being an 
Essay towards an Easy Explication of the 
Westminster Confession of Jraith and Cate- 
chism, composed for the young ones of his 
own congregation.' This * easy explication ' 
was a volume of about 400 pages. In it he 
had taken occasion to affirm that Christ's 
righteousness, though in itself infinitely 
valuable, is only imparted to believers ac- 
cording to their need, and not so as to render 
them infinitely righteous. In the following 
year *A brief Dissertation concerning the 
Kighteousness of Christ' expounded the same 
view. He had branded the doctrine he op- 
posed as 'antinomian and familistic blas- 
phemy/ but notwithstanding it was defended 
by various anti-burgher divines, who retorted 
on him the charges of * heresy,' 'blasphemy,' 
and 'familism,' accused him of 'gross and 
palpable misrepresentation,' lamented the 
* poisonous fruit,' and dwelt on the * glaring 
absurdity ' of his doctrine (see Doctrine of the 
Unity and Uniformity of ChriuVs Stcrety- 
righteougneM viewed and vindicated^ ^c. By 
Rev. JoHir Dalziel (Edin. 1760), pp. 72-4). 
This bitter controversy did not prevent Brown 
from doing acts of practical kindness to 
various anti-burgher brethren. He continued 
to write diligently, and his name became 
more widely Known. In 1768 he was ap- 

S minted professor in divinity to the Associate 
nrgher Synod. A great deal of work, but 

no salary, was attached to this office; the 
students studied under Brown at Hadding- 
ton during a session of nine weeks each year 
(McKerrow's Iliatory, p. 787). In 1778 
his best-known work, the * Self-interpreting 
Bible,' was published at Edinburgh in two vo- 
lumes. Its aesign, he explains in the preface, is 
to present the labours of the best commenta- 
tors ' in a manner that might best comport 
with the ability and leisure of the poorer and 
labouring part of mankind, and especially to 
render the oracles of God their own interpre- 
ter.' Thus the work contains history, cnro- 
nology, geography, summaries, explanatory 
notes, and reflections — in short, everything 
that the ordinary reader mi^ht be supposed 
to want. It is a library in one volume. 
Brown is always ready to give what he be- 
lieves to be the only possible explanation of 
each verse, and to draw its only possible prac- 
tical lesson therefrom. The style throughout 
is clear and vigorous. The book at once ac- 
quired a popularity which among a large class 
it has never lost. It has been read widelv 
among the English-speaking nations, as well 
as in Wales and the Scottish highlands. How 
well known it and Brown's other works were 
in Scotland some characteristic lines of Bums 
bear witness : — 

For now I'm grown sae cursed douce, 
I pray an' ponder butt the house ; 
My shins, my lane, I there sit roastin' 
Perusing Bunyan, Brown, an' Boston. 

{Letter to James Tail of Glenconner, 
lines 19-22.) 

His numerous other works strengthened his 
reputation, but none broiight him any profit. 
One of his publishers, *of his own good will,' 

f)resented him with about 40/., but this he 
ent and lost to another. His salary from 
his church was for a long time only 40/. per 
annum, and it was never more than 50/. 
Only a very small sum came to him from 
other sources. The stem self-denial that was 
a frequent feature in the early Scottish house- 
hold enabled him to bring up a large family, 
and meet all the calls of necessity and duty 
on this income. * Notwithstanding my eager 
desire for books, I chose rather to want them, 
and much more other things, than run into 
debt,' he says. At least one-tenth of his 
small means was set ui)art for works of 

Throughout his 1 ife Brown was an eager stu- 
dent, and his att^iinmonta were considerable. 
He knew most of the European and several 
oriental languaeros. He was well read in 
history and divinity ; his acquaintance with 
the Bible was of the most minute description. 
Although he says that * few ])lays or romances 
are safely read, as they tickle the imagination. 




and are apt to infect with their defilement/ so 
that * even the most pure, as Young, Thomson, 
Addison, Richardson, bewit<;h the soul, and 
are apt to indispose for holy meditation and 
other religious exercises,* and although he 
eagerly opposed the relaxation of the penal 
statutes against Roman catholics, he was, in 
regard to many things, not at all a narrow- 
mmded man. His creed was to him a mat- 
ter of such intense conviction, that nothing 
seemed allowable that tended in any way to 
oppose it or distract attention from its so- 
lemn doctrines. His preaching was earnest, 
simple, and direct, * as if I had never read a 
book but the liible.' His delivery was * sing- 
song,* yet 'this in him was singularly melting 
to serious minds.' A widely current story 
affirms that David Hume heard him preach, 
and the * sceptic* was so impressed that he 
said, * That old man speaks as if the Son of 
God stood at his elbow.* The anecdote, 
though undoubtedly mythical, shows the 
popuiar impression as to his preaching. 

brown's labours finally ruined his health, 
which during the last years of his life was 
very poor. He continued his work to very 
near the end. He died at Haddington on 
19 June 1787, and was interred in the church- 
yard there, where there is a monument to his 
memory. He was twice married : first to 
Janet Thomson, MuSvSelburgh, second to 
Violet Croumbie, Stenton, East Lothian. He 
had issue by both marriages. Several of his 
descendants have made tiiemselves names in 
science and literature. Brown*s other works 
have been divided into the following classes: — 

1. Of the Holy Scriptures: * A Dictionary 
of the Rible' (17(59) ; * A brief Concordance 
to the Holy Scriptures * (1 783) ; * The Psalms 
of David in metre, with Notes* (1775). 

Tyi>es ana r igurei 
Testament Dispensjation * (1781) ; * The Har- 
mony of Script ure Prophecies * ( 1 784). 3. Svs- 
tematic divinity: *A com]HMulioua View of 
Natural and llevealed Religion * ( 1782 ). 
4. Church historv: *An Historical Account 
of the Rise and Progress of the Secession * 
(1706) ; * A general History of the Christian 
Church,' '2 vols. (1771); *A com]H>ndious 
History- of the Rritish Churches' (1784). 
.">. Hii^igraphy : *The ("Christian, the Student, 
and Pastor exemplitietl in the lives of nine 
eminent Ministers' (1781); * The Young 
Christian, or the Pleasantness of Earlv Piety' 
(1782); ' IVaotical Piety exempliluMl in the 
lives of thirtet^n eminent Christians' (1783). 
i\. Catechisms: *Two short Catechisms, mu- 
tually c^mneeted' (1764); 'The Christian 
Journal* (^17i>o). 7. Sermons: 'Religious 

! Steadfastness recommended ' ^1769) ; ' The 
' fearful Shame and Contempt of tliose professed 
' Christians who neglect to raise up spiritual 
; Children in Christ* (1780); /Necessity and 
Advantage of Prayer in choice of Pastors ^ 
(1783). 8. Miscellaneous pamphlets: 'Let- 
ters on the Constitution, Government, and 
Discipline of the Christian Church ' (1767) ; 
'The Oracles of Christ and the Abomina- 
tion of Antichrist compared, a brief View of 
the Errors, Impieties, and Inhumanities of 
Popery* (1779); 'The Absurdity and Per- 
fidy of all authoritative Toleration of gross 
Heresv, Blasphemy, Idolatry, and Popery in 
Great'Britain ' (17'80) ; ' The Re-exhibition 
of the Testimony vindicated, in opposition 
to the unfair account of it given by the Rev. 
Adam Gib* (1780 — Gib was a prominent 
anti-burgher clergyman who in this year had 
written 'An Account of the Burgher Re- 
exhibition of the Secession Testimony *) ; 
* Thoughts on the Travelling of the Mail on 
the Lord's Day* (1785— as to this, see Cox's 
Lit of Sabbath Question, ii. 248, Edin. 1865). 
9. Posthumous works : ' Select Remains ' 
(1789) ; ' Posthumous Works * (1797) ; ' Apo- 
logy for the more frequent Administration 
of the Lord*s Supper* (1804). 

[Various short lives of Brown are prefixed to- 
several of his works ; the most authentic is the 
Memoir by his son, the Rev. William Brown, 
M.D., prefixed to an edition of the Select Re- 
mains (Edin. 1856). Some additional facts, 
together with an engraving from a family por- 
trait, are given in Cooke's edition of Brown's 
Bible (Glasgow, 1855). Some of the more 
authentic of the many anecdotes about Brown 
are collected in Dr. John Brown's Letter to the 
Kov. J. Cairns, D.D. (2nd ed. Edin. 1861) ; see 
also McKerrow's History of the Secession Church 
(Ghisgow, 1841).] F. W-T. 

BROWN, JOHN, M.D. (1735-1788), 
founder of the Brunonian system of medi- 
cine, was bom at a village in the parish of 
Buncle, Berwickshire. Tne father was pro- 
bably a day-labourer, and he followed the 
teaching of the seceders. He died early in 
life, ana his widow married another seceder, 
a weaver by trade. WTien Brown was twelve 
or thirteen he gave offence to the seceding 
communitv by going once to public worship 
in the parish church of Dunse, and, refusing 
to be admonished, he formally left the sect. 
As he grew up he began to develop a philo- 
sophical turn, after the manner of Hume, 
and continued all his life to be somewhat 
free in his thinking. His quickness induced 
his father to send nim, when five years old, 
to the parish school of Dunse, then under an 
unusually good Latinist named Cmickshank, 
and attended by boys generaUy Brown'a 




superiors in position. Before he was ten he 
was head oi the school; but he was then 
taken away and put to his stepfather's trade. 
This made him miserable, and Cruickshank 
soon persuaded the parents to let him have 
the boy back to continue his schooling free 
of charge. Brown made himself generally 
useful in the school, and at thirteen he be- 
came pupil-teacher. He had foueht his way 
to respect in the school no less by his superior 
intelligence than by his physical prowess. 
He was a stout thickset boy, with a ruddy 
face and a strong voice, and he was among 
the foremost at wrestling, boxing, and foot- 
ball. In a note to one of his books he says 
that he once, when fifteen, walked fifty miles 
in a day. His memory was prodigious ; one 
of his old pupils tells of him that on one 
occasion, after going through two pages of 
Cicero with the class, he closed the book 
and repeated the whole passage word for 
word. The country people found out that he 
was a prodigy, and it was popularly believed 
that ' he could raise the devil.' 

Wlien he was eighteen his master found 
him a tutorship which proved irksome, and 
he went to Edinburgh to support himself by 
private tuition, and to attend the lectures in 
philosophy and divinity. After several years 
of Edinburgh he came back to Dunse, and 
resumed his place as usher in the school. A 
year after, being then twenty-four, he went 
again to Edinburgh, and applied fruitlessly 
for a vacant mastership in the high school. 
He then bethought himself of the medical 
profession, and obtained leave from Monro, 
the professor of anatomy, to attend his lec- 
tures free. The other professors gave him 
a like privilege, and he continued to attend 
the medical classes for five years, sup^rting 
himself by giving private lessons in the 
classics during the first year or two, and 
afterwards by preparing medical students 
for their examinations. He was in great re- 
quest among the students for his convivial 
qualities. Meanwhile Cullen employed him 
as tutor to his children, and afterwards as 
a kind of assistant to himself, the precise 
nature of his duties being a matter of aispute 
between Cullen's apologists and Brown's 
biog^phers. In 1765 ho marrie<l the daugli- 
t«r of an Edinburgh citizen named Lamond, 
and set up a boarding-house for students. 
Cullen encouraged him to look forward to a 
professor's chair. He took an extra course 
of dissections for nearly a year, and studied 
botany in order to qualify himself for a new 
chair in the American colonies to which 
Cullen had the presentation. However he 
remained a private tutor in Edinburgh ; and 
it became clear after a few years that he 

was somehow not likely to gain academical 

Promotion. His varied powers were well 
nown, and there can be no question that 
his technical knowledge of medical subjects 
was adequate. Unfortunately he had an un- 
conscious art of putting his respectable col- 
leagues irretrievably in the wrong. He had 
some venial faults ; he became involved in 
debt, and had to compound with his credi- 
tors ; high feeding gave him the gout at 
five-and-thirty. His society was mostly 
composed of admirers, and he took no pains 
to make interest with men of infiuence. He 
put off taking his degree of M.D. for years 
after his medical course was done. When 
he sought to graduate in 1779, the Edinburgh 
degree had become impossible, and he got 
one at St. Andrews. At an earlier period 
he might as a matter of course have joined 
the society for publishing medical essays 
and observations (afterwards the Royal So- 
ciety of Edinburgh), but when he resolved 
to seek admission in 1778, Cullen privately 
advised him not to try; but he tried and 
was rejected. The antagonism to him had 
probably grown up in connection with his 
infiuence as a private tutor. Brown had to 
the last a large following of young men in 
Edinburgh. In 1776 the students had made 
him president of their Royal Medical Society, 
and they made him presiaent again four years 
later, when the rupture between him and the 
professors was complete. His divergence 
from the teaching of Cullen had probably 
found expression m his private prelections. 
He afterwards exposed Cullen's errors in his 
trenchant criticism, * Observations on the 
Present System of Spasm as taught in the 
University of Edinburgh ' (1787). The first 
formal indication of Brown's emendations on 
the basis of Cullen is said to have been given 
in a draft of his future * Elementa Medicinee,' 
which he had written with a view to a vacant 
chair, and had shown to his patron. Then 
came his formal ostracism in 1 778, and Brown 
at once took up the cudgels for his own doc- 
trines. He began a course of public lectures 
on the practice of physic, in which the errors 
of all former systems of medicine, and of Cul- 
len's in particular, were very freely handled. 
In two years' time he had got ready a tempe- 
rate exposition of his doctrine, the celebrated 
'Elementa Medicinae' (1780). The purity of 
his Latin style at once insured for him an 
attentive reading abroad, especially in Italy 
and Germany ; and the practical ffood sense 
of much of brown's teaching at length ob- 
tained for it an enormous vogue. That the 
great majority of diseases were expressions of 
debility and not of redundant strength, and 
that consequently the time-honoured practice 




of inducriminate lowering was a mistake, 
waa a doctrine that commended itself to the 
sensible and unprejudiced. The * Elementa 
MediciniB ' consists of * a first or reasoning 
part/ which proceeds upon a philosophical 
conception of life and diseased life more 
fundamental than any that had ever before 
been framed, a conception which reappears 
in Erasmus Darwin's 'Zoonomia/ and in 
Spencer's 'Principles of Biology * (* Incitatio, 
potestatum incitantium opens eJBTectus, idonea 
prosperam; nimia aut deficiens, adversam 
valetudinem. Nulla alia corporis humani 
Tivi, rite secusve valentis ; morborum nulla 
alia origoM. In the second part he takes 
concrete diseases in systematic order, after 
the nosological fashion of the time, and ap- 
plies his doctrine to each. The sound practical 
truth running through the Brunonian system, 
that many paradoxical manifestations of 
morbid action were really evidences of de- 
bility which called for supporting treatment, 
has m the end been quietly absorbed among 
the commonplaces of modem practice. But 
it was many years before the opposing pre- 
judices were overcome. So late as 1841 
Cullen's biographer appeals triumpliantly to 
'the intelligent practitioner* on behalf of 
bloodletting in inflammatory fever (Life of 
Cullen, ii. 326). 

Brown carried on the war in Edinburgh 
six years longer against the professors and 
the general body of practitioners. Hardly 
any practice came to him, and the attendance 
at his public lectures fell away. The needs 
of a large family and his own improvidence 
brought him into serious money troubles, 
and he was at one time lodged in prison for 
debt. During his last year in Edinburgh he 
published *A Short Account of the Old 
Method of Cure, and Outlines of the New 
Doctrine.' He also founded the masonic 
lodge of the Roman Eagle, for the encourage- 
ment of Latin scholarship, and attracted to 
it a number of the best known w^its and 
scholars of the place. In 1786 he removed 
with his family to London, and established 
himself in a house in (lolden Square. 

In his domestic circle he had his greatest 
happiness. He had taught his three eldest 
girls and his eldest boy Latin, and had carried 
them some little way in Greek. Among his 
pap(.*rs there wns found a considerable frag- 
ment of a Greek grammar, written in Latin 
with rules in hexameter verse, which he had 
d(»signcd primarily for the use of his children. 
His cheerfulness never failed him. In Lon- 
don men of letters came to see him, among 
others Dr. Samuel Parr; but not many 
patients. He gave in his house courses of 
lectures on m^cine, which do not appear 

to have excited much interest amonfi^ London 
practitioners or students, althoughliis name 
was well known among them. Ajl invitation 
to him from Frederick the Great to settle at 
the court of Berlin somehow miscarried or 
was rescinded. Debts again overtook him, 
and, through a piece of sharp practice, and 
perhaps treachery, he was obliged for a time 
to become an inmate of the king's bench 
prison. One means of extricating himself, 
closely pressed upon him by a group of greedy 
speculators, was to give {lis name to a pill 
or other nostrum ; but the temptation was 
resisted. He now wrote more than he 
had done. He made an English translation 
of his 'Elementa Medicinse,' writing it in 
twenty-one days. He contracted with a 
publisher for 500/. to produce a treatise on 
the gout, and he haa other literary pro- 
jects which would occupy him, he said, for 
ten years to come. His prospects were cer- 
tainly brightening; he had several families 
to attend and patients were coming in, when 
he was struck down by apoplexy, and died 
on 17 Oct. 1788. He was buried in the 
churchyard of St. James's, Piccadilly. A 

S)rtrait of him was engraved by William 
lake, from a miniature now in the possession 
of his grandson, Mr. Ford Madox Brown. 
He left four sons and four daughters, who 
were provided for by the generosity of his 
friends, Dr. Parr among^the rest. His eldest 
son, William Cullen Brown, subsequently 
studied medicine at Edinburgh, where he 
was received with much kindness by Dr. 
Gregory and other professors, and admitted 
to the lectures without fee. He, like his 
father, became president of the Royal Me- 
dical Society, and brought out an edition 
of his father 8 works in 3 vols. 8vo, London, 
1804, with a biography of the author. A 
life by Dr. Beddoes of Bristol, with a por- 
trait, was prefixed to the second edition 
(2 vols. 1795) of Brown's own English ver- 
sion of his * Elementa Medicince.* Some 250 
pages of vol. ii. of Professor John Thomson's 
< Life of Cullen' (1832-59) are devoted to a 
laboured examination of the Brunonian epi- 
sode and the Brunonian doctrine, from tne 
Edinburgh professorial point of view. 

The fortunes of the brunonian doctrine, 
after the death of its author, occupy a con- 
siderable space in the history of medicine. 
The * Elementa ' was reprinted at Milan in 
1792, and at Hildburgshausen in 1794. The 
English version was republished at Philadel- 
phia in 1790 by Dr. Benjamin Bush ; a Ger- 
man translation of it was made at Frank- 
furt in 1795, and again in 1798 ; another at 
Copenhagen (three editions) ; there was also 
a French translation which was laid before 




the National Convention and honourably 
commended ; and one in Italian. A very per- 
sonal book, * An Inquiry into the State of 
Medicine on the Principles of Inductive Phi- 
losophy, &c./ ostensibly by Robert Jones, 
M.D. (Edin. 1782), but probably by Brown 
himself, was brought out m Italian by Joseph 
Frank, at Pavia, in 1795. An earlier ac- 
count of the doctrines had been published 
by Kasori, at Pavia, in 1792. An exposition 
of the system, with the complete Brunonian 
literature up to date, was published by Gir- 
tanner, at Gottingen, 2 vols. 1799. As late 
as 1802, the university of Gottingen was so 
convulsed by controversy on the merits of 
the Bnmonian system, that contending fac- 
tions of students in enormous numbers, not 
unaided by professors, met in combat in the 
streets on two successive days, and had to 
be dispersed by a troop of Hanoverian horse. 
The stimulant treatment of Brown was for- 
mally recommended for adoption in the 
various forms of camp sickness in the Aus- 
trian army, although the rescript was re- 
called owing to professional opposition. Scott, 
m his * Life of Napoleon,' narrates that the 
Brunonian system was often a subject of 
inquiry by the First Consul. For some years 
there were Brunonians and anti-Brunonians 
all over Europe and in the colonies ; until 
at length the sound and valuable part of 
Browirs therapeutic practice passed imper- 
ceptibly into tne common stock of medical 
maxims. 'The History of the Brunonian 
System, and the Theory of Stimulation ' was 
once more written in German by Ilirschel 
in 1846. 

[laves by W. C. Brown and Dr. Beddoes as 
above; Haser's Geschichte der Medicin, ii. 750, 
3rd ed. Jena, 1881.] C. C. 

BROWN, JOHN (d. 1829), miscellaneous 
writer, was an inhabitant of Bolton in Lan- 
cashire, where during the early part, of this 
century he was engaged in miscellaneous lite- 
rary work. There he projected his * History 
of Gk-eat and Little Bolton,* of which seven- 
teen numbers were published (Manchester, 
1824-5). This work begins with an ' Ancient 
History of Lancashire,* which he maintains 
was peopled by colonists of a * German or 
Gothic' origin, and frequent visits to the 
west of Europe confirmed him, he says, in 
this belief (Introduction, pp. 9, 10). He 
became about this time very intimate with 
the inventor Samuel CJrompton, also a Bolton 
man, and, laying his * Histoiy of Bolton * 
aside, drew up ' The Basis of Mr. Samuel 
Chompton's Claims to a second Remuneration 
from Parliament for his Discovery of the Mule 
Spinning-machine' (1825, reprinted Man- 


Chester, 18(J8). Moving to London, Brown 
there prepar<id a memorial on this subject, 
dated May 1825, addressed to the lords ol the 
treasury, and numerously signed by the in- 
habitants of Bolton, with a petition to the 
House of Commons (0 Feb. 182(>) on the 
part of Crompton, which briefly narrates the 
grounds of his claim (Appendix to Cramp- 
ton's Life, p. 281). * There is abundant 
evidence,* says French, the biographer of 
Crompton, * that Brown was indefatigable 
in his endeavours to procure a favourable 
consideration of Crompton*s case from the 
government of the day.* He was, however, 
completely uiiHuccesstul, owing, as he wrote 
to Crompton, to secret opposition on the part 
of * your primitive enemy,* as he called the 
first Sir liobert Peel. !■ urther eftbrts were 
rendered useless by the death of the inventor 
in June 1827, and Brown did not long sur- 
vive him. His life in the metropolis was 
in all ways unsuccessful, and in despair he 
committed suicide in his Loudon lodgings in 
1829. A posthumous work of his of sixty- 
two pages was published in 1832 at Man- 
chester. It is entitled * A Memoir of Robert 
Blincot*, an oq)huu boy sent from the work- 
house of St. Pancras, London, at seven years 
of age to endure the horrors of a cotton mill.' 

[Life and Times of Samuel Crompton, by G. J. 
French (2nd ed. Manchester, I860); Fishwick'a 
Lancishire Library (1875) ; Sutton's Jjancashire 
Authors (Manchester, 1876).] Y. W-t. 

BROWN, JOHN (1754-ia32), of Whit- 
burn, Scottish divine, was the eldest son of 
John Brown of Haddington [see Huowx, 
JoHX, 1722-1787], where he was bom on 
24 J ulv 1 754. At fourteen he entered Edin- 
burgh University. He afterwards studied 
divinity at the theological hall of his de- 
nomination, was licensed to preach by the 
associate presbytery of Edinburgh, 21 May 
1776, and was ordained to the cliarge of the 
congregation at Whitburn, Linlithgowshire. 
Here, after a lengthened and laborious minis- 
try, he died on 10 Feb. 1832. Brown was 
twice married, and was survived by his se- 
cond wife and the issue of both marriages. 
His works were : 1. * St»lec! Remains of John 
Brown of Haddington* (1789). 2. 'The 
Evangelical Preacher, a collection of Ser- 
mons chiefly bv English Divines' (Edin. 
1802-6). 3. ' Memoirs of the Life and Cha- 
racter of the late Rev. James Hervey ' (Edin. 
1806 ; enlarged editions were afterwards pub- 
lished). 4. * A Collection of Religious Letters 
from Books and Manuscripts' (Edin. 1813; 
enlarged ed. 1816). 5. * A C!ollection of Let- 
ters from printed Books and Manuscripts, 
suited to children and youth' (Glaagow, 




1816). 6. * Gospel Truth accurately stated 
and illustrated' (Edin. 1817; enlarged ed. 
Glasgow, 1831. This is a work on the ' Mar- 
row controversy '). 7. * A brief Account of 
a Tour in the Highlands of Perthshire/ with 
a paper entitled * A Loud Cry from the High- 
lands ' (Edin. 1818). 8. 'Means of doing 
Good proposed and exemplified in several 
Letters to a Friend ' (Edin. 1820). 9. * Me- 
moirs of private Christians ' (Glasgow, 
1821?) 10. 'Christian Experience, or the 
spiritual exercise of eminent Christians in 
diflferent ages and places stat^ in their own 
words' (Edin. 1826). 11. 'Descriptive List 
of Religious Books in the English Lan- 
guage, suited for general use' (Edin. 1827). 
12. 'Evangelical l^auties of the late Rev. 
Hugh Binning, with account of his Life' 
(Edin. 1828). 13. ' Evangelical Beauties of 
Archbishop Leighton ' (Berwick, 1828). 
14. ' Notes, Devotional and Explanatory, on 
the Translations and Paraphrases in verse of 
several passages in Scripture ' (Glasgow and 
Edin. 1831). 15. ' Memoir of Rev. Thomas 
Bradbury ' (Berwick, 1831). 16. ' Memorials 
of the Nonconformist Ministers of the seven- 
teenth century' (Edin. 1832). Various works 
of Boston, He^^'ev, and others were, 'tlirough 
his instrumentality, chiefly given to the 
public ' (List in Memoir^ p. 168). 

[Memoir, with portrait, by Rev. David Smith, 
prefixed to Brown's Letters on Sanctification 
(Edin. 1834). Some interesting notices of Brown 
are given in his grandson's. Dr. John Brown, 
Letter to J. Cairns. D.D. (2nd ed. Edin. 1861).] 

F. W-T. 

BROWN, JOHN, D.p. (1778-1848), 
of Langton, theological writer, was bom at 
Glasgow, licensed by the presbytery of Glas- 
gow 8 June 1803, ordained minister of Gart- 
more 1805, translated to Langton, Berwick- 
shire, 1810, and joine<l the Free church 1843. 
He received the degree of D.D. from the 
university of Glasgow in November 1815. 
He died 25 June 1848. He was one of the 
early friends and i)r(>moters of evangelical 
views in the church of Scotland, and a con- 
tributor to the ' Christian Instructor,' under 
Dr. Andrew Thomson, liesides works of a 
slighter kind, he was author of two books 
which attained considerable fame, viz. ' ^'in- 
dication of Presbyterian Church Government, 
in reply to the Independents,' Edinburgh, 
1805, usuallv considered the standard treatise 
on its subject; and 'Tlie Exclusive Claims 
of Puseyite Episcopalians to the Christian 
Ministry indefensible,' Edinburgh 1842. 

[Hew Scott's Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae, part ii. 
pp. 419-20, part iv. p. 739 ; Catalogue of the 
Advociites' Library, Edinburgh ; Letter to the 

writer from Dr. Brown's son — ^Rey. Thomas 
Brown, Edinburgh.] W. G. B. 

BROWN. JOHN, D.D. (1784-1858), of 
Edinburgh, divine, was the eldest son of John 
Brown ot Whitburn [see Browk, John, 1754- 
1832], where he was bom on 12 July 1784. 
His mother, who was his father*s first wife, 
was Isabella Cranston, a native of Kelso. 
He received his early education at Whit- 
I bum, and then, with a view to the ministry, 
j entered Edinburgh University, where he 
; studied from March 1797 to April 1800. It 
I is still common for Scottish students to 
i maintain themselves during their ' course ; ' 
j then it was almost imiversal. Brown, having 
received his father's blessing along with a 
guinea, set off for Elie in Fife, where he kept 
a school for three years. During the summer 
vacation he attended at Selkirk, under Dr. 
Lawson, the theological hall of the burgher 
church (August 1800 to September 1804). 
At this he was present for from one to two 
months each year. On 12 Feb. 1805 he was 
licensed to preach, and nearly a year after 
(6 Feb. 1806) was ordained to the charge 
of the burgher congregation at Biggar m 
Lanarkshire. Brown was diligent both as 
preacher and pastor, and the congregation 
prospered under his charge. In 1815 he pub- 
lished his first work, * Strictures on Mr. 
Yates's Vindication of llnitarianism ' (Glas- 
gow, 1815. The Rev. James Yates was a 
Glasgow unitarian divine, then engaged in a 
controversy with Dr. Wardlaw). Next year 
he was active in starting a periodical, 'The 
Christian lie])ository and Keligious Register,* 
which served as the organ of his church. He 
edited this till five years later it was merged 
in the ' Christian Monitor,' which he also con- 
ducted till 1826. In 1817, in the 'Plans 
and Publications of Robert Owen of New 
Lanark,' he attacked the schemes of that 
thinker. Owen invited him to New Lanark, 
which is near Biggar. Here they had a con- 
ference which proved residtless. Brown was 
now much occupied with schemes for evan- 
gelising the liighlands and other districts in 
Scotland where spiritual destitution pre- 
vailed. He himself preached and lectured 
in various ])laces. His hearers approvingly 
said ' that they know almost every word, for 
that minister does not preach grammar.' This 
seemingly dubious compliment only meant 
that his manner of speaking was direct and 
simple. In 1820 the burgher and anti-burgher 
synods were united. Whilst favouring this 
union. Brown, with a few friends, attempted 
to get the severity of certain jwrtions of the 
Westminster standards relaxed. This at- 
tempt was at the time unsuccessful, but re- 




suited in some change when the union men- 
tioned later on was accomplished. Two years 
afterwards he was called to Hose Street 
Churchy Edinburgh. After labouring here 
for seven years, he was translated to Brough- 
ton Place Church. In 1830 he received the 
degree of D.D. from Jefferson College, Penn- 
syhrania; in 1834, when his church revised 
its scheme of education, he was elected pro- 
fessor of exegetical theolo^; and when in 
1847 his denomination by its junction with 
the relief body formed the United Presbyte- 
rian Church, he was moved from the junior 
to the senior hall. 

During these years Brown wrote several 
works, and was actively engaged in various 
agitations and discussions. Tne chief of these 
was the 'voluntary controversy' (1835-43), 
during which he eagerly supported the sepa- 
ration of church and state. In Edinburgh at 
that time an impost called the annuity tax 
was levied for the support of the city minis- 
ters. This he finally refused to pa^, where- 
upon in 1838 his goods were twice seized 
and sold. In connection with this he wa8 
eng^aged in a controversy with Robert Ilal- 
dane, who replied to his * Law of Christ re- 
specting civil doctrine ' (1839) by a series of 
letters (see ALEXAin)£R Haldane, Memoirs 
of IL and J, A. Haldane, Lond. 1852 ; and 
Bbown*8 Itemarks on certain statements in 
it, Edin. 1852). A matter which affected 
bun still more directly was the * atonement 
controversy ' (^1840-5). It was supposed by 
some parties in the church that he and his 
colleague. Dr. Balmer, held unsound views 
on the nature of the atonement. Finally, in 
1845, he was tried by libel before the synod 
at the instance of two brother divines, Drs. 
Hay and Marshall. While both sides agreed 
that only the elect could be saved, Broi;\Ti was 
accused of holding that in a certain and, as 
his opponents affirmed, unscriptural and er- 
roneous sense, Christ died for all men. The 
trial, which lasted four days, resulted in his 1 
honourable acquittal (Heport of Proceedings • 
in Trial by Libel of John Brown, D.D., Edin. 

During the years 1848-57 Brown was | 
chiefly engaged in producing a number of ' 
exegetical works, which were widely read in , 
this country and America. His jubilee, after 
a fifty years* ministry, was celebrated in April 
1856 (see Hev. J, Broum*s Jubilee Services, 
Edin. 1856). A considerable sum of money 
was given to him on this occasion. This, after 
adding a donation of his own, he presented 
to the aged and infirm ministers' fund of his 
church. He died at Edinburgh on 13 Oct. 
1858. Brown was twice married, and was 
survived by issue of both marriages. His 

eldest son was John Brown, M.D., author of 
* Rab ' [q. v.], who in his * Letter to Dr. Cairns * 
has written the most enduring literary memo- 
rial of his father. Brown was a voluminous 
writer, but his works are somewhat common- 
place in thought and expression, and without 
permanent vdue ; yet they prove their author 
to have been a man of great industry and 
very wide and varied reading. His plan of 
exposition was * to make the Bible the basis 
and the test of the system,' and not * to make 
the system the principal and, in effect, sole 
means of the interpretation of the Bible' 
(Preface to treatise on Epistle to Galatians 
quoted in * Memoir,' p. 298). He followed this 
method as far as circumstances permitted, 
and his work undoubtedly gave a healthy 
impetus to the study of theology in Scotland. 
For many years he was the most prominent 
figure among the members of his church. 
This position was partly due to his learning 
and ability ; it was st ill more due to his nobility 
of character and sweetness of disposition. 

Brown wrote a large number of sermons, 
short religious treatises, biographies, and 
other occasional works. Of these the chief 
are : ' On the Duty of Pecuniary Contribution 
to Religious Pur^wses,' a sermon before the 
lx)ndon Missionary Society (1821); * On 
Religion and the Means of its Attainment ' 
(Edin. 1818) ; * What ought the Dissenters of 
Scotland to do at the present crisis P' (Edin. 
1840); 'Hints to Students of Divinity' 
(Edin. 1841) ; ' Comfortable AVords for Chris- 
tian Parents bereaved of little Children * 
(Edin. 1846) ; ' Memorials of Rev. J. Fisher' 
(Edin. 1849). Brown's most important works 
were the following treatises: 'Expository 
Discourses on First Peter' (3 vols. Edin. 
1848) ; * Discourses and Savings of our Lord 
Jesus Christ ' (3 vols. Edin. 1850) ; * An Ex- 
position of our Lord's Intercessory Prayer ' 
(Edin. 1850); *The Resurrection of Life' 
(Edin. 1852); 'The Sufferings and Glories 
of the Messiah' (Edin. 1853); 'Expository 
Discourses on Galatians' (Edin. 1853) ; 'Dis- 
courses suited to the Lord's Supper' (1st ed. 
1816, 3rd and enlarged ed. Edin. 1853); 
' Parting Counsels, an exposition of the first 
chapter of second epistle of Peter' (Edin. 
1856); 'Analytical Exposition of the Epistle 
of Paul to the Romans ' (Edin. 1857). After 
Brown's death his * Exposition of the Epistle 
to the Hebrews,' edited by David Smith, D.D., 
was published in 1862 (2 vols. Edin.) 

[Cairns's Memoir of John Brown, D.D., with 
supplementary letter by J. Brown, M.D. (Edin. 
1860). A portrait is prefixed (for notice of por- 
traits, &c., see p. 469) ; J. Brown, M.D., On the 
Death of J. Brown (Edin. 1860) ; W. Hunters 
Biggar and the House of Fleming (2Dd ed. Edin. 

c 2 




1867). For estimates of Brown fix>m Tarious 
points of view, see United Presbyterian Maga*- ' 
zine, November 1858 ; North British Review, | 
xxxiii.21 ; Scotsman, 14 Oct. 1858.] F. W-t. 

BROWN, JOHN (1797-1861), geo- 

Sapher, was bom at Dover 2 Aug. 1797. ^ 
e served for some time as a midshipman 
in the East India Company's service. In \ 
March 1819 he was forced to leave the sea 
in consequence of a defect in his sight. He 
then became a diamond merchant and made 
a fortune. He took a keen interest in geo- 
graphical exploration, and became a fellow 
of the Geographical Society in 1837. He 
presented a portrait of his friend Weddell 
(an explorer of the Antarctic circle) to the 
society in 1839, with a letter advocating 
further expeditions. In 1843 he obtained 
from Sir Robert Peel a pension for Weddell's 
widow. He was a founder of the Ethnologi- 
cal Society in the same year. He afterwards 
became conspicuous as an advocate of expe- 
ditions in search of Sir John Franklin. He 
defined the area which the expedition was 
ultimately found to have reached, but was 
not attended to at the time. In 1868 he pub- 
lished * The North-west Passage and the Plans 
for the Search for Sir John Franklin : a re- 
view.' A second edition appeared in 1860. 
He was complimented on this work by Hum- 
boldt. Brown made large collections illus- 
trative of Arctic adventure. He lost his wife 
in 1869, and died 7 Feb. 1861, leaving three 
sons and two daughters. 
[Gent. Mag. 1861.] 

BROWN, JOHN, M.D. (1810-1882), 
author of ' Horae Subsecivte ' and * llab and 
his Friends,' was born on 22 Sept. 1810 at 
Biggar in Lanarkshire, and was the son of Dr. 
John Brown, the biblical 8cholar(1784-1858) 
[q. v.], who was at that time the secession 
minister there. His education at Biggfar was 
conducted by his father in private, but on 
the removal of the latter to Edinburgh in 
1822, John entered a classical school kept by 
Mr. William Steele, and at the end of two 
vears passed on to the rector's class in the 
iiigh school, then under the charge of Dr. 
Carson. Here he spent another two years, and 
at the end of that time, in November 1820, 
became a student in the arts classes of Edin- 
burgh University. In 1828 he commenced 
the study of medicine, attending the usual 
college classes in that department, and at 
the same time becoming a pupil and appren- 
tice of the eminent surgeon, Mr. Syme. In 
1833 he graduated as doctor of medicine, 
and immediately after commenced practice 
in Edinburgh, where he spent the whole of 
his after life in the active exercise of his 

profession. As it is chiefly as a writer that 
Brown is likely to be permanently remem- 
bered, it is only necessary to say that in his 
medical capacity he was remarkable for his 
close and accurate observation of symptoms, 
skill and sagacity in the treatment of his 
cases, and conscientious attention to his pa- 
tients. It may even be said that whatever 
position he may be thought to have taken in 
literature, he was first of all a physician 
thoroughly devoted to his profession, and, 
though not writing on strictly professional 
subjects, yet originally diverging mto author- 
ship on what may be called medical grounds. 
Naturally unambitious, it is doubtful if, with 
all his wide culture and enthusiastic love of 
literature, he would ever, but for his love of 
his profession, have been induced to appear 
before the world as an author at all. It is 
ol>sen'able that the whole of the first volume 
of * Horae Subsecivee ' — perhaps, though not 
the most popular, yet the most substantially 
valuable of the whole series — is almost exclu- 
sively devoted to subjects intimately bearing 
on the practice of medicine. The importance 
of wide general culture to a physician ; the ne- 
cessity of attending to nature's own methods 
of cure, and leaving much to her recuperative 
power rather than to medicinal prescriptions ; 
the distinction to be always kept in view be- 
tween medicine as a science and medicine as 
an art; the necessity of constant attention 
being paid to the distinctive sjrmptoms of each 
individual case as a means of determining 
the special treatment to be adopted ; and, in 
general, the value of presence of mind, * near- 
ness of the nous ' (ayxivoid) in a physician — 
these and the like points are what he is 
never tired of inculcating and illustrating in 
almost every page of the volume. And even 
*Rab and his Friends' belongs properly to 
medicine, and serves to withdraw the phy- 
sician from exclusive recognition of science 
in the exercise of his profession, and to bring 
him tenderly back to humanity. 

In the two later volumes of the * HorsB ' 
Brown's pen took a somewhat wider range. 
He had, we suppose, discovered his own 
strength in authorship, and found that he 
had other things in his mind besides medi- 
cine on which he had something to say. 
Poetry, art, the nature and ways of dogs, 
human character as displayed in men and 
women whom he had intimately known, the 
scenery of his native country with its asso- 
ciations romantic or tender — all these come 
in for review, and on all of them he writes 
with a curiously naive and original humour, 
and, as it seems to us, a singularly deep and 
true insight. One great charm of his writ- 
ings is that, as with those of Montaigne and 

Cliarles Lamb, mueh of bis own cLaracter is 
Ihrown intu his Imoks, and in reading them 
we Blmint feel aa if we became intimately 
acquainted with th" nutlmr. And inprivuli- 
lie did nnt Vlip llie idea wliich his hoohs 
cnnTey of him. Few men have in life been 
OKirn ffenernUy beloved, or in death more 
Bineerely lamented. He had a singular power 
or attaching' both mun and animals to him~ 
self, luid a atranger could scarcelyraeet with 
hitu even onco without remembering him 
ever Aft«rward3 with interest and affection. 
In aociety he waa natural and unaffected, 
with plaasantr}' and humour ever at com* 
muid, yet no one could auspcvt any tinge of 
(rivnlity in bis character. He had read very 
■widely, had strong opinions on many ques- 
tions both in literature and philoHopliy, poft- 
seeted great knowledge of men, and had en 
unfailing interest in humanity. With all the 
t«ndemes« of a woman, tie had a powerful 
manly intellect, was full of practical sense, 
tact, and sa^city, and found himself per- 
feetlv at hnme with nil men of the beet 
minas of lus time who heppcnefl to come 
SCTOBB him. Lord Jeffrey, Lord Ci^ckbilm, 
Mr. Thackeray, Mr. Ruskm, Sir Henry- Tay- 
lor, and Sir. Erskine of Linlalhen were all 
happy to number themselves among his most 
attached friends. 

There was a strong eoiint«rvailing element 
of melancholy in Brown's constitution, as in 
moat men largely endowed with humour. 
Thiti, we believe, showed itself more or less 
ereii in boyhbnd; but in the last sixteen 
years of liis life it became occasionally 
90 diatrci>siDe as to necessitate his entire 
witlidrawal for a time from society, and lat- 
Mrly induced him to retire to a great extent 
from the general practice of hia profession. 
In the last six months of hia life, howerej, 
Ilia convalescence seemed to be so complete 
that hia friends began to hope he had finally 
thfovn off this tendency, and during the 
winter immediately preceding hia deaUi oil 
Ilia old cheerfulness and intellectual vivacity 
appeared tti hare returned ,* but in the begin- 
uug of May 1882 he caught a slight cold, 
which deepened into a severe attack of pleu- 
Hay, and carried him off after a short illness 
ua llw 11th of that month. 

The first Folumeof the 'IIoneSubseoivB' 
was published in imH, the second in 1801, 
and a third In 1883, only a few weekx before 
the author's death. They have all gone 
through numetDUs editions both in this coun- 
try and in America; while 'Rob and his 
Frionds ' (first published in 1659) and other 

Spera hav» appeared sti[iarately in yiirluus 
tns, and have had an immense circuhition. 
, ^^tnoual knowledge.] J. T, B. 


1867), laiidseap'-pBinter, was bom at Glas- 
gow in ISOT), and resided in London for some 
time after Imvelling in Holland and Spain. 
He tlien removed to his native city, and 
finally settled in Edinburgh, where he died at 
10 Vincent Street 8 May 1867. He waa an 
associate of theKoyal Scottish Academy. His 

Eictiire ' The Last of the Clan ' was engrared 
r W. Richardson for the Royal Association 
of Fine Arts, Scotland, in 1861. In 1833 he 
exhibited at the Royal Academy, No. 278, ' A 
Scene on the Itavensbourne, Kent ; ' at tbia 
period he resided at 10 Robert Street, Chel- 
sea. Two other landscapes he alao exhibited 
in this same year at the British Institution 
and ibe Suffolh Street Exhibition. 

holnnist, wiis born In Edinburgh on 19 Jan. 
18% He wax of a delicate constitution, and 
early showed u BTeat love for plants, in con- 
sequenceofwhicli he waa,at the age of sixteen, 
placed in one of the Edinburgh nurseries. 
But the exposureconnectedwilh garden work 
proved too much for his heolth, and Professor 

Balfour appointed him ti 

ataniahip ii 

the herbajium connected with the Botanic 
Garden. Here be improved his opportunities 
and became well acquainted with "botany ; 
he was much interested in the Scottish flora, 
and contributed a list of tlie plants of Elie, 
Fifeshire,ta the Edinburgh Botanical Society, 
of which be was an associate. He died in 
Edinburgh on 23 Jlarch 1863. 

[Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh, vii. SIB.] J. B. 

BROWK, JOSEPH (1784-1808), physi- 
cian, was bom at North Shields in September 
1784, and slndied medicine at Edinburgh and 
also in London. Though the son ofsquaker, 
and educated as such, De entered the army 
medical service, waa attached to Wellington 3 
staff in the Peninsular war, and was preBODt 
at Bhsboo, Albuera, Viftoria, and the Pyre- 
nees, gaining high commendation fur his ser- 
yices. After ^\ate^loo he remained with the 
army of occupation in F'rance. Subsequently 
he again studied at Edinburgh, and graduated 
M.D. inl819. He settled at Sunderland, and 
took a leading part in local philanthropy and 

Klitics, being a strong liberal and a lealous 
1 not bigoted Christ inn. He was once mayor 
of Sunderland and a borough magistrate, and 
also for many years physician to the Sunder- 
land and Bishop wearmouth Infirmary. He 
was highly cultured, of dignified manners, 
yet deeply sympathetic with the poor. He 
(lied on T9 Nov. 1668. Besides numerous 

Brown 22 Brown 

contributions to medical reviews, and several • ceived his education at St. Omer and the 

articles in the * Cyclopeedia of Practical Me- English college at Rome. He entered the 

dicine/ Brown wrote: 1. * Medical Essays Society of Jesus in 10d8, being already a 

on Fever, Inflammation, &c./ London, 1828. priest, and became a professed father in 1709. 

2. * A Defence of R^^vealed Religion,' 1861, Previously to this, in 1700, he had been ap- 

designed to vindicate the miracles of the Old pointed to the mission of Ladyholt, Sussex, 

and New Testaments. 3. ' Memories of the He was rector of the English college at 

Past and Thoughts on the Present Age,' 1863. Rome from 1723 to 1731, when he b^aune 

4. 'The Food of the People, with a Postscript master of the novices, and was chosen pro- 

on the Diet of Old Age,' 1865. vincial of his order in 1733, continuing in 

[Lancet, 5 Dec. 1868 ; Sunderland Herald, that oflice till 1737, and then passing to the 

20 Nov. 1868.] G. T. B. rectorship of Liege college. He spent the 

^^«^, ^r« . , -, ^ , -oov ^* ^®*" ^ ^^ ^® '" t^® college of St. Omer, 

BROWN, LA>CELOT (Llo-1/83), and witnessed the forcible expulsion of the 

landscane-gardener and architect, known as English Jesuits from that institution bv the 

'CaDabilitv Brown,' was bom m 1715 at parliament of Paris in 1762. Being too old 

Harle-Kirk, Northumberland. He was origi- and infirm to be removed, he was allowed to 

nalhr a kitchen gardener in the employment remain in the house until his death on 7 Nov. 

of Lord Cobham at Stow. His remarkable 17^. 

faculty for prejudging landscape effects soon. Brown was a friend of Alexander Pope's, 

however, procured him the patronage of and it is probable that during his residence 

persons of rank and taste. Humphrey Rep- as missioner of Ladvholt he induced the 

ton treats Brown as the founder of the mo- poet to compose his beautiful version of St. 

dem or English style of landscape-gardening, Francis Xaviers hymn *0 Deus, ego amo 

which superseded the geometric style, brought Xe.' He published a translat ion of Bossuet's 

to its perfection by Andr6 Le Nostre (b. * Historv of the Variations of the Protestant 

12 March 1613 ; d. 15 Sept. 1700) at Ver- Churches,' 2 vols., Antwerp, 1742, 8vo. 

independently and with greater gem 

leading aim was to brinput the undulating BROWN, OLR'ER MADOX (1855- 

Imes of the natural lanJswipe He laid out jg^-^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ . ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

or remodelled the grounds at Kew, Blen- dox-Brown, the dfstinguished painter, was 

heim, and Nuneham Courtenav-. H^s style ^o^ ^^ Finchlev on 20 Jan. fsSS. From 

degenerated into a mannerism which insisted ^^^j ^^^^i^^ j^^ ^^^^^ remarkable ca- 

^'t^"J^«^^'^«^^!7j^,?^^P^^'^^^*^^f^ pacity,bith in painting and literature. One 
set of features ; but tlus declension is to be ^f j^is works, a water^olour named ' Chiron 
attributed to the deficiencies of those who receiving the Infant Jason from the Slave,' 

^iT'K^''"'^^' "^^^ . 1 ""i!^ /n ^'«« ^i^^ ^hen he was fourteen, and ex- 

model. Of Brown s architectural works a full hibitedln the Dudley Gallery in the following 

listisgivenby Kepton, beginning in l/ol with ^.^^, ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^1^^(. .^ ^g.^ ^^ ^^ 

Croome, where he built the house, church, ]^^^'^^^ ^ j^j^^ water-colour caUed 

&c. for the Lari of Coventry. His exteriors . Qbstinacv,' which represents the resistance 

were often very clumsy, but all his country ^^ ^„ ^^.^j ^ ^^^^^ ^.^^^ j^ ^ . ^^ 

mansions were constructed with great success ^^wards the sea; 'Exercise,' a complnion 
as regards internal comfort and convenience. -^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ appeared the same year 
Uereahseda argefortune,andbyhisamiable Sn the walls of the Royal Academy. Ascene 
manners and highcharacter he supported with ; f^^^ .j^e Tempest-Prospero and the Infant 

t'^'X^I'^ ' r 1 r ^.?;3"*^^«"fl^^*^°- Miranda,' whersent adrilft by the creatures 
In 1/70 he was high sherift of Huntingdon- , ^^ ^^e usurping duke, found its way in 1871 
shire lie died on 6 K^. L8^ His son, ^^ ^^e International Exhibition it South 
Lancelot Brown, was M.P. for Huntingdon- Kensington. This was followed by a water- 

®"*^^* ^ ^ . ^ X , colour, 'A Scene from Silas Mamerj'iexhibited 

[Iiepton'8 Ljindscape Gardening and Land- ^ in 1872at the gallery of the Society of French 

*^K.^!^^'\f^''?An^^'x!:: ^"f«"'18f<>»' Artists in ^'ew Bond Street. 'These two 

pp 30, 266, ,i27, 620; Knights Lnghsh Cyclo- . latter works especiaUy showed so much grasp 

psBdiH, Bioffraphv, 1866, 1. 9o0 ; JalsDict. Cnt. 1 ^r:j„„ *■«««« ^i-^^ ^^ • j -1.1. * S 

dTBiog. et Hist:, 1867. p. 773. A. G. i f \t ' £expr^ion, and, with regard 

** . • » I • J j to the scene from ' Silas Mamer,' so much 

BROWN, LEVINIUS (1671-1764), beauty of execution, as to indicate that the 

Jesuit, bom in Norfolk on 19 Sept. 1671, re- lad, had he lived, would have signallj dia- 




tingruished himself as a painter. His youth- 
ful successes in art, howeyer, were over- 
shadowed by those which he achieved in 
literature, particularly in prose fiction. When 
thirteen or fourteen years old he wrote several 
sonnets, of which only two have been pre- 
served. To these may be added another, 
written probably at a somewhat later date. 
These productions, if they do not fulfil all 
the technical conditions on which severe 
critics of the sonnet insist, have at least more 
than average correctness, and show, like his 
fragmentaiT^ blank verse poem, ' To All Eter- 
nity,' written a year or two later, originality 
of design, with force and dignity of expression 
surprising in one so young. Of a few lyric 
snatches the most have individuality, while 
the stanzas beginning — 

Oh, delicious sweetness that lingers 
Over the fond lips of love ! 

display, besides great wealth of imagery, the 
overflow of feeling that belongs to the genuine 
lyric. His first prose story, * Gabriel fienver,' 
was begun in the winter of 1871, finished 
early in the following year, when he was 
seventeen, and published in 1873. The story 
was originally one of a wife's revenge upon 
her husband and the woman to whom he had 
transferred his afiection. At the wish of his 
publishers the young author made important 
alterations. A spiteful cousin was substi- 
tuted for the revengeful wife, and a happy 
denouement for a tragic one. The story, as 
originally planned, was, however, published 
unaer the title of * The Black Swan ' in his 
'Literary Remains.' * Gabriel Denver, though 
on occasions it leans to over-analysis and 
substitutes accounts of emotions for the em- 
bodiment of them, reveals striking power in 
it« treatment both of characters and events. 
Its descriptions, moreover, which combine 
realistic accuracy with imaginative sugges- 
tiveness, are often most impressive, while 
certain passages show a vein of deep reflec- 
tion and speculation, to which perhaps no 
parallel can be cited from the works of juve- 
nile writers. At times with such strange 
weird power is some crisis of the story pre- 
sented that it seems to arrest the eye with 
its ominous significance. In 1872 the young 
novelist made considerable way in his story 
entitled * Hebditch's Legacy,* which, though 
containing many examples of his power, both 
as a narrator and a psychologist, relies for its 
plot too much upon somewhat hackneyed 
motives and incidents. This story he never 
completed. The end was supplied by his 
editors from recollections of his design. The 
tale is included in his 'Literary Kemains,' 
published in 1876. So early as 1872 he had 

begun his romance, called * The Dwale Bluth,' 
an old North Devonshire name for the plant 
known as 'the deadly nightshade.' *Tlie 
Dwale Bluth' is a tragic story with a glamour 
of fate around it. It shows the writer's 
powers of description, chastened and matured, 
and his usual deep insight into character and 
motive. In this tale he also displayed a hu- 
mour peculiar to himself, and a rare aptitude 
for portraying the natures and habits of chil- 
dren and animals. The work was also left 
uncompleted, an end in accordance with his 
intentions being again supplied from memory 
by his editors. Madox-Brown s 'Literary 
Remains' also contain two or three short 
stories written or dictated in the closing year 
of his life. In September 1874 he was attacked 
by gout. His seeming recovery from this was 
followed by hectic fever, and finally by blood- 
poisoning, lie died on 5 Nov. 1874, the day of 
the month on which his first story, ' Gabriel 
Denver,' had been published in the preceding 
year. As to personal appearance his face was 
oval, his featiu^s were regular. In repose he 
had at times a rather weary look, but his grey 
eyes had a singularly animated and engaging 
expression in the society of those whom he 
liked. His disposition, though somewhat 
sensitive, was genial and sincere, his discern- 
ment was keen, his standard of life high, and 
his sense of its obligations deep and sympa- 
thetic. As an imaginative writer, whose 
career ended at nineteen, he was not, of 
course, faultless. His descriptions, for the 
most part daring and successful, are at times 
over-ambitious and over-elaborate ; while in 
the opinion of some there is a suggestion of 
the morbid in the general choice of his themes. 
But for the union of Defoe-like truth of de- 
scription witli poetic touches tliat render the 
trutn more vivid, and for a sympathetic 
imagination which, in dealing with human 
motives and passions, often seems to antici- 
pate experience, Oliver Madox-Brown must 
stand in the van of young writers, who not 
only surprise by the brilliancy of their work, 
but retain admiration by its soliditv. The 
' Literary Remains ' contain, besicles the 
works already named as included, the writer's 

[Memoir prefixed to the Literary Remains; 
Biographical Sketch hy John H. Ingram ; Notice 
by P. B. Marrston in JScribner s Magazine.] 

W. M. 

BROWN, PHILIP (<7. 1779), was a 
doctor of medicine, practising in Manchester. 
His favourite pursuit towards the close of his 
life bein^ botany, he procured living plants 
from various parts of the world through his 
interest with merchants and ship captains. 

Brown 24 Browii 

a: hiA 'i^^fh « rmtalr^4- of the cr,llectioii« 1869, by vol. iv. (1527-33) in 1871, by voLv. 

-r w -tnim r.pfor **Ir. its title being' A Cata- (1534-^) in 1873, br voL vL pt. L (1565-^) 

^,gri% 'if c-TTcmnoii.*. PUnfA cijll«rt«l by the in 1877, by roL vi. pt. iL (165G-7) in 1881. 

i^r* Ph::.p iirr>iwn. MJl., Uf^-Iy deceased,' The last volume (voL yi. pt. iii.), issued in 

Mj^Txitr^^'-r. 1 771*, 1 Jmo, pp. :)rj. 1884, dealt with the yeM« 1557-8, and an ap- 

'CMZ^./r:^, Ai'ed. J B. D. J. pendix supplied a larve number of fifteenth- 
century papers which had been omitted from 

BBOWK, KAWDOX LrBBOCK(1803- the earUer volumes. Mr. T. D. Haidy, in a 

I rsX^;, vt chiefly known for his researches in report on the Venetian archives addressed to 

thn Vfrn^ian archives. Tlie Mory runs that Sir John Romilly, master of the rolls, in 1866, 

aiyAit I'^MK while on a holiday tour, Brown praises highlyBrown's accuracy and industry. 

pft;/i a fint viJiit to Venice, and that the Brown presented to the Public Record Office 

pla^ee *:Xfrr(M no powerful a charm over him 126 volumes of transcripts of Venetian ar- 

that be could not bring himself to leave it. chives, dating from eany times to 1797. 

I*. lA a fact that he never quitted Venice Brown also published: l.'Ragguagli sulla 

I al nobile 

„.,. .„ „ ...ig Its arcnives. lie was me aipiomaucnemeaite, \ enice, it^lU. 3. 'Itine- 

iSnt to appreciate the importance of the rario di Manno Sanuto per la terraferma 

i,.4*..^^ ..i.:»i. |i,e Venetian ambassa- veneziana nell* anno 1483,' Padua, 1847. 

e in the habit of sending 4 . * F our Years at the Court of King Heniy 

^ the sixteenth and seven- Vlll/ a translation of the despatches sent 

^,., ^ ._. After completing some jiome by Giu8tiniani,the Venetian ambassador 

original in v«-tigations into the fife and works in London, between 1515 and 1519, London, 

of Marino Sanuto the younger, the Venetian 1854. 5. * Avviso di Londra,' an account of 

hintorian, he wrote an account of *Four news-letters sent from London to Venice 

Years at the Court of Henry VIIT ' (1854), during the first half of the seventeenth cen- 

tory inducted I>oni Palmer«ton,at the instance lezione di opere storiche,' Venice and Turii 
of the chief literary men in England, to com- 18G5. 7. 'Margaret of Austria, Duchess of 

\ enetian 

mission Brown in 1 8(5:^ to calendar those Ve- Parma: Date of her Birth on 

netiun state papers which treated of English Authority,' Venice, 1880. A folio sheet was 

histor}'. This work engaged all Brown s at- issued at Venice in 1841 with a drawing and 

tent ion for the rest of his life, lie spared description, by Brown, of the * Shield placed 

himself no lal>our, and is computed to have over the remains of Thomas Mowbray in St. 

examin<Kl twelve million pacKets of dr»cu- Mark's Church,* Venice. 

ments, mostofthemat yenice,butafewof rTimes, 29 Aug., 8 Sept., 13 Sept. 1883- 

them in other towns of ^orth Italy. Brown Athenaiuni, 8 Sept. 1883 ; Brit. Mus. Cat] 

was alwavH ready to help scholars who ap- g jj l 

plied to iiini for information. He died at ' 

Venice on L'o Aug. 18K3, and was buried in BROWN, Sib RICIIARD. [See 

the Lido cenieter>' three days later. He was Bkowne.] 

popular with all classes in Venice, and was 

very hospitable to English visitors. Robert BROWN, ROBERT (rf. 1753), historical 

Tlio first volume of his * Calendar of State gaged in this undertaking he and his master 
Pajwrs and Manuscripts relating to English worked together on a scafiold, which was an 
Anairs existing in the Archives and Collec- open one. Thomhill had just completed the 
tions of Venice, and in other Libraries of head of the apostle, and was letinng back- 
Northern Italy,* with an elaborate introduc- wards in order to survey the effect ; as he had 
tion, was issued in 1 864, and covered the years j ust reached the edge. Brown, not having time 
from 1202 to 1509. It was succeeded by vol. to warn him, snatched up a pencil, nill of 
ii. (1509-19) in 18(57, by vol. iii. (1620-26) in , colour, and dashed it upon thefJEice. Thorn- 



hill enraged mn biiMilyfnnvard, exclaimiog, 
' nood God ! wliut hove joh done P ' 'I havp 
only saved j^our !ifa,' was t!ie reply. Brown 

and tbeii setting up for himself vasemplr 
to docorate «everal of tbe cilT c)inri^hc» 

painted t.lie altor-piece in bt. Andrew Va- 
dMshBft.the'TrHnafigiimtion'iaSt, Botolpli, 
Aldgate, the Rjciints of St. Andrew and (>t. 
Jobn in St. Andrew's, Holbom, and those of 
St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evan- 

Klist in the chapel of St. John, Bedford Row. 
i aha painted Home portraits. Drown was 
the master of Ilayiaan, and died 36 Dec. 1751!. 
A few of his works have been engraved in 
racuotinto: 'The Annunciation,' by Valen- 
tine Oieen : ' Kalvator Mundj ' (two plates), 
by Jamai McArdell ; ' Uur Saviour and Sr. 
John Baptist,' by Richucd Karloui { and ' 
' Geogrnpliy, bj J. I'aber. 

BROWH.SiK ItOBERTOA 17fiO>,dipli>. 
mntist, is ukid when a .young man to have 
gone out lo Venice with no other capital 
timn a lar^ i<eci>iid-hand wig, which he sold 
for 61. At Venice he ninassed n ibrlune by 
•UCMMsfhl trading, ttnd for some years held 
tke office of nrillBli re.-ident in the repiihlic. 
He rcfwiived h bnnuietey from George II in 
1732. Writing to the "Earl of Esue.x, then , 
amlmasador al Turin, in iUy 1731, Iir says . 
that he i» about to be returned lo pnriia- I 
went, that ho is glad to say that his efertion 
will entail little expense or trouble on liiin, j 
ihoueh he does not know for whut pUee he ■ 
will be put up. Two lelteni from him, and I 
severaJ from Colonel Niel Brown, the. consul, 
who was probably liis kinsman, are in the 
Britiali Museum, Some of these letters con- i 
lAtn referencex to TurVish alTairs, and to the 
progTMB of til p Polish siicceaaionwar. Itrown 
came back to England, and was return*^ as 
one of ihi- inemliers for Ilche»t*r 30 Au^f. | 
irsi, retaining bis seat during that parlia- i 
ment and the succeeding one summoned in 
1741. From 1741 to 1743 he lield the office 
ofpaymasterof theking'sworks. Hemarried 
UaiKaret C»ci1, granddaughter of the third 
Earl of Seliflburj-, and sister of Charles, 
Uahop first of Bangor and then of Bristol, 
« lady of wit and foBhion. 'Ludv Brown," 
Dumey telle n», 'gave ihe first private con- 
certji under theiiirection of ihe Count of Ger- 
niAia ! she lifld them on Simdoy evenings, at ' 
th* ri»k of her windows, She was an enemy [ 
ofHrnndol and apatronessof the Italian style.' | 
Borace Walpole records a bitter retort 
ab« toade on Lndv Townshund ( Mi-mmr* of 
«//,ii.»At«),'and sneers at her'Sunday ^ 

nights," as ' the great uiari. for all travelling 
and travelled calves " (i*«*i'», i. 22SP(, By 
her Bron'n had two, or, according to Wnlpole, 
three daughters, who died before him. It was 
with reference to thete daughters that the 
avarice for which he was notorious uppeors 
to have chiefly display^ itself. When the 
eldest, who at the age of eighteen fell into s 
decline, was ordered to tide for the benefit 
of her health, be made the servant who at- 
tended her carry a map he drew out marking 
all the by-lanes, so as lo avoid the turnpikes ; 
and when she was dying, he bargained with 
the undertaker about Her funeral, on the 
principle apparently of a wager, for he is 
said to have urged the man to name a low 
sum by representing that she might recover. 
These stones rest on the authority of ILWal- 
iKile. If they are not literally true, they at 
least serve to show Ilrowu's character. lie 
died on 6 Oct. 1760, leaving everything, 
even, Walpole believes, his avarice, to his 
widow, Ludy Brown died in 1789. 

[Brit. Mas. Add. TiUM. 37732-6 (Correspon- 
dence (if Lord Esacx), 23787 (Corrrapondence 
of ThomHR Ruhiijsun, first baioa arantham] ; 
BuruBya Hislory of Uusic, ir. 871. «d. 1789; 
Wn1p»la"B Hcmoirs of George II, 4lo. 1822; 
Wiilpole's Lettnrs, i. 187. 229, ii. 3»8, 450, iii. 
851, ir. 70. viii. 17fl, ii- 321 (ed. CuDDinghHrn) ; 
Collinx'o Baronelug*, ir. %i!< ; B«tLwm"s Bvo- 
ncing-'. iii. 210 : Betiiru of Members of Parlio- 
meiit, ii. 78. »0.] W. H. 

BROWN, ROBERT (1757-1831), agri- 
eultiiral writer, born in Knst hinton, Ilad- 
din^on&hire, entered into business in bis 
native vitlage, but soon turned to agriculture, 
which he carried on first at West Fortime 
and afterwards at Harkle, where be practised 
several important experiment.^. He was an 
intimate friend of George Renilie of Than- 
taasie. AMiile Rennie applied himself to 
the practice of agriculture, Brown wrote on 
the science, lie published a ' \'iew of the 
Agriculture of the West Riding of York- 
shire,' 8vo, 171KI, and a 'Treatise on Rural 
Afl'airs,' 2 vols. 8vo, 1811, and wrote many 
articles in the Edinburgh ' l''armer"s Maga- 
aine,' of which he was editor for fifteen 
years. Some of these articles have been 
translated into French and German. lie 
died at Drylow, East Lothian, on 14 Feb. 
1831, in his seventy-fourth year. 

[Anderson's S«otIiiih Nation, i. SDQ; liring's 
Eminent ^otsmen, 41; Geat. Mag. IB31, vol. 
ci. pt.Li.p. «47.] W. H, 

BROWN, Rf)BEHT (1773-18C8), bo- 
tanist, WHS llom in Montrose ou SI Dec. 
1773, bis fattier, the Rev. James BrowTi, 
being the I'piscopatian minister in tlial town. 

Brown 26 Brown 

His mother was the daughter of the Rev. 
Robert Taylor, who was also a presbyterian 
pastor. His earliest education was obtained 
at the Montrose grammar school, where he 
formed a friendship, which lasted through 
life, with James Mill. At the age of four- 
teen Brown was entered at Marischal Col- 
lege, Aberdeen, where he obtained a Ramsay 
bursary in philosophy. In 1789 his father 
sent him to the university of Edinburgh, 
whither he had moved from Montrose. The 
boy's friends destined him for the medical 
profession. He does not ap|)ear to have dis- 

which he had collected, and made many new 
and important observations as to the anatomy 
and physiology of plants in generaL 

In 1798 Brown was elected an associate 
of the Linnean Society, and very soon after 
his return from the Antipodes the council 
appointed him their librarian. This position 
— the free use of the Banksian library and 
herbarium, and the aid given by Sir Joseph 
Banks himself— enabled nim to work in the 
light of the most recent botanical disco- 
veries. In 1810 the first volume appeared 
of his * Prodromus Flor» Novsb Hoibiidiad 
tinguished himself in either classics or the et insula) Van-Diemen exhibens characteres 
physical sciences. The tendency of his mind \ plantarum quas annis 1802-5 per oras utri- 
was towards natural history, and at an early usque insulte collegit et descripsit Robertus 
age he became a member of the Natural His- ; Brown. Londini, 1810.* About the same 
tory Society of Edinburgh ; while his close date Brown published two memoirs — one on 
attention to botanical science secured him the Asclepiadeae in the * Transactions of the 
the friendship of the professor. Dr. Walker, ; Wemerian Society of Edinburgh ' (1809), 

his first pajwr, which was a careful euumeru- which was published in 1814, Brown ap- 
tion of such plants as he had collected in pended * General Remarks, Geographical 
Scotland, with observations thereon and ex- j and Systematical, on the Botany of Terra 
planatory notes. All the specimens and ac- Australis.* 

company ing descriptions were used by Dr. j These contributions to botanical science, 
Withering, who was at this time engaged in setting forth in the most instructive form 
preparing the second edition of his * Arrange- , the advantages of the natural system, aided 
ment of British Plants,* and an intimate materially in leading to its almost universal 
friendship thus arose between the two bo- adoption. In the * Transactions of the Lin- 
tanists. In 1795 Brown obtained a double nean Society* will be found a number of 
commission of ensign and assistant-surgeon memoirs by Brown giving the fullest and 
in the Fifeshire regiment of fencible in- most comj)lete development of his views in 
fantry, and proceeded to the north of Ire- every division of botanical science. These 
land. In 1798 he was sent to England on | gave a high character to vegetable physiology, 
recruiting service, and rt?mained several and placed upon the sure basis of exact ob- 
months in London. During this time Brown servation our knowledge of the vital func- 
was introduced to Sir Joseph Banks, his t ions of plants. 

botanical reputation securing him a hearty On the death of Dn*ander, at the close of 
reception and the free use of Sir Joseph's 1810, Brown succeeded his friend as librarian 
collections and library. Earlj in the fol- • to Sir Joseph Banks, and he held that ap- 
lowing year he returned to his regiment in ' pointment until Sir Joseph's death in 1820 ; 
Ireland, but soon accej)ted an offer from Sir , the use and enjoyment of this library and the 
Jo8e])h Banks of the post of naturalist to an ' collections being then bequeathed to him for 
expedition then fitting out for a survey of, life, with the house in Soho Square, in which 
the coast of New Holland. for nearly sixty years Brown pursued his 

In the summer of 1801 Brown embarked scientific labours. In 1827 Brown, however, 
at Portsmouth, under the command of Cap acting on the provisions of the will of Sir 
tain Flinders. He was absent from Eng- I Joseph Banks, assented to the transference 
land more than four years. In the interval of the books and specimens to the British 
he thoroughly explored the vegetable world Museum. He was appointed to the office of 
on the coasts of rJew Holland and on the keeper of the botamcal collections in that 
southern portion of Van Diemen's Land, establishment, which position he held until 
He returned to England in 1805, landing at his death. 

Liveq)ool in the month of October with a To *Tilloch*s Philosophical Magazine,* 1826, 
collection of lumrly 4,000 s]K*cies of dried Brown contributed a remarkable paper on the 
plants, a great number of which were new to * Character and Description of Kmgia, a new 
science. During his voyage home he devoted genus of plants found on the south-west coast 
himself to a close examination of the plants of New Holland, with observations on the 




stmcture of its unimpregnated ovulum and 
on the female flowers of CycadesB and Coni- 
fer».' In 1828 we find in the ' Edinburgh 
New Philosophical Journal ' ' A brief Account 
of Microscopical Observations made in the 
months of June, July, and August 1827 on 
the particles contained in the poUen of plants, 
and on the general existence of active mole- 
cules in organic and inorganic bodies.' These 
were speedily followed by six papers * On the 
Organs and Mode of Fecundation inOrchidese 
ana Asclepiadeae,' and one on the * Origin 
and Mode of Propagation of the Gulf-weed/ 
These important contributions to science — 
exhibiting the most patient research and re- 
fined deductions from his minute observa- 
tions — were highly appreciated by all natu- 
ralists, as was shown dv the fact of the il- 
lustrious Humboldt dedicating liis * Synop- 
sis Plantarum Orbis Novi* to him in tne 
following words: 'Roberto Brownio, Bri- 
tanniarum glorise at<|ue omamento, totam 
botanices scientiam ingenio mirifico com- 

In 1811 Brown became a fellow of the 
Royal Society, and he was several times 
elected a member of the council of that body. 
In 1839 the Copley medal was pn>sente(l to 
him ' for his discoveries on the subject of 
vegetable impregnation,' he having received 
previously (in 1832) from the university of 
Oxford the honorary degree of D.C.L. In 
1833 he was elect^ a foreign associate of 
the Academy of Sciences of the Institute of 
France. Sir Robert Peel granted him a pen- 
sion on the civil list of 200/. per annum, and 
the King of Prussia subsequently decorated 
him with the cross of the highest civil order 
* Pour le M6rite.' 

Beyond the works already named, Brown 
fi^uently contributed to the' Linnean Trans- 
actions' and scientific periodicals. His bota- 
nical appendices to the * Voyages and Travels 
of the most celebrated Navigators and Tra- 
vellers ' should not be forgotten ; they were 
all marked by his distinguishing charac- 
teristics, minuteness of detail and compre- 
hensive generalisation. 

Especial mention is demanded of his dis- 
coveries of the nucleus of the vegetable cell ; 
of the mode of fecundation in several species 
of plants ; of the developments of the pollen 
and of the ovulum in the Conifer (b and Cyca- 
dea, and the bearing of these on impregnation 
in general. The relation of a flower to the 
axis ftt)m which it is derived, and of the parts 
of a flower to each other, are among the most 
striking of Brown's structural investigations. 
It must not be forgotten that fossil botany 
was also a favourite pursuit of his, and that 
in its prosecation he formed a valuable col- 

lection of fossil woods which he bequeathed 
to the British Museum. 

Brown's character in private life was ac- 
knowledged to be peculiarly attractive by all 
who knew him. This cannot be more satis- 
factorily shown than by a quotation fit)m a 
letter written by Dr. Francis Bott on 21 June 
1803 to Dr. Sharpey, presenting to the Royal 
Society a copy ot Brown's * Prodromus Florae 
NovjB HoUandiae,' which was a personal gift 
from the author : * I never presumed to be 
able to estimate Brown's eminent merits as 
a man of science ; but I knew vaguely their 
worth. I loved him for his truth, his simple 
modesty, and, above all, for his more than 
woman s tenderness. OSf all the persons I 
have known, I have never known liis equal 
in kindliness of nature.' Brown died on 
10 June 1868. 

[Proceedings of the Royal Society, ix. 527 
(1869) ; Royal Society Catalogue of Scientific 
Papers, vol. i. (1867); Linnean Society's Trans- 
actions, vols, x-xii. (1816-20); Ann. 8ci. Nat. 
vols, viii-x. xi. xix. (1826-30) Riy Society; 
Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 
ed. Bennett, 2 vols. 1866-8."| R. H-x. 

BROWN, SAMUEL (Jl. 1700), was a 
surgeon stationed during the last few years 
of the seventeenth century at Madras, then 
called Fort St. George. From time to time 
he sent collections of dried plants &c. to 
England, where they were described by James 
Petiver, and published in the * Phil. Traps.' 
in a series of pajxirs in vols. xx. (1698) and 
xxiii. ( 1 703). Petiver^s plants passed into the 
hands of Sir Hans Sloane, and now form part 
of the herbarium of the British Museum 
(Nat. Ilistor}*) in Cromwell Road. Particu- 
lars of his lii'e are wanting. 

[Pulteney's Biog. Sketches of Botany (1790), 
ii. 38, 39, 62.] B. D. J. 

BROWN, Sir SAMUEL (1776-1852), 
engineer, the eldest son of William Brown 
of Borland, Galloway, by a daughter of the 
Rev. Robert ^lopfjf of Roxburgh, was bom 
in London in 1776. He served in the navv 
with some distinction during the French war 
from 1795 onwards. He became commander 
1 Aug. 1811, and retired captain 18 May 
1842. In January 1835 he was made a 
knight of the Hanoverian Guelphic Order, 
and a knight bachelor in 1838. His principal 
reputation was gained as an engineer. He 
invented an improved method of manufac- 
turing links for chain cables, which he 
patented in 1816 conjointly with Philip 
Thomas, and the experiments which he car- 
ried out led to the introduction of chain 
cables into the navy. He also patented in 

Brown 28 Brown 

j«ir 2.-prvrr^n>riit.4 in suspension bridges, the Atomic Theory; B«colleecion8 of Profeasor 

'.j^ ^tt^K.* ir.clu'ilnz • special sort of link Ma&«oo in Macmillan's Ma£;azine, toI. xii. ; 

-■iiisi. *SAi>l*fi *och bridge? to be constructed North British Beriew, toL IL] T. F. H. 

"jc » jArz*T *c»ir thjm hjid ever before been ^^^..„-«» « . «*,,-^^ ,«,^ ,«-.-v 

loiiii'ii^ n^fc^t Urge suspension bridge BROWN, SAMUEL (1810-1875), ac- 

w iS^ Union Bridge across the Tweed near ^^^ *?d statist, entered the office of the 

B«r«-jrk. a picture of which, painted bv old Equitable Life in 18i^ iw a junior He 

A> xinnTth before the erection o'f "^ appointed actuary of the Mutual Life 

Uift br>i<r*: in ord^'r to show what it would be ^^ "» 1?-^ •"'^ ^X**"** Guardian Insurance 

lik* wh-^n completed, is now in the posses- Company in 18.>j. He contributed numerous 

fion rA the Swnet V of Arts. His principle I«Pf « V" *^^ *^"™n^ >^Wf J?®'. ""d, ^?> 

was also u:^ bv telford in the suspension to the- Journal ofthe Statistical Society. He 

bridge across th^ Menai Straits. In 1823 he <^>^»^ ^ ^^^T prominent part in the decimal 

conSrurted the chain pier at Brighton. Be- coinage movem.ent, and several times dis- 

sides those for his inventions connected with ?.^^ .^^f q»«t '"^^ ^/«re the International 

chains and chain cables, he took out nume- Statistical Congr^ He also advocated uni- 

rous other patents (ten in all), most of them f«™ weights and m^sures throughout the 

for matteTs^connected with naval architec- enmmerciiil world. He took an active part m 

ture or marine engineering. Brown died at foimding the Institute of Actuaries in 1848, 

Blackheath on 15 MarchTa52. He married ^^ became its president m 1867, holding the 

Mar^', daughter of John Home of Edinburgh, ?^^ ^^J. three consecutive yeare. He was also 

writ'er to the signet, 14 Aug. 1822. P^^l ^»tor of the Journal of the Institute 

° ' . ,, ° -^ , ^ . of Actuaries. In 18o8 he was president of 

[GcDt. Mag. 1862, i. ol9; Records of the the Economic section of the British Associa- 

Patent Office.] U. i. » . ^.^^^ ^^ Norwich. He instituted the * Brown 

BROWN, SAMUEL (1817-1856), che- Wze' at the Institute of Actuaries, and the 

mist, fourth son of Samuel Brown of Had- first award under the terms of the endow- 

dington, founder of itinerating libraries, and ment —fiftv guineas for the best essay on the 

tending the grammar school of Haddington topics. He died in 1875, aged Go. 
and the high school of Edinburgh, entered the [Walford's Insurance Cyclopaedia.] C. W, 
medical classes of the university of Edinburgh 

in 18ii2. He graduated M.D. in 1839, but de- BROWN, STEPHEN (^. 1340 ?), theo- 
voted his chiefattention to chemical research, logian, a native of Aberdeen, was a doctor 
An account of his experiments on * Chemical of theologj' and a Carmelite monk. He is 
Isomerism 'was published in the 'IVansactions mentioned" as one of the twelve scholars of 
of the Itoyal Society of Edinburgh, 1840-1,' special reputation in Scotland whom Ed- 
and during the same winter he delivered, along ward I is said to have invited to Oxford; and 
with Edward Forbes, a course of lectures on | certain collections of sermons, theological 
the philosophy of the sciences. In 1843 he | treatises, exjiositions, and letters are attri- 
was a candidate for the chair of chemistry j buted to him. Brown's identity is, however, 
in the university of Edinburgh, but on ac- extremelv doubtful ; and the very date at 

, e \ ' i* • 1 A _i._l_l^,.l_ ▲!-_ — ._»-^^ I'll"* ••!. 1 n 'I *»^ II 

count of his failure to establish the propo- 
sition of the isomerism of carbon and silicon. 

which he is said to have flourished is hardly 
compatible with the facts related of his life. 

his other high qualifications were disregarded. ; He has a])parently been confounded with 
From this time he retired very much from another Stephen Brown who was appointed 
public life, and gave himself oyer to the task to the see of Ross, in the province of Munster, 
of realising experimentally his doctrine of by a papal provision dated "2^1 April 1899 
the atomic constitution of bodies, only de- (^c. de Villiers, Bihliotheca Carmelitnnay 
siftting when failing health rendered it im- ii. 767), and who, * having made the requisite 
iMjrative on him to do so. He died at Edin- declarations and renounced all clauses in 
burgh on 20 Sept. 1856. His * Lectures on the pope's bull which were prejudicial to the 
the Atomic Theory, and Essays Scientific rights of the crown, was restored to his tem- 
and Literan' ' were published in 1 858 in two poralities on May 6, 1402 * (H. Cotton, Fasti 
volumes, lie was also the author of a tra- Eccles. Hibem, i. 352, 2nd ed. 1851). This 
gedy, MJalileo Galilei,' 1850, and of *Lay \ confusion of the two persons has, in fact, 
Sermons on the Theory of Christianity.' : been made by the historian of the Carmelite 
[Preface by hw cousin, Dr. John Brown, order (/.c) ; and, to add to the difficulty, 
author of liab and his Friends, to Lectures on i liale describes Brown as bishop of Ross m 




Scotland, and Tanner, by an error easily ac- 
counted for, makes him bishop of Rochester 
(* Roffensis *). Since, however, the bishop of 
the Irish see is an historical personage, of 
whom even the armorial bearmgs are pre- 
served (Cotton, /.c), it is perhaps most pro- 
bable that his earlier namesake is purely 

[Bale's Script. Brit. Cat xiv. 64 (vol. ii. 216 
«t seq.) ; T. Dempster's Hist. Eccles. Gent. Scot. 
ii. § 196, p. 107, ed. Bologna, 1627; Tanner's 
Bibl. Brit. p. 131.] R. L. P. 

(rf. 1445), was bishop of Rochester and Nor- 
wich. Nothing is Known of his parentage 
or birthplace, nor of what university he was 
LL.D. As, however, Cardinal Repington, 
bishop of Lincoln, collated him to the sub- 
deanery of Lincoln in 1414, and as Reping- 
ton was chancellor of Oxford, it is probable 
that Brown was of that universitv. In 1419 
he was made archdeacon of Stow, m 1422 pre- 
bendary of Biggleswade, in 1423 prebendary 
of Langford Manor (all in the diocese of 
Lincoln), in 1425 prebendary of Flixton in 
the diocese of Lichfield, in 1427 archdeacon 
of Berkshire, and in 1431 dean of Salifibnry. 
He held all these preferments together till 
his promotion to the see of Rochester in 
1435, being at the same time vicar-geueral 
to Chichele, archbishop of Cant^rburj-. Can 
Thomas Gascoigne be referring to Brown 
when he says, in his usually extravagant 
manner, * Novi unum fatuum qui habuit 
unum magnum archidiaconatum et xii. prsc- 
bendas magnas ' P (Loci e Libro Ventatum, 
ClarendonPress, 4to, 1881,p. 43). In 1429 
he was elected to the bishopric of Chichester, 
and was approved by the king ; but the pope, 
Martin V, quashed the election, and he had 
to wait four years before he was raised to the 
episcopate. He was consecrated bishop of 
Rochester at Canterbury on 1 May 1435, 
and next year, while attending at the coun- 
cil of Basle, was translated by Eugenius IV 
to the bishopric of Norwich. Henry VI 
taking offence at this, Brown submitted him- 
self to the king^s pleasure, and with so good 
a grace that his apology was accepted, and 
he was allowed to take possession of his see. 
In 1439 he was sent as ambassador to nego- 
tiate a peace with France, and to make a 
oommeroal treaty with the Flemings. His 
episcopate is uneventful, except that he was 
a peacemaker on the occasion of a serious 
dif^ute between the citizens of Norwich and 
the mioiy. Possibly his award may have been 
displeAsinf to the convent, for soon after this 
the prior behayed with exceeding disrespect 
to the bishop, and the quarrel ended in an 

appeal to Rome, when the prior was com- 
pelled to submit to his diocesan. Brown died 
at Hoxne on 6 Dec. 1445, and was buried in 
the cathedral. His will has been preserved. 
In it, besides other legacies, he leaves money 
for the support of poor scholars at both uni- 

! [Le Neve's Fasti, ii. 40, 79. o67. 634 (Hardy) ; 
Rymer's FcBdera, x. 433, 608, 724, 728, 730 ; 
Rolls of Parliament, v. 13; Bloroefield's Norfolk, 
iii. 533 ; Stubbs's Reg. Sac. Anglic. ; Brown's 
will, Lambeth Reg. Stafford, 1316; Genealogist, 

I V. 324.1 A. J. 

I BROWN, THOMAS {/. 1570), trans- 
lator, of Lincoln's Inn, translated into Eng- 

I lish * A ritch Storehouse or Treasurie for 

j Nobilitye and Gentlemen, which in Latine 
is called Nobilitas literata, written by a 

I famous and excellent man, John Sturmius, 
and translated into English by T. B., gent., 
. . . Imprinted at London by Henrie Den- 
ham .... 1570.' This volume is in the 
Grenville Library in the British Museum. 
In a note appended to it Mr. Grenville says 
that it does not appear who T. B. was. A 
Thomas Brown who wrote some verses pre- 
fixed to the * Galateo of maister John Delia 
Case (Casa) archbishop of Beneventa,' trans- 
lated by Robert Peterson of I^ncoln s Inn, 
gentleman, a work printed in 1576, and de- 
scribed in Herbert's edition of Ames's * Typo- 
graphical Antiquities,' is i)robably Thomas 
Browne {d. 1585) [q. v.] 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit. 131 ; manuscript note of 
Mr. T. Grenville ; Herbert's Ames's Typographi- 
cal Antiquities, ii. 903.] W. H. 

BROWN, THOMAS (1663-1704), mis- 
cellaneous ^>Titer, son of a farmer, was bom 
in 1663 at Sliifiial in Shropshire. He was 
educated at Newport school, in the same 
county, whence he proceeded in 1678 to Christ 
Church, Oxford. Here his irregular habits 
brought him into trouble. The story goes 
that the dean of Christ Church, Dr. Fell, 
threatened to expel him, but, on receipt of a 
submissive letter, promised to forgive him if 
he would translate extempore the epigram of 
Martial (i. 32), * Non amo te, Sabidi,' &c., 
which Brown promptly rendered by — 

I do not love thee, Dr. Fell, 
The reajsion why I cannot tell ; 
But this I know, and know full well, 
I do not lore thee. Dr. Fell. 

Brown afterwards made amends by writing 
the doctor's epitaph. Some English verses 
by Brown are prefixed to Creech's translation 
of Lucretius, 1682, and there is a copy of his 
Latin verses, entitled ' Soteria Ormondiana,' 
in ' Musse Oxonienses.' He contributed some 
translations from Horace to 'Miscellanv 




Poems by Oxford Hands,* 1685. Ijeaving 
the university without a degree, he came to 
Jjondon, and endeavoured to support himself 
by his pen ; but, finding it dimcidt to pro- 
cure employment, he reluctantly accepted the 
post of usher in a school at Kingston-on- 
Thames. Writing to a fiiend at this date, 
he says : ^ I ventured once or twice to launch 
my little bark amongst the adventurous rovers 
of the pen, but with such little success that 
for the present 1 have abandoned all hopes 
of doing anything that way. . . . The pro- 
digal son, when he was pressed by hunger 
and thirst, joined himself to a swineherd ; and 
I have been driven by the same stimuli to 
join myself to a swine, an ignorant jHjda- 
gogue about twelve miles out of town.' He 
was afterwards appointed head-master of the 
grammar school at Kingston-on-Thames. 
Having spent three years in school work, he 
settled in London, and devoted himself to 
the production of satirical poems and pamph- 
lets, varj'ing this employment with transla- 
tions from (Ireek, Latin, French, and Spanish 
authors. In 1687 he contributed supple- 
mentary ^ Reflections on the Hind and the 
Panther ' to Matthew Clifford's ' Four Letters ' 
on Dryden ; and in the following years, as- 
suming the pseudonym Dudley Tomkinson, 
he assailed Drj-den in a spiteful, though not 
unamusing, pamphlet, entitled * The Reasons 
of Mr. Bays' changing his religion, considered 
in a dialogue between Crites, Eugenius, and 
Mr. Bays,' 4to, of which a second part was 
published in 1690 imder the title of *The 
Reasons of the New Convert's taking the 
Oaths,' 4to, and a third part, *The Reason 
of Mr. Hains the Player's Conversion and 
Reconversion,' in 1691, 4to. In 1691 ho ])ul>- 
lished * The Weesils. A sat yrical Fable giving 
the account of some argumental passages 
ha])pening in the lion's court about AVe«»si- 
lion's taking the oaths,' London, 1691, 4to, 
an attack on Dr. Sherlock. .Vn anonymous 
sat ire on Durfev, * Wit for Mone\', or Poet 
Stutter, a Dialogue,' 1691, 4to, may probably 
be assigned to Brown, who, in the same year, 
assailed two prominent cle^g^'nlen in an ano- 
nymous pamphlet entitled, *Novus Refor- 
mat or Vapulans, or the Welsh Lovite tossed 
in a blanket. In a dialogue between llick- 
[eringill] of Colchester, David J[o]nes and 
the (ihost of Wil. IVyn,' 4to. About this 
time Brown started the * Lacedaemonian Mer- 
cury,' in opposition to Dunton's * Athenian 
Mercury ; ' but the paper liad only a short run. 
In August 169;^ lie wrote a copy of satirical 
verses on the occasion of the marriage of' 
Titus Oates C The Salamancan Wedding ; or 
a true Account of a swearing Doctor's Mar- 
riage witha MuggletonianWidow,'half sheet), I 

for which performance he is said to have been 
apprehended and punished. Many of Brown*» 
humorous and satirical verses were published 
in ' A Collection of Miscellany Poems, Let- 
ters, &c., by Mr. Brown, &c.,* London, 1699, 
8vo. On p. 49 of this collection is a bitter 
attack by Brown on Tom Durfey, beginning — 

Thou cur, half French, half English breed, 
i Thou mongrel of Parnassus. 

Elsewhere ( Works, ed. 1719^21, v. 65) he 
has some amusing verses on a duel fought at 

I Epsom in 1689 between Durfey and Bell^ 

' a musician. In a ^ Session of the Poets ' 
there is a mock trial of Durfey and Brown, 

, held at the foot of Parnassus on 9 July 1696. 
Brown's satirical writings are more remark- 
able for coarseness than for wit. In worry- 
ing an adversary he was strangely pertina- 
cious; he never would let a quarrel drop, 

' but returned to the attack agfam and again. 
Sir Richard Blackmore was one of the special 
objects of his aversion; he edited in 1700 
a collection of mock * Commendatory Verses 
on the Author of the Two Arthurs and the 
Satyr against Wit by some of his particular 
Friends,' fol. For writing a 'Satyr upon 
the French King on the Peace of Keswick ^ 
( Worhfy i. 89, ed. 1707) he was committed 
to prison ; and the story goes that he pro- 
cured his release by addressing to the lords 
in council a Pindaric petition, which con- 
cludes thus : 

The pulpit alone 

Can never preach down 

The fops of the town. 

Then pardon Tom Brown 
And let him write on : 
But if you had rather convert the poor sinner. 
His fast writing mouth may be stopped with a 

Give him clothes to his back, some meat and 

much drink, ^ 

Then clap him close prisoner without pen and ink. 
And your petitioner shall neither pray, write, 
nor think. 

Tom Brown's life was as licentious as his 
writings. Much of his time was spent in a 
low taveni in Gower's Row in theMinories. 
His knowledge of London was certainly * ex- 
tensive and peculiar,' and his humorous 
sketches of low life are both entertaining and 
valuable. An anonymous biog^pher says : 
* Tom Brown had less the spirit of a gentle- 
man than the rest of the wit«, and more of a 
scholar. ... As of his mistresses, so he was 
very negligent in the choice of his companions, 
who were sometimes mean and despicable.' 
Brown died in Aldersgate Street on 16 June 
1704, and was buried in the cloisters of 
Westminster Abbey, near his friend Mrs. 
Aphra Behn. The inscription (which has 




been lately recut) on his tombstone is, 
'Thomas Brown, Author of "The London 
Spy," bom 1663, died 1704/ but the author of 
'The London Spy' was Ned Ward. Shortly 
after his death appeared a * Collection of all 
the Dialogues of Mr. Thomas Brown,' 1704, 
8vo, to which was appended a letter (the 
genuineness of which was attested by Thomas 
Wotton, curate of St. Lawrence Jewry) pur- 
porting to have been written by Brown on 
his deathbed. Li this letter Brown, after 
expressing regret for having ^-ritten anjr- 
thmg that would be likely to have a perni- 
cious influence, protests against being respon- 
sible for ' lampoons, trips, London Spies,' in 
which he had no hand. He was too lazv, he 
tells us, to write much, and yet pampnlets 
good and bad of every kind haa been fathered 
upon him. A whimsical description of 
Brown's experiences on his arrival in Hades 
was published under the title of ' A Letter 
from the dead Thomas Brown to the living 
Herodotus,' 1704, 8vo. An epitaph, written 
shortly after his death, contains the lines — 

Each merry wag throughout the town 
Will toast the memory of Brown, 
Who langh'd a race of rascals down. 

Addison, in his essay on the * Potency of 
Mystery and Innuendo' (iSj>ecto^or, No. 567), 
after mentioning that some writers, 'when 
they would be more satirical than ordinary, 
omit only the vowels of a great man's name, 
and fall most meroifully upon all the con- 
sonants,' adds that Tom Brown, * of facetious 
memory,' was the first to bring the practice 
into fashion. 

A collected edition of Brown's works in 
three volumes, with a character of the author 
by James Ihrake, M.D., was published in 
1707-8, 8vo. Vol. I. contains essays, poems, 
sat ires, and epigrams ; original letters ; trans- 
lations of Aristeenetus's letters, and of letters 
from Latin and French. Vol. II. is entirely 
occupied with ' Letters from the Dead to the 
Living' (which had been previously published 
in 1702). These are partly original and 
partly translated from the French. Brown 
wrote only a portion of the collection. The 
contents of vol. iii. are : ' Amusements Se- 
rious and Comical, calculated for the Me- 
ridian of London ' (separately published in 
1700) ; * Letters Serious and Comical ; ' 
* Pocket-book of Common Places ; * ' A Walk 
round London and Westminster ; ' * The Dis- 
pensary, a Faroe ; ' * The London and Lace- 
dsemonian Oracles.' The fourth edition, in 
four volumes 8vo, is dated 1719; a supple- 
mentary volume of ' Remains ' (incorporated 
in later editions) followed in 1721. The 
eighth and final edition was published in 

1760, 4 vols. 8vo. Two (unacted) comedies 
aro not included in the collected editions: 

1. 'Physic lies a-bleeding, or the Apothe- 
cary turned Doctor,' 1697, 4to. 2. 'The 
StAge-Beaux tossed in a Blanket, or Hypo- 
crisy ^la-mode,' 1704, 4to, a comedy in three 
acts, satirising Jeremy Collier. Among 
Brown's scattered writings are : 1. ' Lives of 
all the Princes of Oran^, from the French 
of Baron Mourier ; to which is added the Life 
of King William the Third,' 1693, 8vo. 

2. * Life of the famous Duke de Richelieu, 
from the French of Du Plessis,' 1696. 

3. 'France and Spain naturally Enemies, 
from the Spanish of C. Garoia.' 4. * Miscel- 
lanea Aulica ; or a Collection of State 
Treatises,' 1702, with a preface of ten pages 
bv Brown. 5. 'Short Dissertation about the 
l^ona in Caesar and Tacitus,' appended to 
Sacheverell's * Account of the Isle of Man,' 
1702, 12mo. 6. * Marriage Ceremonies as 
now used in all Parts of the World.' Written 
originally in Italian by Signor Gaya, third 
edition, 1704. 7. 'Justin's History of the 
World made English by Mr. T. Brown,' 
second edition, 1712, 12mo. Brown's name 
is found on the list of contributors to the 
variorum translations of Petronius (1708), 
Lucian (1711), and Scarron (1772). A col- 
lection of ' Beauties of Tom Brown,' with a 
preface by C. H. Wilson, and a coloured 
folding frontispiece by Thomas Rowlandson, 
was published in 1808, 8vo. 

[Memoir by James Drake, prefixed to Brown's 
Collected Works; Wood's Athena?, ed. Bliss, iv. 
662-4 ; Gibber's Lives of the Poets, vol. iii. ; 
Biographia Dramatica, ed. Stephen Joiies ; Scott's 
Swift, 2nd ed., ix. 375 ; Scott's Dryden, x. 102-3 ; 
Ebsworth's Bwgford Ballads, i. 88 ; Notes and 
Queries, 6th ser. i. 316, 337, ii. 158, 210. 228 ; 
Works.l A. H. B. 

BRpWN, THOMAS (1778-1820), meta- 
physician, was bom at the manse of Kilma- 
breck 9 Jan. 1778. His father, minister of 
Kilmabreck and Kirkdale, died eighteen 
montlis later, and his mother removed to 
Edinburgh. Thomas was a very precocious 
child. His biographer asserts, 'upon the 
most satisfactory evidence,' that when four 
years old he was found comparing the gospels 
to see in what respects the narratives dif- 
fered. In his seventh year he was sent to a 
school at Camberwell by a maternal uncle^ 
Captain Smith. Thence, in a year, he was 
moved to Chiswick, and afterwards to schools 
at Bromley and Kensington. On his re- 
moval from Chiswick, the other pupils drew 
up a round-robin asking for his return. A 
poem on Charles I, written at Chiswick, was 
inserted by one of the masters in a magazine. 





In 1792, on the death of his uncle, he re- 
turned to Edinburgh, and was much grieved 
by the loss of his books at sea. He entered 
tne university at Edinburgh, and studied 
logic under Dr. Finlayson. In 1793 he spent 
part, of the vacation at Liverpool. Here he 
made the acmiaintance of l)r. Currie, the 
biographer of Bums, who put into his hands 
the recently publislied first volume of Dugald 
Stewart's * Elements.' Next winter he at- 
tended Stewart's lectures, and attracted the 
professor's notice by submitting to him an 
acute crit icism. If, as Stewart held, memory 
depends upon voluntary attention, how, asked 
Brown, do we remember dreams ? The same 
objection had been ur^ed in a letter which 
Stewart had just received from Prevost of 
Geneva (175o-18l9), afterwards professor at 
Montauban. (Prevost's letter is given in 
Stewart's * Works,' ii. 491 . ) Darwin's * Zoo- 
nomia' was at this time attracting attention, 
and Brown wrote some remarks upon it, 
which, by Stewart's advice, he communicated 
to Darwin. A correspondence took place 
(C)ptol)cr 1796 to January 1797), in which 
Darwin showed some annoyance at the sharp 
treat mvni of his t hoories. The remarks were 

t)ut together by the boyish critic, and jjub- 
ished in 1798. They w»»re highly praised 
by the criticH in tlie literary circles of 
Edinburgli. Brown had become intimate 
witli young men of promise, lie joined the 
Literary Society in 1796, and a smaller so- 
cietv, fornu>d by Home of the members in 
179i"» which called itself the Academv of 
Phytic.'*, and includiHl Brougham, JeArey, 
Horner, Sydney Smith, Leyden, and others. 
It flourished for about thn»e years, and helped 
to bring tog(»ther the founders of the * Edin- 
burgh Koview.' Brown was one of the first 
reviewers. Ht» wrote an article upon Kant 
in the second number, which is at least a 
proof of courage, as it is founded entirely 
upon ^'iUer»^s French account of Kant. 
Somo editorial interfenmce with an article 
in tlu» third numln^r led him to withdraw 
I n)ni t \\v n» vi(»w. 1 le never afterwards wrote 
in a periodical. He In^an to study law in 
l7JV6,but iindingtliat it did not suit his health 
Ihvanie a medical student from 1798 to 1803. 
His thesis umm taking his degret\ entitled 
* IV Sonino,' is praised for the purity of the 
Latin* in which language, it is said, he could 
talk as fl\u»ntly as in English. 

In I J^) I he published p<H»ms in two volumes, 
and in the same year ttx^k part in a famous 
eontnuer^y. Tl»e claims of Leslie to the 
mathematical chair at Edinburgh had been 
tipjH>st»d on the gnnind that he had spoken 
favourably of llumeV th»»ory of causation. 
Brown undertcH>k to pro\e that llume*s 

theory did not lead to the sceptical conse- 
quences ascribed to it. He puolished * Ob- 
servations on the Nature and Tendency of 
the Doctrine of Mr. Hume concerning the 
I llelation of Cause and Effect ' in 1804 ; a 
second and enlarged edition of which ap- 
peared in 1806 ; and a third, called ' An In- 
quiry into the Relation of Cause and Effect,' 
in 1818. In 1806 Brown became a partner 
j of Dr. Gregory. In spite of fair professional 
prospects, his tastes were still philosophical. 
[ Attempts had been made in 1 / 99 to obtain 
his appointment to the chair of rhetoric, and 
in 1808 to the chair of logic. The tory and 
church interest was too strong for him. 
Dugald Stewart's health was now declininj^, 
ana he obtained the assistance of Brown in 
lecturing the moral philosophy class in the 
winter of 1808-9. In the next winter Brown 
acted for a longer time as Stewart's substi- 
tute. His lectures attracted the attendance 
of professors as well as students, and a com- 
mittee was formed upon Stewart's reappear- 
ance to congratulate him and express admi- 
ration for his assistant. In the following 
May (1810), after an earnest canvass by 
Stewart himself, and many letters from emi- 
nent men. Brown was elected by the town 
council as Stewart's colleague. He held this 
position for the rest of his life. His lectures 
were written at high pressure. He b^tm to 
write each on the evening before its deEvery, 
sat up late — several times all night in the 
first winter — and did not finish till the clock 
struck twelve, the hour of lecturing. Three 
volumes were thus wTitten in his first session, 
and the fourth in the second. He lived 
quietly with his mother and sisters, hospi- 
tably entertaining visitors to Edinburgh. 
His chief amusement was walking, and he 
had a passion for hill climbing. He also found 
time to compose a quantity of indifferent 
poetrj', which ne alone preferred to his philo- 
sophy. In 1814 he finished and published 
anonymously his ^Paradise of Coquettes,' 
begun six years before. In 1815 he published 
the * Wanderer in Norway,' an elaboration of 
some verses in his first volumes, suggested 
by Mary- AVollstonecraft's * Letters from 
>forwav.' In 1816 he published the 'War- 
fiend,' in 1817 the * Bower of Spring,' in 1818 
* Agrnes/ and in 1819 * Emily .^ A collected 
edition in 1820, in four volumes, includes 
these and a second edition of a poem called 
the * Renovation of India,' originally written 
for a college prize, and published when, a^r 
thriH' years, no award was made. He was 
much grieved by the death, in 1817, of his 
mother, to whom he had been meet tenderly 
attached. In 1819 he began to prepare a 
text-book of his lectures. He fell iU, and 




upon meeting his class broke down in ^ving 
a lecture (No. 36 in the collected edition), 
which always affected him. He never lec- 
tured a^in. His health was injured by 
worry about providing a substitute, and 
afterwards by severe weather. His physi- 
cians recommended a voyage to London. 
He died at Brompton on 2 A^ril 1820. He 
had left to his nriend and biographer. Dr. 
Welsh, the superintendence of the last sheets 
of his text-book, called the * Physiology of 
the Human Mind,' which was already in the 
press ; and his lectures were published under 
the care of John Stewart (who had under- 
taken to supply his place on his final break- 
down), and on Stewart's death of the llev. 
E. Milroy. 

Brown was a man of simple habits and 
strong domestic affections. He read all his 
works before publication to his mother and 
sisters. He was specially fond of animals ; 
he held that some of them had a moral sense 
and immortal souls, and meant to write a 
treatise on our duties to them. He was a 
patriotic Scotchman, and a strong liberal, 
and credited, though not accurately, with re- 
publicanism. Except in the period of first 
preparing his lectures, he conmied his hours 
•of composition to the morning, after break- 
fast, and the evening from seven till ten or 
eleven. His knowledge of modem languages 
was considerable, and his memory extraor- 
dinary ; he could remember twenty or thirty 
lines of French or Italian after a single read- 
ing. Brown's poetry, modelled chiefly upon 
Pope and Akenside, never made much im- 
pression. His lectures excited the utmost 
enthusiasm amongst the students ; and his 
fame lasted till the rise of a new school, cul- 
minating about 1830 to 1836. A 19th edi- 
tion of nis lectures appeared in 1851. The 
inquiry into the relation of cause and effect 
is one of the most vigorous statements of the 
doctrine first made prominent by Hume, and 
since maintained by the Mills. Like them. 
Brown reduces causation to invariable se- 
quence, and especially labours the point that 
*power' is a word expressive of nothing else. 
He denies the distinction between ' physical ' 
and ' efficient ' causes. He differs, nowever, 
firom Hume (upon whose writings he makes 
some interesting criticisms) in inferring that 
we have an intuitive conception, underlying 
all experience, that the same antecedents will 
produce the same consequences. This takes 
the place of Hume's * custom,' and enables 
Brown to avoid Hume's theological scepti- 
cism. He infers Qod as the cause of an 
orderly universe. The lectures, hurriedly 
written, are injured by the sentimental rhe- 
toric and frequent quotations firom Akenside, 

VOL. vn. 

by which they are overlaid and expanded. 
Tnis is due probably to haste and to the 
desire to catcli a youthful audience. They 
show, however, remarkable powers of psycho- 
logical analysis. The most valuable teach- 
ing is considered to be the exposition (lec- 
tures 22 to 27) of the part played by touch 
and the muscular sense in revealing an ex- 
ternal world. Professor Bain's writings upon 
the same topic partly embody Brown s theo- 
ries. Hamilton (Reid's Works, p. 868) ac- 
cuses Brown of borrowing in this direction 
from Condillac and De Tracy. His philo- 
sophy, as I)r. M^Cosh says, is a combination 
of Reid and Stewart with the French sen- 
sationalists. A peculiarity of Brown is, that 
he suppresses the will, as Reid had suppressed 
the feelings in the more generally accepted 
classification of intellect, will, and feeling. 
By the subordination of the will to desire, 
Hamilton (ib. p. 531 ) says that he virtually 
abolished all freedom, responsibility, and 
morality. Hamilton everywhere shows a 
strong dislike to Brown, whose influence was 
supplanted by his own. In an article in 
the * Edinburgh Review' (October 1830), re- 
printed in his * Dissertations,' he accuses 
brown of totally misunderstanding the his- 
tory of previous theories of perception, and 
of grossly misrepresenting Reid. Brown 
speaks with some severity of Reid, and 
Stewart had protested against this, and con- 
demned the general hastiness of Brown's 
work in a noXe to the third volume of his 
* Elements' (published in 1826) (Stewart's 
Works, iv. 377). He had been unconscious 
of his colleag^ie's sentiments till the publica- 
tion of the lectures in Welsh's *Life.' Hamil- 
ton's dislike is obvious, and his charges of 
plagiarism seem to be unfair as against lec- 
tures intended for learners, and published 
after the author's death, and without his ex- 
planations. Whatever Brown's originality, he 
was the last and a very vigorous representa- 
tive of the Scotch school, modified by French 
influence, but not affected by the German phi- 
losophy, which, under the influence of Hamil- 
ton and his followers, has since so deeply af- 
fected philosophical speculation in Scotland. 

[Welsh's Account of the Life and Writings, 
&c., 1825 (an abridgment is prefixed to the later 
editions of the lectures) ; M'Cosh's Scottish Phi- 
losophy, pp. 317-37.] L. S. 


(1798-1880), catholic bishop, was bom at 
Bath on 2 May 1798. His education began 
at a small protestant school in that city, 
while his reli^ous instruction was entrusted 
hy his catholic parents to the care of Ralph 
Ainsworth, then the priest in charge of tne 


Brown 34 Brown 

Bath mission. At Ainsworth's instance he j ward Tottenham. A friend of Brown's hav- 
ing formally challenged those gentlemen to 
a disputation^ six meetings were soon after- 

was sent in 1807 to Acton Bumell, near 
Shrewsbury, where the Benedictine monks 
had opened a college. There he remained 
for seven years, towards the end of which 
time he received the Benedictine habit, on 

wards arranged to take place in the college 
chapel at Downside. These meetings came 
off in 1834, and in 1836 appeared the 

19 April 1813. Early in 1814 he accompanied . ' Authentic Report of the Discussion which 
the community on their migration to their | took place in the Chapel of the Roman Ca- 
new home at Downside in Somersetshire, tholic College of Downside, near Bath. Sub- 
At the new college of St. Gregory's, Down- jects : the Rule of Faith and the Sacrifice of 
side. Brown remained in residence for more the Mass.' Soon afterwards, in the same 
than a quarter of a century. He was or- | year, was published ' Supplement to the 
dained to the priesthood on 7 April 1823 in Downside Discussion, by the Rev. T. J. 
London, and almost immediately appointed I Brown, D.D.' Brown had been elect^d^ 
professor of theology at Downside. That ' 18 July 1834, prior of Downside, and had 
office he held for upwards of seventeen years, received six days afterwards, 24 July, his cap 
Throughout that period be conducted the as doctor of divinity. Immediately after his 
dogmatic course invariably in Latin. As election to the pnorship he resumed with 
Bishop Hedley says, in his funeral sermon unabated energy nis t-eaching labours as pro- 
(p. 5), * Unwearying study, extreme pains in fessor of theology. In July 1840 the vicars 
collating author with author and passage apostolic in England were increased from 
with passage, and unfailing accuracy of | four to eight, Wales, until then included in 
memory — these, in his best days, were the the western district, being formed into a 
characteristics of his class lessons.' In 1829 j separate vicariate. Gregory XVI, who as 
he was sent to Rome as soctus with Fr. j Cardinal Cappellari had years before- then 
Richard Marsh, then president^eneral, to learned to appreciate his capacities, named 
conduct a most delicate case before the Ro- Brown at once the first bishop of the 
man Curia. Three years before this Brown Welsh district. He accepted the oignity at 
had published * A Letter to the Very Rev. last with profound reluctance. His episco- 
Archdeacon Daubeny, LL.D., exposing the pal consecration by Bishop Griffith took 
Misrepresentations of his Third Chapter on I place on 28 Oct. 1840, in St. John's Chapel, 
Transubstantiation,' 1826. On his return to Pierrepoint Place, Bath, the title assumed 
England, Brown attained a position of great | by him being Bishop of Apollonia in the 
eminence, both on the platform and in the ' Archdiocese of Thessalonica. The newly 
press. For five days together, in 1830, he, | created diocese embraced the twelve counties 
with five of his coreligiomsts, confronted three of Wales, with Herefordshire and Mon- 
members of the Protestant Reformation So- mouthshire. His vicariate was very exten- 
ciety in fhe riding school at Cheltenham, in sive and extremely impoverished. It in- 
the presence of four thousand people. The eluded within it only nineteen chapels, 
fifth day's controversy closed with a scene of Eleven of these belonging to Hereford and 
riotous confusion. Soon afterwards appeared | Monmouth, no more than eight in all apper- 
* Substance of the Arguments adopted hy the ; tained to the dozen Welsh counties. On the 
Roman CatholicAdvocates in the Recent Dis- j formation of the catholic hierarchy Brown 
cussion at Cheltenham on the Rule of Faith, I was translated, on 29 Sept. 1850, to the 
collected from Notes taken during the Discus- j newly constituted see of Newport and Me- 
sion by the Rev. T. J. Brown, o.T.P.,' 1830. ; nevia. His jurisdiction was thenceforth re- 
in 1833 a controversy sprang up between ! strict ed to the six coimties of South Wales, 
Brown and two protestant clergymen, the with the shires of Hereford and Monmouth. 
Rev. Messrs. Batchellor and Newnham. I Towards the close of that year he was drawn 
Brown's argument was published as * Catho- into the last of his more noteworthy theo- 
lic Truth vindicated against the Misrepre- ! logical discussions. It began on 3 Dec. 1850, 
sentations and Calumnies of " Popery tin- , in a correspondence which was not completed 
masked,"' 1833. Before the close of that until 13 Jan. 1852. Immediately upon its 
year Brown was appointed cathedral prior of conclusion it appeared as * A Controversy on 
Winchester. Early 'in 1834 he took part in ' the Infallibility of the Church of Rome and 
the controversy long afterwards memorable : the Doctrine of Article VI of the Church of 
as 'The Downside Discussion.' It arose, on England,between Bishop Brown and the Rev. 
10 Jan. 1834, at the Old Down inn, out of a Joseph Baylee, M.A., Principal of St. Aidan's 
meeting of the Protestant Reformation So- j College, Birkenhead,' 1852. Besides this 
ciety, at which the two principal speakers and the works already enumerated, Brown 
were the Rev. John Lyons and the Rev. £d- published ' Monita Confessariorumy' and in 




the ' Orthodox Journal ' very many articles 
and letters signed with his then well-known 
initials, STacne] T[heolo^8B] P[rofe8sorl In 
1858 he obtained permission from the holy see 
that his cathedral chapter should be formed ex- 
clusiTely of Benedictme monks. He thus suc- 
ceeded in reviving under the new hierarchy 
one of the most remarkable and distinctive 
features of the pre-reformation hierarchy of 
England. On 29 Sept. 1873 John Cuthbert 
Hedley was consecrated bishop auxiliary, and 
seven years later was his successor in the 
see of Newport and Menevia. Before the 
close of his life Brown was for many years 
the senior member of the English catholic 
episcopate. For forty ^ears together he was 
in a very literal and primitive sense a bishop 
in poverty. Rising all through his long life 
invariably at 5 A.X., he persistently tra- 
velled, preached, wrote, saved, and begged 
for his nock. And with such good effect did 
he spend himself in their interests that, in- 
stead of the nineteen chapels and nineteen 
priests he had found in his huge vicariate of 
the Welsh district, he left in his compara- 
tively much smaller diocese of Newport and 
Menevia fifty-eight churches and sixty-two 
priests. Brown died on 12 April 1880, 
shortly before the completion of his eighty- 
second year, at his resiaence in Bullin^iam, 

[SnoVs NocTology of the English Benedic- 
tines from 1600 to 1883, p. 174; Men of the 
Time, 10th ed., p. 163; Maziere Brady's Epi- 
scopal Succession, pp. 337, 354, 424-6 ; Oliver's 
Ck>uections illustrating the History of the Ca- 
tiiolie Religion, &c., pp. 262, 253 ; The Downside 
Review, No. 1, July 1880, Memoir, pp. 4-16; 
Annual Register for 1880, p. 160; Tablet,! 
17 April 1880, p. 498 ; Weekly Register, 17 April 
1880, pp. 241,246.] C. K. 

MAXIMILIAN vow (1705-1767), count of 
the holy Roman empire, baron de Camus 
and Mountanv, and field-marshal in the im- 

S^rialist armies, was son of Ulysses, baron 
rown, an Irish colonel of cavalry in the 
Austrian army ennobled for his militarv ser- 
vices by the emperor Charles V, ana was 
bom at Basle on 23 Oct. 1705. He entered 
the imperial service at an early age and dis- 
tinguished himself on several occasions. At 
the age of twenty-one he married the young 
Countess Marie Philippine von Martinez, 
daughter of G^rge Adam Martinez, who for 
a short time was imperial vicegerent in the 
kingdom of Naples. Brown's influential con- 
nections, as well as his personal merits, se- 
cured his rapid advancement. At twenty-nine 
he commanded an Austrian infantry regi- 
ment in Italy, and a few years later, on the 

accession of the empress Maria Theresa, he 
was advanced to the rank of field-marshal 
lieutenant and appointed to command in 
Silesia. In the campaigns in Italy in 1743-8 
he g^reatly distinguished himself, particularly 
at the battle of Piacenza, where he com- 
manded the Austrian left, and mainly con- 
tributed to the success of the day. When 
the Austrians moved southward the city of 
Genoa opened its gates to him, and he sub- 
sequently commanded the imperialist troops 
that crossed the Var and entered France, 
establishing their outposts a few miles from 
Toulon. His withdrawal from Genoa was 
considered a masterly operation. After the 
convention of Nizza in 1749 he returned to 
Vienna, and held commands in Transylvania 
and Bohemia. He became a field-marshal 
in 1763. At the outbreak of the seven years* 
war he was in Silesia, and commanded the 
Austrians at the battle of Lobositz. Be- 
lieving a dual command, as proposed by Maria 
Theresa, to be prejudicial to public interests, 
Brown offered to serve under the orders of 
Prince Charles of Lorraine, the empress's fa- 
vourite, in Bohemia, and there, while head- 
ing a bayonet-charge of grenadiers on the 
Prussian line before the walls of Prague, on 
6 May 1757, was struck by a cannon-shot, 
which shattered one of his legs. He was 
carried from the field, and died of his wound 
at Prague on 26 June following, leaving be- 
hind mm the reputation of a consummate 
general and an able and successful nego- 
tiator. His biography was published in Ger- 
man and in French in 1757. 

[Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (Leipzig, 
1876), iii. 369-73, the particulars in which are 
taken from Zuverlassige Lebonsbeschreibung von 
U. M. Count von Brown (Leipzig and Frankfort, 
1767) ; Baron O'Cahill's Geschichte der grossten 
Heerfdhrer der neueren Zeit (Rtutadt, 1785), ii. 
264-316. English renders will find compendioas 
notices of Count Brown's military operations in 
Sir E. Gust's Annals of the Wars of t he Eighteenth 
Century (London, 1860-1); Carlyle's Frederick 
the Great.] H. M. C. 

BROWN, WILLIAM (rf. 1814), rear- 
admiral, of an old Leicestershire family, was 
made a lieutenant in the navy in 1788, and 
a commander in 1792, when he came home 
from the Mediterranean in command of the 
Zebra sloop. After sixteen months' unevent- 
ful service on the home station, in command 
of the Kingfisher and Fly sloops, he was 
advanced to post rank on 29 Oct. 1793. In 

1794 he commanded the Venus frigate in the 
Channel fleet under Lord Howe, and in her 
was present at the action of 1 June, but 
without any opportunity of distinction. In 

1795 he commanded the Alcmdne, and, 


Brown 36 Brown 

though in feehle health, continued in her on 
the home station and the coast of Portugal 
till Novemher 1797, when he was discharged 

to sick quarters at Lisbon. On his recovery, 
he was in March 1798 appoint^ by Lord St. 

BROWN, WILLIAM (1777-1857), ad- 
miral in the na^y of Buenos Ayres, a native 
of Ireland, accompanied his family to Ame- 
rica in 1786, and, Deing there left destitute 
by the death of his father, obtained employ- 
Vincent to the Defence, of 74 ^uns, and on | ment as cabin-boy on board a merchant ship, 
her being paid off in the followmg January In 1796 he was pressed into an English 
he commissioned the Santa Dorothea. man-of-war, and served for several years in 

In 1805 Brown commanded the Ajax, the navy. Afterwards, having obtained the 
of 74 guns, and in her was present in the | command of an English merchant ship, he 
action off Cape Finisterre on 22 July ; but came, in 1812, to Buenos Ayres, where he 

by bearing up at the critical moment of 
the attack, in order to communicate with 
the admiral, during the prevalence of a fog, 

settled with his family. In 1814 he ac- 
cepted a naval command in the service of 
the republic. He engaged a Spanish flo- 

he weakened the English van, and must be j tilla at the mouth of the Uru^ruay, and he 
considered as to some extent a cause of the fought another and more decisive action off 

unsatisfactory result of the action (James, 
Naval History^ 1860, iii. 361). He after- 

Monte Video, capturing four of the Spanish 
vessels and dispersing the rest. He received 

wards, at the request of Sir Robert Calder, the title of admu-al, and fitted out a privateer, 
left the Ajax in command of the first lieu- \ in which he cruised against the Spaniards in 
tenant, and returned to England in order to the Pacific. His ship was visited by an Eng- 
ffive evidence at Calder*s court-martial [see | lish man-of-war, sent to Antigua, and there 
Ualdeb, Sib Hobebt]. He was thus absent condemned, but was afterwards restored on 
from Trafalgar, where the Ajax was com- ' appeal to the home government. Brown 
manded by Lieutenant Pilfold. Brown was lived in retirement at Buenos Ayres till 
afterwards for some time commissioner of ■ December 1825, when Brazil declared war 
the dockyards at Malta and at Sheemess. against the republic and blockaded the River 
He attained his flag rank in 1812, and in Hate. On 4 Feb. 1826 Brown attacked the 
June 1813 was appointed commander-in- enemy of more than four times his material 
chief at Jamaica, where he died, 20 Sept. force, and drove them eight leagues down 
1814, after an illness of five days. He mar- the coast. In February 1827 Brown engaged 
ried a daughter of Mr. John Travers, a and almost totally destroyed a squadron of 
director of tlie East India Company, by nineteen small vessels at the mouth of the 
whom he had several children. , Uruguay. On 9 April he put to sea with a 

rO'Byme's Nav. Biog. Diet, under * Charles ' f'^ "^"gs, and was at once brought to action 
Foreman Brown * and * AViUiam CheselJen oj a superior force of the enemy. Some of 
Browne;' Offieial Correspondence in the Public the brigs seem to have got back without 
Record Office.] J. K. L. I much loss : Brown, though badly wounded, 

Ti Tk »- succeeded in running one ashore and setting 

BROWN, WILLIAM, D.D. (1 i 66- fire to her ; the other was reduced to a wreck 
1835), historical writer, was bom in 176(3. and captured. The loss obliged the republic 
He was licensed by the presbytery of Stir- ' to enter on negotiations which resulted in a 

ster for forty-three vears. In 1 1 97 he mamed up the blockade of Monte Video, notwith- 

Margaret Moffat, by whom he had three standing an order from the English commo- 

children. He received the degree of D.D. dore to throw up his command. In 1S45, 

from the university of Aberdeen m 1810, and ^hen the English and French squadrons 

died on 21 Sept. 1835. He was the author of ^ere directed to intervene and restore peace 

the * Antiquities of the Jews* (L>nd ed. 1826, to the river, their first step waa to take pos- 

2 vols.\ and ^^T^^te the * Account of the Pa- session of Brown's ships, thus reducing him 

rish of Eskdalemuir • in the * Statistical Ac- tocompulsorv inactivity. He had no further 

ct^unt of Scotland.' His work on the Jews service, but passed the rest of his life on his 

enters with great detail into their customs small estate m the neighbourhood of Buenos 

and rt^liffious ceremonials, but barely touches Avres. He died on 3 May 1867. A power- 

upon their pohtical history or ethnical ful ironclad, named the Almirante Brown, 

peculiarities. still keeps his memory living in the navy of 

[Hew Scott s Fasti Ecdeaiie Scoticanie, vol. i. the Argentine republfc. 

part ii. 6W; Gent. Mag. new eeriee, iv. 554; [Mulhairs English in Soath America, p. 144 
Chambers's Historical Newspaper.] N. G. | (with a portrait) ; Drake's Diet of American 




Biography ; Memoirs of Greneral Miller (1829) ; 
Armitage's History of Brazil, vol. i. ; Chevalier 
de Saiiit-Roberts*8 Le G6n6ral Roeas et la Ques- 
tion de la Plata (1848, 8to), p. 41 ; Mallalieu's 
Buenos Ayres, Monte Video, and Affiiirs in the 
River Plate (1844, 8vo), p. 27.] J. K. L. 

BROWN, Sib WILLIAM (1784- 
1864), benefactor to Liverpool, eldest son of j 
Alexander Brown of Ballymena, county An- | 
trim, and Grace, daughter of John Davison . 
of Drumnasole, was oom at Ballymena on 
30 May 1784. At twelve years of age he was , 
placed under the care of the Rev. J. Bradley 
at Oatterick, Yorkshire, whence in 1800 he 
returned to Ireland. Soon afterwards he 
sailed with his father and mother for the 
United States of America, and at Baltimore, 
where his father continued the linen trade in 
which he had been engaged in Ireland, re- 
ceived in the counting-nouse his commercial 
education. In a few years the house at Bal- 
timore became the firm of Alexander Brown 
& Sons, consisting of the father and his sons, 
William, John, (Jeorge, and James. In 1809 
William returned to the United Kingdom, 
established a branch of the firm in Liverpool, 
and they shortly afterwards abandoned the 
exclusive linen business and became general 
merchants. The transactions of the firm soon 
extended so as to req^uire further branches. 
James established himself at New York 
and John at Philadelphia, and on the death 
of their father the business, then the most 
extensive in the American trade, was con- 
tinued by the four brothers, George remain- 
ing in Baltimore. The disastrous aspect of 
i^irs in 1839 induced the brothers George 
and John, who had by this time realised 
ample fortunes, to retire from the firm, 
leaving William the eldest and James the 
youngest to continue the concern. They 
now became bankers in the sense of conduct- 
ing transmissions of money on public account 
between the two hemispheres, and in this 
pursuit and the business of merchants they 
acquired immense wealth. In 1825 William 
took an active part in the agitation for the 
reform in the management of the Liver- 

E)ol docks. He was elected an alderman of 
iverpool in 1831, and held that office imtil 
1 888. He was the unsuccessful Anti-Comlaw 
League candidate for South Lancashire in 
1844. He was, however, returned in 1846, and 
continued to represent South Lancashire until 
23 April 1869. He was the founder of the 
firm of Brown, Shipley, & Co., Liverpool and 
London merchants, and at one time was the 
chairman of the Atlantic Telegraph Company. 
His name is probably best known by the mu- 
iiifioent|nft which he bestowed on his adopted 
town. He erected the Free Public Library 

and Derby Museimi at Liverpool, which was 
opened on 8 Oct. 1860, at a cost to himself of 
40,000/., the corporation providing the site and 
foundation and furnishing the building. At 
the inauguration of the volunteer movement 
in 1859 he raised and equipped at his own ex- 

?en8e a corps of artillery, which ranked as the 
8t brigade of Lancashire artillery volun- 
teers. He was created a baronet on 24 Jan. 

1863, and in the same year he served as sheriff 
for the county of Lancashire. He did not, 
however, live long to enjoy his honours, as he 
died at Richmond Hill, Liverpool, on 3 March 

1864. He was always an advocate of free 
trade, and particularly favoured the idea of a 
decimal currency. Oh the proving of his will 
on 21 May 1864 the personalty was sworn 
under 900,000/. 

He married, on 1 Jan. 1810, Sarah, daugh- 
ter of Andrew Gibson of Ballymena; she 
died on 5 Marcli 1858. The eldest son, Alex- 
ander Brown, having died on 8 Oct. 1849, 
the grandson, Lieutenant-colonel William 
Richmond Brown, succeeded to the baronetcy 
in 1864. Sir W. Brown was the author of 
a pamphlet entitled * Decimal Coinage. A 
Letter from W. Brown, Esq., M.P., to t rancis 
Shaud, Esq., Chairman of the Liverpool 
Chamber oi Commerce,* 1854. 

[Gent. Mag. xvi. 667-8 (1864) ; Illustrated 
London News, xix. 70 (1851), with portrait; 
H. K. Fox Bourne's English Merchants (1866)» 
ii. 299-301, 306-20.] G. C. B. 

(1755-1830), theological writer, was bom at 
Utrecht in Ilolland, where his father was 
minister of the English church, 7 Jan. 1756. 
His father having been appointed professor 
of ecclesiastical history at St. Andrews, 
Scotland, the son studied at the university ; 
but afterwards he proceeded to Utrecht, 
where, after completing his theological 
studies, he was in 1778 ordained minister of 
the English church. He obtained in 1783 
the Stolpian prize at Leyden for an essay on 
the origm of evil, and various prizes from the 
Teylerian Society at Haarlem, the subject of 
one being ^ On the natural Equality of Man.' 
In 1784 the university of St. Andrews con- 
ferred on him the degree of D.D. In 1788 he 
was appointed professor of moral philosophy 
and ecclesiastical history at Utrecht, and two 
years after he became rector of the university, 
hereafter there was added to his duties the 
professorship of the law of nature. 

Driven from Holland in 1796 by the 
French invasion, Bro^vn with his wife and 
five children crossed the Channel in mid 
winter in an open boat, and after a stormy 
passage landed at London. The magistrates 




of Aberdeen appointed him to the chair of 
divinity in Marischal CoUe^ on the resigna- 
tion of Dr. George Campbell^ and in 17SN3 he 
also succeeded Campbell as principal of the 

lirown soon became a conspicuous and 
influential member of the general assembly, 
sympathising mainly with the reforming 
party in the church. lie made several 
contributions to literature after his arrival 
in Scotland, the most important being ' An 
Essay on the Existence of a Supreme Creator/ 
written in response to the oner of valuable 
prizes by the trustees of the late Mr. Burnett 
of Dens, Aberdeen, 2 vols. 8vo, 1816. Bro wn*s 
essay obtained the first prize, amounting to 
1,250/., the second being awarded to the liev. 
John Bird Sumner, aiterwards archbishop 
of Canterbury. Another elaborate work 
was entitled * A Comparative View of Chris- 
tianity, and of the ether forms of religion 
which have existed, and still exist, in the 
world, particularly with regard to their moral 
tendency,* 2 vols. 8vo, 1826. He died 11 May 

* Brown's works were written from the 
point of view of the time, and were marked 
Dy considerable ability ; but the standpoint 
01 discussion has altered so completely that 
now they have little more than an antiquarian 

[Catalogue of the Advocates' Library, Edin- 
burgh ; How Scott's Fo^ti, iii. 475 ; R. Cham- 
bers's Eminent f^cotsmen.] W. G. B. 


[See lloBsoN.] 

BROWNE. [See also Biioux and 

miniature painter, engraver, and printseller, 
who livod in tlu» reign of Charles II, painted 
the portrait of that monarch and that of the 
Prince of ( )range. In 1675 he published * Ars 
Pictoria, or an Academy treating of Drawing, 
Painting, Limning, and Etching,' foL, Lon- 
<lon. The designs art* after foreign artists, 
and chiefly copitnl from l^loemart's drawMng- 
l)o()k. Mr. J. Chaloner Smith, in his * Cata- 
logue of Hritish ^fezzotint Portraits,' enu- 
nieratrs torty-four plates after A. van Dyck 
and Sir Pot or Lely, which were published 
by Hrowno 'at the blew balcony in Little 
Queen Stri'et,' but do not In'ar any engniver's 
nnnie. It has he(»n conjeoturtHl, but on in- 
milHeient grounds, that these may bethe work 
of Hrownn hiniself. 

1 U<Mlj(nivr'M Dictiimary of Artists, 1878.] 


BROWNE, Sir ANTHONY (rf. 1648), 
politician, only son of Sir Anthony Browne, 
standard-bearer of England and constable 
of Calais, and of his wile Lady Lucy Nevill, 
daughter and coheiress of Jolm Nevill, mar^ 
quis Montacute, and niece of Richard, earl of 
Warwick, was knighted in 1623 after the suc- 
cessful siege of Morlaix. In 1 624 he was made 
esquire of the body to Kin^ Henry VUI, and 
from that time until the death of Henry he 
became more and more the friend of his sove- 
reign. In 1626 he was created lieutenant 
of the Isle of Man during the minority of 
Edward, earl of Derby. In 1628, and again 
in 1533, Browne was sent into France; on 
the first occasion to invest Francis I with 
the order of the Garter, and on the second to 
attend that king to Nice for the conference 
with the pope respecting the divorce of 
Henry VIII and Catherine of Arragon. In 
1539 Browne was made master of the horse, 
and in 1540 he was created a knight of the 

Battle Abbey was granted to Browne in 
1538 ; he occupied the abbot's lodging, and 
razed to the ground the church, the cloisters, 
and the chapter-house. At the same time 
he received tne priory of St. Maiy Overy in 
Southwark, and the house which he built 
there was for generations the London re- 
sidence of his descendants the Viscounts 
Montague. The manors of Godstow, of 
Send m Sussex, and of Brede, which in- 
cluded a considerable part of the town of 
Hastings, were also granted to Browne; and 
in 1543, on the death of his half-brother, Sir 
William Fitzwilliam, K.G., earl of South- 
ampton, he inherited the Cistercian abbey 
of Waverley, the monasteries of Bayham 
near Lamberhurst and of Calceto near 
Arundel, the priory of Easeboume, and the 
estate of Cowdray, both close to Midhurst. 
Part of the magnificent mansion of Cow- 
dray had already been built by the Earl of 
Southampton, but much was added to it by 

In 1540 Browne was sent to the court ot 
John of Cleves to act as proxy at the mar- 
riage of Henry VIII with Anne of Cleves. 
In 1543 he accompanied the Duke of Norfolk 
in an expedition against the Scots, and in 
the following vear, as master of the horse, 
he attended fienry VIII at the siege of 
Boulogne. In 1545 he was made justice 
in eyre of all the king's forests north of the 
Trent, and in the same year he was consti- 
tuted standard-bearer to Henry VIII as his 
father had been to Henry VH. During the 
last illness of Henry VIH Browne, with 
* good courage and conscience,' undertook to 
tell the king of his approaching end. Henry 




appointed him ^niardian to Prince Edward 
and to Princess Elizabeth, made him one of 
his executors, and left him a legacy of 300/. 
On the king's death Browne went to Hert- 
ford in order to tell the news to the young 
prince; and when Edward VI made his 
public entry into London, Browne, as master 
of the horse, rode next to him. But Browne 
survived Henry VIII only one year. On 
6 May 1548 he died at a house which he 
had built at Byfleet in Surrey. He was 
buried with great pomp at Battle, under a 
splendid altar^tomb which he had himself 

Browne was twice married. His first 
wife, whose effigy lies on the tomb at 
Battle beside his own, was Alys, daughter 
of Sir John Gage, E.G., constable of the 
Tower. By her he had seven sons and three 
daughters; the eldest son, Anthony, suc- 
ceeded to his father's estates, and was created 
in 1554 Viscount Montage. Browne's se- 
cond wife was Lady Elizabeth Fitzgerald, 
daughter of Gerald, ninth earl of Ejldare, 
and better known as Hhe fair Geraldine.' 
At the time of this marriage Browne was 
sixty, and the bride only fifteen years of age. 
Her two sons died in infancy. After tne 
death of Browne his young widow married 
Sir Edward Clinton, first earl of Lincoln, 
and was buried with him in St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor. 

, [Collins 8 Peerage ; Baronagium Genealogi- 
earn, 1732; Sussex Archsological Collections; 
DaUawa/s History of Sussex.] J. A. E. R. 

BROWNE, ANTHONY (1510 P-15C7), 
judge, son of Sir Wistan Browne of Abbes- 
roding and Lan^nhoo in Essex, knight, and 
Elizabeth, daughter of William Mordaunt 
of Turvey in Bedfordshire, was bom in Essex 
about 1510 and studied at Oxford, but left 
the university without taking any degree 
and entered at the Middle Temple, where he 
was appointed reader in the autumn of 1553, 
but did not read until Lent of the following 
year. In 1553 (28 June) he purchased of 
the Lady Anne of Cleves the reversion of 
the manor of Costedhall near Brentwood 
in Essex, which had formerly belonged to 
Thomas Cromwell. Being one of the mag- 
nates of Essex, he was commissioned with 
Lord Kich and others in 1554 to enforce the 
Statute of Heretics (2 & 3 Ph. & M. c. 0) 
against the puritans in that part of the 
country. He would seem to have been a 
person of no fixed religious opinions, at least 
if the evidence of Watts, a protestant, burned 
at Chelmsford in 1555, is to be credited. The 
story which is told both by Foxe and Strype 
ig to the effect that Watts being asked by 

Browne whence he got his religious views, 
replied * Even of you, sir ; you tau^t it me, 
and none more than you. For in King Ed- 
ward's days in open sessions you spoke against 
this religion now used — no preacher more. 
You then said the mass was abominable and 
all their trumpery besides, wishing and ear- 
nestly exhorting that none should believe 
therein, and that our belief should be only 
in Christ ; and you then said that whosoever 
should bring in any strange nation to rule 
here it were treason and not to be suffered.' 
The same year Browne was active in bringing 
one William Hunter to the stake at Brent- 
wood ; and in the following year he received 
the thanks of the privy council ' for his dili- 
gent proceedings against ' one George Eagles, 
alias Trudge-over-the-world, whom he had 
executed as a traitor, and was authorised * to 
distribute his head and quarters according to 
his and his collea^es' former determination, 
and to proceed with his accomplices accord- 
ing to tne qualities of their offences.' This 
Eagles was a tailor and itinerant preacher, 
who was convicted of treason for holding 
religious meetings, and hanged, drawn, and 
quartered. The earliest mention of Browne 
in the reports is under date Michaelmas term 
1554, when he argued an important case in 
the common pleas. In 1555 (16 Oct. J he 
took the degrees of serjeant-at-law and King 
and queen's Serjeant together. In 1558 
(5 Oct.) he was appointed chief justice of 
the common bench, and at once had an op- 
portunity of showing that he was capable of 
maintaining the prerogatives of that office 
with due tenacity. The office of exigenter 
of London and other counties having become 
vacant during the lifetime of Browne's pre- 
decessor, Sir K. Brooke, the queen, by letters 
patent of the same date as Browne's appoint- 
ment, granted the office to a noininee of her 
own, one Coleshill. Browne refusing to ad- 
mit Coleshill, and admitting his own nephew 
Scro^gs, Elizabeth (who had acceded in the 
intenni) in Michaelmas term 1559 directed 
the lord-keeper, Nicholas Bacon, to examine 
Coleshill's case. In the result the judges of 
the queen's bench were assembled, and unani- 
mously decided that the action of Mary in 
granting the office was illegal, the right to 
do so being an integral part of the prerog^a- 
tive of the chief justice, and that, therefore, 
the title of Coleshill was null and void. 
Browne's patent had at first been renewed 
on Elizabeth's accession, but in consequence 
of his energetic conduct in enforcing the 
laws against heresy it was deemed advisable 
to degrade him, and accordingly (22 Jan.) 
Dyer was made chief justice and Browne re- 
duced to the level of a puisne judge. In 

Browne 4 

1564 it is said tliat the queen ofTered the 
office of clerk of Ihe hanaper to Browne, and 
that be refused it. In 1600 he wus knighted i 
by the queen at the Parliament House. He 
died on 16 Afay 1667 at his house in Essex. 
His wife, Jonn, only daughter of W.Faring- 
ton, died inthesameyeor, Browneisoreditwl 
bv Doleman with having furnished Mon^n 
l^ilipps with the legal authorities cited in 
his treatise in support of the title of the 
Queen of Scots to the succession to the Eng- 
lish throne, of which the bisliop of Ross 
(John Leslie) made considerable use in his 
work on the same subject. On the strength 
of this somewhat doubtful connection with 
literature, Wood iiccorded him a niche in 
the ' Alliens Oxonienses.' Plowden speaks 
in very high terms of his legal learning and 
eloquence, quoting some barbarous elegiacs 
to the like effect. 

Esse*, i. 1 18, 120 ; foss'a Live-s of the Judges ; 
Strype's Memorials (fol.), ii. {pt. ii.) 509, iii. 
(pt. 1.) 51, 198, 265, 340, {pt. ii.) 40O; Namv- 
tiTM of the BeformatioD (Csniden Socioty), 212. 
237; Faia's Martyrs (ed. 169*), iii. 157-9, 223, 

porlB, 176a; Plowden 's Bsports. 248, 356,378.] 

J. 1 


BROWNE, ANTHONY, first Viscount 
MoHTiaUB (ir)26-lo9i), was the eldest son of 
Sir Anthony Bnra-tie (d, 1548) [q. v.] and 
Alys his wife, daughter of Sir John Gage. He 
succeeded his father in 1548, inheriting with 
Otherpropertylheestatesof Battle Abbey and 
Cowdray in Sussex. Like his father he was a 
Btannch Itoman catliolic.yet his loyalty to the 
crown was above suspicion, and he enjoyed the 
confidenct^ and fovour alike of Edward VI, 
Mary,and Elizabeth. He wan knighted (with 
forty otiier gentlemen) at the coronation of 
K(l ward VI, and although he was sent to the 
Fleet in 1651 for hearing mass his imprison- 
ment did not last long, v>t in I66S he eutei^ 
tuined the king in sumptuous style at Cow- 
dray House. Ill the following year his wife, 
Ididy Jane, daughter of Robert liatclifF, earl 
(if Sussex, died in giving birth to a son. He 
aflerwards married Magdalen, a daughter of 
William, lord Dacre of Graystock and Gyles- 
land, and by tier had five sons anil three 
•laughters. In 1664, on the occasion of .Mar}-'s 
marriage with Philipof^pain, he was created 
a viscount, and chose the title of Montague, 
probably because his grandmother. Lady Lucy, 
hadbeen daughter and coheiress of JohnNeviU, 
marquis Mont«cuIe. In the same year he was 
mode master of the horse, and was sent to 
Rome on an embassy with Thirlby, bishop of 

3 Browne 

Ely, and Sir Edward Come (the three am- 
bassadors representing the three estates of the 
realm), to treat with the pope concerning the 
reconciliation of the church of England to the 
papal see. In 1555 he was made a member 
of the privy council and a knight of the Gartor, 
and in 1557 he acted aa lieutenant-general of 
the English forces at thesiege of St. Quentin 
in Ficardy. 

On the accession of Elizabeth, Montague 
lost his seat in the privy council, and he 
boldly expressed his dissent in the House 
of Lords from the Acts of Supremacy and 
Uniformity. Nevertheless he was employed 
two years afterwards, in 1661, on a special 
mission to the court of Spain, as one whom 
the queen ' highly esteemed for his great pru- 
dence and wisdom, though earnestly devoted 
to the Komish religion.' In 1662 he made a 
forcible and courageous speech in the House 
of Lords against the act entitled ' for the as- 
surance of the queen's roval power over all 
estates and subjects within her dominions,' 
by which all persons were bound to take the 
oath of supremacj' if required to do so by a 
bishop or by commissioners, incurring the 
penalties of pnemunire for refusing to take 
It, and of hi^ treason if the refusal was per- 
sisted in, Montagueopposed the measure, not 
only on the ground that the queen's Koman 
catholic subjects were peaceably and loyally 
disposed, but also aa being in itself ' a thing 
unjust and repugnant, to the natural liberty 
of men's understanding ... for what man is 
there so without courage and stomach, or void 
of all honour, that ci 



f, forfeit the favour rf 
ne of the forty-seven 
1 the trial of Mary 

Queen of Scots in 1587, and in 1588, when the 

Jueen reviewed her army at Tilbury Fort, 
lontague was the first to appear on the 
ground, leadinga troop of two hundred horse- 
men, and accompanied by his son and grand- 
son. Three years after the defeat of the 
Spanish Armada in August 1691 the queen 
paid a visit to Cowdray, where she was most 
magnificently entertained for nearly a week. 
In October of the following year Montiague 
died, and was buried in Midhurst Church. 
A splendid table tomb of marble and alabas- 
ter, surmounted by a kneeling figure of him- 
self and recumbent effigies of his two wives, 

been removed to Easeboume Church, close to 
the entrance of Cowdray Park. 

[BnniBt'B History of the Refarmation (Pocork's 
edition), Tots. ii. iii. and t. ; Hallam'a Constitn- 
tianal Hist.!. 116,117, 163; NichoU'*] 

Browne 41 Browne 

of Ooeen Elizabeth, vol. iii. ; Mrs. Ronndell*8 to 1795, from 1797 to 1799, and from 1801 

History of Cowdray, ch. iv.] W. R. W. S. to 1805). 

Browne was made king's counsel in 1795, 

BROWNE, ARTHUR (1766 P-1805), an became irrime serjeant in 1802, and in 1808 
Irish lawyer, bom about 1766, was the son was admitted a bencher of the Society of the 
of Marmaduke Browne, rector of Trinity King's Inns, Dublin. Browne was the last 
Church, NewDort, Rhode Island, who in 1764 to hold the office of prime serjeant. He 
was appointea one of the original fellows of died on Saturday morning, 8 June 1805, in 
Rhode Island College, known from 1804 as Clare Street, Dublin. He was twice married,. 
Brown University. His grandfather, the and had by his first wife a daughter, and a 
Rev. Arthur Browne, bom at Drogheda 1699, family by his second wife, who, with five 
was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, be- children, survived him. 
cominff B.A. 1726 and M.A. 1729. In 1729 When a college corps of yeomanry was 
he emigrated, at Berkeley's persuasion, to formed on the appearance of the French in 
Rhode Island, and was for six years the Bantry Bav in December 1796, Browne was 
minister of King's Chapel, Providence, and in unanimously elected to the command. In 
1736 he became episcopal minister at Ports- 1787 he defended the church of Ireland in 
mouth, New Hampshire, and died 10 June spite of much abuse, and was a conscientious 
1773. Arthur Browne, the grandson, was supporter of the union. Browne published, 
educated at a school established in Newport in imitation of Montaigne, two volumes of 
by Dr. Berkeley. His father died from the 'Miscellaneous Sketches, or Hints for Essays,' 
privations of the voyage almost immediately 8vo, London, 1798, the first of which was in- 
after his return to Rnode Island from Ireland, scribed * to his daughter, M. T. B. ; ' the second 
w^hither he had repaired in order to enter * to the memory of Marianne,' his first wife. 
bis son at Trinity College, Dublin. Arthur Browne also published, as a study in fancy 
Browne had previously been entered at Har- and philologj', * Hussen O Dil. lieauty and 

ceeded M. A. 1779, and was called to the of Limerick have been violated ? ' 8vo, Dub- 
bar of Ireland. He graduated LL.B. (1780) lin, 1788, a defence of the legislature against 
and LL.D. (1784), and in 1784 became an the calumnies with which it had been as- 
advocate in the courts of delegates, preroga- sailed during the session preceding its pub- 
tive, admiralty, and consistory, and for a long lication. 

time held the vicar-generalship of the diocese [Dublin University Calendar, 1833 ; Catalogue 

of Kildare. He served as junior proctor of of Dublin Graduates, 1869 ; Smyth's Chronicle 

the university in 1784, and as senior proctor of the Law Officers of Ireland, 1839 ; Members of 

— having become a senior fellow in 1795 — Parliament: Parliaments of Ireland, 1569-1800, 

from 1801 to the time of his death. In 1783 1877; Records of the State of Rhode Island, 

he was returned to the Irish House of Com- 1866-66; Faulkner's Dublin Journal, 11 and 

mons as member for the university of Dublin, J3 June 1805 ; Walker's Hibernian Ma^ne, 

which he continued to represent inthreepar- October 1805; Monthly Antholo^. 1806 ; Ripley 

liaments until 1800. Li 1785 Browne became ??f v?T p r!!^"" Cyclopaedia, 1873-78 ; 

AMM^^AAvo ujav M. xv^. M^^±»^^^x^J ^ ^s^ « Duykinck^s Cyclopaedia of American Literature, 

regius professor of civil and canon laws, and jg« i j r A H G 

afterwards published ' A Compendious View 

of the CivU Law/ &c. (1798), and / A Com- BROWNE, DAVID (Jl. 1638), a learned 

pendious View of the Ecclesiastical Law, Scotchman, is known only by indications in 

being the Substance of a Course of Lectures his curious books on calligraphy. His first 

read in the University of Dublin/ &c., 8vo, work was 'The New Invention, intituled Cal- 

Dublin, 1799, &c. A second edition, * with ligranhia or the Art of Fair Writing . . . by 

great additions,' was published as * A Com- His Majesties Scribe, Master David Browne. 

Dendious View of the Ecclesiastical Law of Sainct Andrewes, 1622,' 12mo. It gives a copy 

Ireland/ &c., 8vo, Dublin, 1803 ; and a ' first of King James's letter panting the author 

American edition from the second London < the only licence and priviledge . . . under 

edition, with great additions,' waspublished paine of 1000 pounds monie to be paid bv the 

as ' A Conipendious View of the Civil Law, contraveners. It is dedicated to the Ifing, 

and of the Law of the Admiralty,' &c., 2 vols, whose ' scribe ' he calls himself. Its 270 pages 

8vo, New York, 1840. In aadition to his comprise ar^ments and instructions full of 

chair of law Browne thrice held the re^us heavy leammg, wise saws, puerile illustra- 

profeflaorahip of Ghreek at Dublin (from 1792 tions, and the most common matters having 




reference to writing. King James, when at 
Holyrood House, appears to have seen and ap- 
proved of his wonderful exercises, illustrated 
by certain * rare practices of a disciple,' a child 
only nine years old. His book gives spaces 
here and there to be filled up by his clerks for 
the various pupils or purchasers, but existing 
copies are witnout these necessair illustra- 
tions of the art. His second wort, entitled 
' The Introduction to the true understanding 
of the whole arte of expedition in teaching 
to write . . . Anno Dom. 1638,* 8vo, is more 
extraordinary than the other, as on the title- 
page he claims to teach his art in six hours, 
parades his own excellence beyond all others, 
and asserts that ' a Scotishman is more in- 
genious than one of another nation ; * yet the 
book itself has little to do with calligraphy, 
and teaches nothing. There is one plate at 
the end of the book, a specimen of * The new, 
swift, current, or speedy Italian \\T:itting,' 
very inferior in style and execution to the 
handiwork of other penmen of the century. 
At the time this book was published the 
author taught his art. at * the Cat and Fiddle 
in Meet Street,' where * Mary Stewart and 
her daughters also instructed young, noble, 
and gentlewomen in good manners,languages,' 
&c., Dy his direction. He afterwards removed 
to a country-house at Kemmington («c),near 
the Newington Butts. The dates of his birth 
and death are not known. 

[Browne's Works ; Massey's Origin of Letters.] 

J. W.-G. 

BROWNE, ED WARD (1 644-1708), phy- 
sician, was the eldest son of Sir Thomas 
Rrowne of Norwich [q. v.], and was born in 
that city in 1644. He was educated at the 
Norwich grammar school and at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge. He graduated M.B. at Cam- 
bridge 1663, and then returned to Norwich. 
A journal oif this period of his life is extant, 
and gives an amusing picture of his diversions 
and occupations, and of life in Norvv'ich. 
Browne often went to dances at the duke's 
palace, admired the gems preserved there, 
and learnt to play ombre from the duke's 
brother. He dissected nearly every dav, 
sometimes a dog, sometimes a monkey, a call* s 
leg, a turkey's heart. He studied botany, 
read medicine and literature and theology 
in his father's library, and saw at least one 
patient. * 16 Feb. Mrs. Anne Ward gave me 
my first fee, ten shillings.' A week aft^r this 
important event Ikowne went to London. 
He attended the lectures of Dr. Teme, phy- 
sician to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, whose 
daughter Henrietta he married in 1672. His 
notes of Dr. Teme's lectures exist in manu- 
flcript in the British Museum. When the 

lectures were ended, Browne returned to Nor- 
wich, and soon after started on his travels. 
He went to Italy and came home through 
France, and it is by his description of this and 
of several subsequent journeys that he is best 
known. In 1668 he sailed to Rotterdam from 
Yarmouth and went to Leyden, Amsterdam, 
and Utrecht, visiting museums, libraries, and 
churches, attending lectures, and conversing 
with the learned. He went on to Antwerp, 
and ended his journey at Cologne on 10 Oct. 
1668. His next journey was to V ienna, where 
he made friends with the imperial librarian 
Lambecius, and enjoyed many excursions and 
much learned conversation. He seems to 
have studied Greek colloquially, and brought 
back letters from a learned Greek in his own 
tongue to Dr. Pearson, the bishop of Chester, 
and to Dr. Barrow, the master of Trinity. 
From Vienna Browne made three long jour- 
neys, one to the mines of Hungary, one into 
Thessaly, and one into Styria and Carinthia. 
Wherever he went he observed all objects 
natural and historical, as well as everything 
bearing on his profession. He sketched in a 
stiff manner, and some of his drawings are 
preserved (British Museum). At Buda he 
came into the oriental world, and at Larissa 
he saw the Grand Seigneur. Here he studied 
Greek remains, and followed in imagination 
the practice of Hippocrates. He returned to 
England in 1669, out made one more tour in 
1673 in company with Sir Joseph Williamson, 
Sir Leoline Jenkins, and Lord Peterborough. 
He visited Cologne, Aix-la-Chapelle, Liege, 
Louvain, Ghent, Bruges, and other towns of 
the Low Countries, and saw all that was to 
be seen. He published in London in 1673 a 
small quarto volume called * A Brief Account 
of some Travels in Hungaria, Styria, Bulga- 
ria, Thessaly, Austria, Serbia, Carynthia, Car- 
niola, and Friuli ; ' another volume appeared 
in 1677, and in 1685 a collection of all his 
travels in one volume folio. It contains some 
small alterat ions and some additions. In 1672 
he published in 12mo a translation of a * His- 
torv' of the Cossacks,' and he wrote the lives 
of Themistocles and Sertorius in Dryden's 
* Plutarch,' i)ublished in 1700. 

In 1667 Bro>\Tie had been elected F.R.S., 
and in 1675 was admitted a fellow of the Col- 
lege of Physicians. He lived in Salisbury 
Court, Heet Street (College of Physicians 
Lists), and became physician to the king. He 
was elected physician to St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital 7 Sept. 1682 (MS. Journal, St Barth. 
Hosp.) ; was treasurer of the College of 
! Physicians 1694-1704, and president 1704- 
1708. He had a large practice, and enjoyed 
the friendship of man^ men in power. A 
Grub Street writer attributes part of his good 




fortune to the favour of one of Charles Il's 
mistresses ; but the statement has no founda- 
tion in fieu;t. Browne's professional success 
was due to his general capacity and interest- 
ing conversation. His note-books show that 
be laboured hard at his profession, and that 
through good introductions he early became 
known to many physicians^ surgeons, and 
apothecaries. Iji I6td he had already met in 
consultation thirteen physicians and ten sur- 
geons (Sioane MS, 1895). A ^reat many let- 
ters and notes in his handwriting are to be 
found among the Sloane MSS. Amongst them 
is the earliest known copy of the * Pharmaco- 
poeia' of St. Bartholomew's Hospital. It is 
«Uited 1670, and some of its prescriptions were 
the subject of correspondence between Browne 
and his father. Browne died at Northileet, 
Kent (MuNK, Coll. ofPhys, i. 376), on 28 Aug. 
1 708, andleft a son Thomas (1672-1710) [q.v.] 
And a daughter. He is biuried at Northneet. 
Browne's travels are spoken of by Dr. John- 
son with small respect, and their style cannot 
be commended. The best that can be said of 
them is that they contain many interesting 
facts, and that their information is exact. 
They may be read with pleasure if viewed 
as a table of contents of the mind of a well- 
read Englishman of King Charles II's days. 
Browne had read a good deal of Greek as 
well as of Latin, the fathers as well as the 
classical authors. He was also well versed 
in new books ; he had read Ashmole's * Or- 
der of the Garter,' La Martini^re's * Arctic 
Travels,* and did not even despise the last 
new novel, but quotes the Duchess of New- 
■castle's *New Blazing World' {Travels^ ed. 
1685, pp. 97, 99, 123) in the year of its pub- 
lication. He loved his father, and inherited 
his tastes, and, if practice had not engrossed 
too much of his time, might have written 
books as pood as the* Vulgar Errors' or 
the * Hydriotaphia.' Deeper meditations like 
those of the * Keligio Medici ' were probably 
foreign to his nature. In a taste for every 
kind of information, in regard for his pro- 
fession, in warm family affections, and in up- 
right principles and conduct, he resembled 
his father ; but the deeper strain of thought 
which is to be found in Sir Thomas Browne 
is nowhere to be traced in the writings of his 
eldest son. 

[Sloane MSS. in British Museum, 1895-7; 
Wilkins's Works of Sir Thomas Browne ; Munk's 
Coll. of Phys. 1878 ; Works.] N. M. 

BROWNE, EDWARD (d. 1730), an 
eminent quaker, son of James Browne of 
Cork, was a native of that city. He was 
long an inhabitant of Sunderland, where he 
:■ ]|]g^ppf0||t|0e0}|ipiuid afterwards rose 

to considerable opulence. In 1727 he built 
himself a commodious mansion, with several 
other dwelling-houses adjoining, intended for 
the residences of the captains of his ships and 
other persons in his employment. The man- 
sion-house afterwards became the custom- 
house for the port of Sunderland. Browne 
died at Cork 27 Aug. 1 730. * Some Account of 
Edward Browne of Sunderland, with copies 
of manuscripts respecting him,* was printed 
for private circulation at Sunderland, 1821, 
12mo, and reprinted for sale London, 1842, 

[Joseph Smith's Cat. of Friends' Books, i. 329 ; 
Richardson's Local Historian's Table Book (Hist. 
Div.), i. 329.] T. C. 

[See Hehans.] 

BROWNE, GEORGE, D.D. (d. 1560), 
archbishop of Dublin, the chief instrument 
of Henry \in in the Irish reformation, was 
originally a friar, and first emerges into 
notice in 1534, when, as provincial of the 
whole order of Austin Friars, he w^as em- 
ployed, in conjunction with Hilsey, the pro- 
vincial of the Dominicans, to minister the 
oath of succession to all the friars of London 
and the south of England (Dixon, Hist, of 
the Church of England, i. 214). He is said 
to have recommended himself to the king by 
advising the poor, who were beginning to 
feel the distress caused by the religious re- 
volution, to make their applications solely to 
Christ. Within a year he was nominated to 
the see of Dublin, vacant by the murder of 
Arclibishop Allen in the rising of Kildare 
in 1534 ; but it was not until another year 
had elapsed that he arrived in Ireland on 
July 1530 (Hamilton, Cal. of State Pa- 
pers for Ireland y p. 21 ; the life of Browne in 
the Harleian Misc. vol. v. places his arrival 
in Decembtjr 1535). The Irish parliament, 
which had been sitting for two months, ac- 
cepted all the principal acts by which Eng- 
land had declared herself independent of 
Rome. The only opposition to these sweep- 
ing measures was olFered by the clerg}-, 
who claimed the power of voting in their 
own house upon bills which had passed the 
Irish commons, and carried this obstructive 
policy so fur, under tlie leadership of their 
primate Cromer, the archbishop of Armagh, 
that it was found necessarv to deprive them 
of their privilege (DixoN, li. 179). A speech 
made by Browne on this occasion, declar- 
ing his vote for the king as supreme head of 
the Irish church, has been preserved {Harl, 
Misc. v. 559) ; and it was through him, 
as he boasted, that a separate act was passed 




granting the first-fruits of all abbeys to the 
King, thus paving the way for the suppression 
of the Irish monasteries, which quickly fol- 
lowed. By these enactments the English 
reformation ready made was flung in a mass 
into the midst of a semi-barbarous and de- 
caying country. Browne held a commission 
from Thomas Cromwell, the minister and 
vicegerent of Henry, to further * the king's 
advantage ; ' and in this cause he laboured 
with diligence, journeying into various parts, 
preaching, publishing the royal articles and 
injunctions, and collecting the first-fruits and 
twentieths of the spiritualties which had 
been decreed to the Jking. He put forth a 
form of bidding bedes, or prayers, which is 
the earliest document in wliich the church 
of Ireland is conjoined with the church of 
England under royal supremacy {Cal. of State 
Papers y ii. 604 ; Collier, EccL Hist. Records, 
No. 40). Browne encountered not only the 
open hostility of many of his brethren, and 
especially of Staples, the bishop of Meath, 
but the aetractions and suspicions of the rest 
of the Irish council. The lord-deputy Grey 
was his enemy, and treated him with con- 
tempt, calling him a ' polshom friar,' and on 
one occasion putting him in prison. The 
king entertained the complaints that were 
sent to England against him of arrogance and 
inefiiciency, and wrote him a severe letter, 
menacing him with disgrace ; but Browne 
contrived to explain all accusations, except 
perhaps the one of receiving bribes. He must 
have Deen a man of some sagacity, for he 
predicted that the alteration of religion would 
cause * the English and Irish race to lay aside 
their national old quarrels, and a foreigner to 
invade the nation' (Letters to Cromwell, Mav 
1638, Harl. Misc. v. 561). 

In the first years of Edward VI tlie reforma- 
tion languished. Browne lay at the moment 
under the cloud of certain accusations of ne- 
glect of duty, alienation of leases, and ' un- 
decent ' conduct in preacliing, which were 
preferred against him by another member of 
the Irish council, and seem never to have been 
fully explained (DixON, iii. 406). It was not 
until 1 660, after the full publication of the first 
English Prayer Book in 1649, that the attempt 
was resumed to impose on Ireland the English 
alterations of religion. By that time Bel- 
lingham had been succeeded by the second 
administration of Santleger, a man of easy 
temper, secretly attached to the old system. 
His instructions were to order the clerg}- to use 
the English service. Accordingly he some- 
what incautiously summoned a convention of 
the bishops and clergy at Dublin, and thus 
brought about the curious scene which was the 
final protestation of the ancient independent 

Hibernian church before she assumed her 
English livery. The lord-deputy read the royal 
order for the service to be in English. * Then/ 
exclaimed the primate DowdaU indignantly , 
' any illiterate layman may say mass !' and after 
a warm altercation he left the meeting, fol- 
lowed by the greater number of his suffra- 
gans. Santleger then handed the order to 
Browne, who now assumed his natural Posi- 
tion as head of the conforming party. * This 
order, good brethren,' said he to the remaining^ 
clergy, * is from the king and from our bre- 
thren the fathers and clergy of England ; to 
him I submit, as Jesus did to Ccesar, in all 
things lawful, asking no questions why or 
wherefore, as owning him our true and law- 
ful king.' On the Easter day following the 
English service was used for the first time 
in the cathedral church of Dublin, Bro'^Tie 
preaching the sermon. To the Irish people 
the change from Latin to English was a 
change from one unknown tongue to another, 
for English maintainecl itself with difficulty 
even in the pale, though the use of it was 
commanded by penal statutes. The churches 
were emptier than ever, and the malcontent 
clergy were aided by papal emissaries, and 
the Jesuit missionaries gamed finround (Mac- 
GEOGHAN, Hist, of IreUind). The prelates, 
however, who followed Dowdall gradually 
conformed ; and when, in the middle of the 
same year, 1660, Dowdall went from his see, 
declaring that he would not be bishop where 
there was no mass, none of his brethren 
imitated his example. His place, after a 
vacancy of two years, was filled by Goodacre, 
an Englishman sent by Cranmer, who was 
consecrated by Browne at Christ Church. At 
the same time the primacy of all Ireland, the 
ancient dignity of the see of Armagh, was 
claimed by Browne, and transferred by royal 
patent to Dublin. 

Browne had complained to the authorities 
in England of the remissness of Santleger in 
the reformation (Browne to Warwick, August 
1661 ; Hamilton, Irish Cat. p. 116). But 
to John Bale, who arrived in Ireland at the 
same time as Goodacre, Browne himself ap- 
peared remiss. Tlie Bishop of Ossory has 
given him the character of an avaricious dis- 
sembler, hints that he was a drunkard and 
a profligate, and affirms that his complaints- 
against Santleger were a device to get the 
primacy. * As for his learning,' says Bale,. 
* he knows none so well as the practices of 
Sardanapalus ; for his preachings twice in 
the year, of the ploughman in the winter, by 
'' Exit qui seminat,' and of the shepherd in 
the summer, by ''Ego sum bonus pastor,*^ 
they are so well known in Dublin that when 
he cometh into the pulpit they can tell tii» 




sermon.' Bale was consecrated by Browne ; 
and the bitterness between them began at the 
ceremony, which Bale affirmed that Browne 
performed very awkwardly, and desired to 
nave deferred, in order to get the revenue 
for the see for the year. Their differences 
were renewed when, on the accession of 
Queen Mary, Bale was forced to quit Ossory 
-and fly for his life to Dublin. Browne re- 
fused to allow him to preach there. * Sitting 
on his ale-bench, with his cup in his hand, 
he made boast that I should not preach in 
his city' (Bale, Vocationy in Harl, Misc, 
Tol. tI.) Browne's triumph was short. In 
the revolution under Mary his primacy was 
revoked, and, Goodacre being expelled from 
Armagh, Dowdall was reinstated in his see 
and title of primate of all Ireland, and the 
superior style afterwards stood firm in Ar- 
magh without revocation. By Dowdall 
Browne was extruded from Dublin as being 
a married man (Wabe, De PrastUtb. Hib, 
120), and in two years his successor, Hugh 
Oarwin, was appoint^, September 1655. 
The death of Browne followea shortly after- 
wards. His character, which seems to have 
been insignificant, has been described by the 
Irish historians merely in accordance with 
their own prejudices. 

[Besides the authorities above mentioned, see 
Mantes Hist, of Ireland ; Mosheim gives a long 
aocoQDt of Browne in bis Ch. Hist. ; the Life 
in the Harleian Misc. is also in the Phoenix, a 
-series of scarce tracts in 2 vols., London, 1707; 
Christian Biography, 2 vols., London, 1835.] 

R. W.D. 

BROWNE, GEORGE, Count db (1698- 
1792), Irish soldier of fortune, was descended 
from a family which could trace its descent 
to the time of the Conqueror, and had settled 
m Ireland at a very early period. His im- 
mediate ancestors were the Brownes of Camas, 
Limerick, where he was bom 15 June 1698. 
He was educated at Limerick dioc^an school. 
A catholic and a Jacobite, he, like several of 
his other relations, sought scope for his am- 
bition in a foreign military career. In his 
twenty-seventh year he entered the service 
of the elector palatine, from which he passed 
in 1730 to that of Russia. He distinguished 
himself in the Polish, French, and Turkish 
wars, and had risen to the rank of general, 
with the command of 30,000 men, when he 
was taken prisoner by the Turks. After 
being three times sold as a slave, he obtained 
his ireedom through the intervention of the 
French ambassador Villeneuve, at the in- 
stance of the Russian court, and, remaining 
for some time at Constantinople in his slave's 
coetumey suooeeded in discovering important 

state secrets which he carried to St. Peters- 
burg. In recognition of this special service 
he was raised by Anna to the rank of major- 
general, and in this capacity accompanied 
General Lacy on his first expedition to Fin- 
land. On the outbreak of the Swedish war 
his tactical skill was displayed to great ad- 
vantage in checking Swedish attacks on Li- 
vonia. In the seven years' war he rendered 
important assistance as lieutenant-general 
under liis cousin Ulysses Maximilian, count 
von Browne [q. v.] His fortunate diversion 
of the enemy*8 attacks at KoUin, 18 June 1757, 
contributed materially to the allied victory, 
and in token of her appreciation of his con- 
duct on the occasion Maria Theresa presented 
him with a snuff-box set with brilhants and 
adorned with her portrait. At Zomdorf, 
25 Aug. 1758, he again distinguished himself 
in a similar manner, his opportune assistance 
of the right wing at the most critical moment 
of the battle chaining almost inevitable de- 
feat into victory. By Peter III he was named 
field-marshal, and appointed to the chief com- 
mand in the Danish war. On his addressing 
a remonstrance to the czur against the war as 
impolitic, lie was deprived of his honours and 
commanded to leave the country, but the 
czar repenting of his hasty decision recalled 
him three days afterwards and appointed him 
governor of Livonia. He was confirmed in 
the office under Catherine II, and for thirty 
years to the close of his life administered its 
affairs with remarkable practical sagacity, 
and with great advantage both to the su- 
preme government and to the varied in- 
terests of the inhabitants. He died 18 Feb. 

[Histoire do la Vie de G. de Browne, Riga, 
1794; Erech and Gruber's Allgemeine Ency- 
clopadie. sect. i. vol. xiii. pt. i. pp. 112-13; 
Ferraris History of Limerick.] T. F. H. 

1882), artist and book-illustrator, who as- 
sumed the pseudonym of Phiz, was bom 
at Kennington, Surrey, on 15 June 1815, 
being the ninth son of Mr. William Loder 
Browne, a merchant, who came originally 
from Norfolk. The child was chnstened 
Hablot in memory of Captain Hablot, a 
French officer, to whom one of his sisters was 
betrothed, and who fell at Waterloo. Young 
Browne received his first education at a pri- 
vate school in Botesdale, Suffolk, kept by the 
Rev. William Haddock. In his earliest years 
he displayed so strong a bias for drawing 
that he was apprenticed to Finden the en- 
graver. In London he found a congenial home 
m the house of an elder sister, who was mar- 
ried to Elhanan Bicknell [q. v.], afterwards 




well known as a collector of Turner's and 
other pictures. Painting in water-colour 
soon became a passion with young Browne, 
who, having obtained his release from the 
monotonous work at Finden's, set up as a 
painter with a young friend of similar tastes. 
The rent of the attic which they shared was 
paid by the produce of their artistic labours. 
About this time Browne attended a Hife' 
school in St. Martin's Lane, where Etty was 
a fellow-student. 

In 1832 Browne gained the silver Isis 
medal offered by the Society of Arts for 
the best illustration of an historical subject 
( Trans, xliz. pt. i. 24) ; and later another 
prize from the same society for an etching 
of ' John Gilpin's Race.* 

In 1836 Browne first became associated 
with Charles Dickens, his senior by three 
years, in the illustration of Dickens's little 
work, * Sunday as it is by Timothy Sparks.' 
This book was levelled at the fanatical Sab- 
batarians, and it gave the artist an oppor- 
tunity of revealing his trulv comical genius. 
In the same year began tne publication of 
the * Pickwick Papers/ the earlv portion of 
which was written to elucidate the drawings 
of cockney sporting life by Robert Seymour. 
On Sejmour's death Dickens resolved to 
subordinate the plates to his text, and look- 
ing out for a sympathetic illustrator after 
Mr. Buss's unsuccessful attempt, to follow 
Sejrmour, he negotiated with Browne and 
Thackeray, who both sent drawings to him. 
Browne was chosen, and was not long in 
conquering a world-wide reputation under the 
signature of * Phiz.' For tne first two plates 
he assumed the modest pseudonym * ^i emo,' 
but aft^jrwards adopted that of * Phiz ' as 
more consonant to the novelist's * Boz.' A 
' verbal description ' (see preface to Pickimck) 
of the scene to be depicted was frequently 
all that Browne received from Dickens. In 
some instances the conception of the artist ! 
unquestionably bettered tnat of the author. • 
Those who in the days of his public readings ' 
in England and America heard Dickens re- 

S resent the immortal Sam Weller as a loutish 
rawling humorist, were unable to recognise ' 
the brisk, saucy, ready cockney ostler sketched 
so cleverly by Phiz. j 

The aRSOcintion of Browne and Dickens 
continued throughout the publication of 
many novels. * Martin Chuzzlewit ' and 
* David Copperfield ' contain perhaps the 
etchers most vigorous work. Occasionally ' 
differences of opinion would arise between ' 
author and artist. * Paul and Mrs. Pipchin,' 
in * Dombey and Son/ * really distressed ' 
Dickens, * it was so frightfullv and wildlv 
wido of the mark.' On the other hand Mi- ' 

cawber in 'David Copperfield ' 'was capital,** 
and Skimpole was * made sin^rularly imlike 
the great original,' a result which the author 
doubtless very much desired. 

In 1837 Browne made a trip to Flanders, 
accompanied by Dickens, and in the follow- 
ing year they went together into Yorkshire 
and made studies for 'Nicholas Nickleby.' 
The sketch of Squeers was taken from tne 
life. The 'Tale of Two Cities' was the 
last work by Dickens that Browne illus- 

For many years the artist kept up the 
practice of sending water-colour drawings 
to the exhibitions at the British Institution 
and the Society of British Artists. To the 
exhibition of cartoons in Westminster HaU 
in 1843 he sent a large design of ' A Forag- 
ing Party of Caesar's Forces surprised by the 
Britons,' and No. 65 in the same exhibition, 
' Henry 11 defied by a Welsh Mountaineer,^ 
is attributed to him. ELis oil paintings were 
imperfect in their technical execution. Two 
lar^ oil pictures, however, in the Loan Ex- 
hibition of his works in 1883 attracted much 
attention : No. 81, ' Les trois vifis et les trois 
morts,' painted in 1867 ; and No. 128, ' Sin- 
tram and Death descending into the Dark 
Valley,' painted in 1862. He had had no 
regular training except for a short period in 
the ' life ' school in St. Martin's Lane. He 
never worked after that from a model either 
of man or horse. He took great delight in 
horses and horsemanship, and at the height 
of his fortunes, when living at Croydon and 
Banstead, he regularly followed the hounds. 
In his illustrations of Lever's novels the 
staple is almost invariably the description of 
wild feats of horsemanship. ' I wish I could 
draw horses like Browne,' Leech was once 
heard to say. ' Harry Lorrequer,' ' Charles 
O'Malley,' * Jack Hinton/ and: ' Tom Burke ' 
bear witness to 'Phiz's' versatility in his 
graphic treatment of the horse, while * The 
O'Donoffhue,' ' The Barringtons,' and ' Con 
Cregan contain some of his best designs. 
Browne went over to Brussels to confer with 
Lever on the designs for ' Jack Hinton,' and 
the two men became intimate. Lover, who 
was of the party, wrote that * they did nothing 
all day, or, in some instances, all night, but 
eat, drink, and laugh.' Occasionally Lever 
had his grumble over Browne's plates : ' The 
supper scene in No. 2 of " Lorrenuer " showed 
the hero as another " Nicholas Nickleby," and 
plagiarisms, he begged to say, were the au- 
thor's prerogative.' Again, in a moment of 
severe respect for the proprieties of life, he 
wrote, * The character of my books for up- 
roarious people and incident I owe mainly to 
master Pniz/ In the Irish scenes he thought 




Browne was not &miliar enough with the 
national physiognomy, and beg^^ed him to go 
and study CyConnelrs 'Tail in the House 
of Commons {Levet'a Life, i. 225, 228, 237, 

In the illustrations to Smedley's ' Frank 
Fairleigh' and 'Lewis Arundel the horse 
fremiently plays a pu-t. Browne's power in 
prcwlucing strong effects of black and white 
are well shown m the illustrations to some 
of Ainsworth's romances, particularly in 
' Old St. Paul's.' 

For thirty years Browne laboured with 
few intervals of rest save the hunting season 
and occasional travels. His principal recrea- 
tion was painting, and in 1867 he had just 
finished on a broad canvas the ' Three Living 
and the Three Dead,' when he was struck 
with paralysis, the immediate cause of which 
was exposure to a strongdraught in his bed- 
room at the seaside. He survived fifteen 
years, and with characteristic tenacity con- 
tinued to work at plates. His mind was 
clear and well stored with anecdotes of the | 
eminent men he had known. But his hand i 
had lost its cunning. For a few of his latter > 
years he received a small pension from the 
Royal Academy, which haa previously been 
hdd by George Cruikshank. In 1880 he re- 
moved with his fiimily from London to West 
Brighton, and there died on 8 July 1882. 
He was buried on the summit of the hill at 
the north side of the Extramural Cemetery, 

In person Browne was handsome and 
strongly built. His disposition was modest 
and retiring, but he had a fund of quiet 
humour and was a charming companion with 
intimates. When he was about to leave his 
residence at Croydon for another, he made a 
bonfire of all the letters he had received firom 
Dickens, Lever, Ainsworth, and others, be- 
cause they were almost solely about illus- 
trations (X^vei^s Idfej ii. 51 note). He was 
happily married in 1840 to Miss Reynolds, 
and at his death left five sons and four 

[Thompson's Life and Labours of H. K. 
Browne, 1884 ; Phiz, a Memoir by F. G^. Kitton, 
1882; Forster^s Life of Charles Dickens, iii., 
1874 ; Fitzpatrick's Life of Charles Lever, 
1879.] R. H. 

BROWNE, HENRY (1804-1875), classi- 
cal and biblical scholar, son of the Rev. Henry 
John Browne, rector of Crownthorpe, Nor- 
folk, was bom in 1804. He was educated 
at Coipus Christi College, Cambridge, where 
he gamed Bell's university scholarship in 
1823 ; he graduated RA. in 1826, and M.A. 
inl8S0. Tiom 1842 to 1847 he was princi- 

rkl of the theological college, Chichester ; on 
Dec. 1842 he was collated to the prebendal 
stall of Waltham in Chichester cathedral ; 
in 1843 he was appointed examining chaplain 
to the bishop of Chichester; and in 1854 
he was preferred to the rectory of Pevensey 
in the same diocese. Here he remained 
till his death, 19 June 1875. Besides edi- 
tions and translations of the classics, Browne 
applied himself chiefly to the elucidation 
of sacred chronology. His published works 
are numerous : 1. * Ordo Seeclorum, a trea- 
tise on the Chronology of Holy Scripture.' 
The argument, which is subtle, is mainly on 
the same lines as Clinton's, and the latest 
contemporary knowledge of oriental archsBO- 
logy is brought to bear on the biblical 
statements (1844). 2. ' Examination of the 
Ancient Egyptian Chronographies,' com- 
menced in 1852 in Arnold s * Theological 
Critic' 3. Hiemarks on Mr. Qreswell's 
"Fasti Catholici"' (1852). This is a criticism 
which aims at completely annihilating the 
conclusions of Greswell. 4. He translated 
for the * Library of the Fathers ' seventeen 
short treatises of St. Augustine, in con- 
junction with C. L. Cornish, and also St. 
Augustine's Homilies on the Gospel and First 
Epistle of St. John (1838, &c.) 5. Several 
volumes of Greek and Latin classics for Ar- 
nold's * School and College Series' (1851, &c.) 
6. A translation of Madvig's * Greek Syn- 
tax ' (1847). 7. ' A Handbook of Hebrew 
Antiquities ' (;i851). 8. ' An English-Greek 
Lexicon,' conjointly with Radersdorf (1856). 
9. * Hierogrammata ' (1848). The aim is to 
show that Egyptian discoveries do not inva- 
lidate the Mosaic account. He was also the 
author of several articles in the last edition 
(1862-6) of Kitto's ' Cyclopedia of Biblical 

[Men of the Time, ninth edition ; Le Neve'a 
Fasti (Hardy), i. 285; British Museum Cata- 
logue.] A. G-N. 

elder (1705-1760), poet, was bom on 21 Jan. 
1705 at Burton-on-Trent, of which parish his 
father — a man of private fortune and the 
holder of other ecclesiastical preferments — 
was vicar. Receiving hia first education at 
Lichfield, he passed to Westminster School, 
and thence in 1721 to Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where he obtained a scholarship and 
took the degree of M.A. About 1727 he 
began the study of law at Lincoln's Inn, but 
though called to the bar he did not seriously 

Prosecute the practice of his profession, 
'hrough the influence of the Forester family 
he was twice returned (1744, 1747) to the 
House of Commons for the borough of Wen- 

Browne 48 BrowTie 

lock, Shropehire, neAr to which was his own could open well without haTing a glass of 

estate. He was during his parliamentaiy ca- wine, and then the rein flowed to admira- 

reer (1744— >4) a supporter of Pelham's whig tion.' According to the same authority, 

ministrr. Before tnis time he had written a Browne died of consumption {Itft of Tkonuu 

poem of some length on ' Design and Beauty,' 3>irf<m, D,D„ BUkop of Brittol. Written 

addressed to Highmore the painter, and among hy himself^ 1 782). 

h^ otho-productions ' A Pi« of Tohacco,' an ' j^j 5^, ^^j j^^^ -^ ^- jj^^^ ^^ ^^^, 

ode in mutation of Pope, Swift, Thomson, y^ . .„thoriti« qaoted in the texL] 

and other poets then Irving, had gained a con- J. M. S. 

siderahle measure of popularity. His_prin- ' 

cipal work, published in 17.>4,' was a Latin BBOWNIL ISAAC HAWKINS, the 
poem on the immortality of the soul — *De younger (1745-1818>. only child of Isaac 
Animi Immortalitate* — which received high Hawkins Browne the elder [q-T.**, was bom 
commendation from the scholars of his time. 7 Dec. 1745. He was educatecf at West' 
Of this there have been several English trans- minster School and Hertford CoUege, Ox- 
lations, the best known of which is by Soame ford. I»ng after taking his M.A. in 1767, 
Jenyns. After a lingering illness he died in he kept his rooms at Oxford and ft^uently 
London on 14 Feb. 1700. An edition of his resided there; in 1773 he received the de- 
poems was published by his son [see Bbowite, gree of D.C.L. Having made a tour on 
Isaac Hawkiss, the younger] in 1768. the continent, he settled on his property in 
Browne had little aptitude for professional or Shropshire, and in 1783 served as sheriff^ for 
public life, but he was a man of lively talents the county. In 1784 he entered the House 
and varied accomplishments. The humour of of Commons as member for Bridgnorth, 
some of his lighter pieces has not wholly which he represented for twenty-eight years 
evaporated, and the gaiety of his genius is (1784-1812); he was a supporter of Pitt, 
vouched by contemporaries of much wider Like his father, he seems to have had no gift 
celebrity. Warburton, praising the poem on for oratory, but when he spoke * his esta- 
the soul, adds that it ^ gives me the more blished reputation for superior knowledge 
pleasure as it seems to be a mark of the and judgment secured to him that attention 
author getting serious ' (XiCHOUS, Illustr. of which might haye been wanting to him on 
Lit. ii. 33). Mrs. Piorzi reports Dr. Johnson other accounts.' In 1815 he published, anony- 
as saying of Browne that he was 'of all con- mously, * Essays. Eeligious and Moral':' 
yersers the most delightful with whom I ever this work he afterwards acknowledged, and 
was in company : his talk was at once so ele- an edition published two years later bears 
gant, so apparently artless, so pure and so his name. His * Essays on Subjects of im- 
pleasing. it seemed a perpetual stream of sen- portant Inquiry in Metaphysics, Morals, and 
timent. enlivened by praiety and sparkling Religion' (18±?') were not published till 
with images* (Mks. Piozzi, Anecdotes of after his death; if the seriousness of his 
Dr. Johnson, 1786). And fifteen years after mind is shown by the spirit of this yolume, 
Browne's death Johnson is found thus illus- his exactness an^ capacity for taking pains 
trating the proposition that a man's powers are illustrated by the array of authorities 
are not to be judged by his capacity for pub- by which the text is supported. Bishop New- 
lie speech : * Isaac Hawkins Bro\%Tie, one of ton {Life of Thoma$ Scir/oif, D.D., Bishop 
the nrst wits of this country, got into par- of Bristol. 1782) speaks of him as * a very 
liament and never opened his mouth ' (Bos- worthy, good young man. possessed of many 
WELL, Johnson, 5 April 1 775). In the 'Tour of his father s excellencies without his fail- 
to the Hebrides,' two years earlier, Boswell ings.' and this portrait is completed by a 
writes (5 Sept. 1773): * After supper Dr. contemporary bic^rrapher, who, mentioning 
Johnson told us that Isaac Hawkins Browne that Charles James Fox was a fellow-student 
wrote his 

m some of the last of these years. 1 Listened * their pursuits, habits, and connections being 

to this with the eagerness of one who, con- of a widely different character.' In 1768 

scious of being himself fond of wine, is glad he edited his father s poems in two editions, 

to hear that a man of so much genius and the best of which, with plates by Sterne, was 

good thinking as Bn>wne had the same pro- not for sale. This edition, it may be pre- 

pensity.' This storv is confirmed to st^me sumed, contained the memoir of his father, 

extent by Bishop ^Cewton, who speaks of which he is said to haye issued with his 

Browne's * failings,' and draws a parallel be- works : in any case there is no memoir in 

tween him and Addison : * They were both the edition offered to the public, which 

excellent companions, but neither of them '' is the only one generally accessilde, though 




the material facts in the life of Browne the 
elder in the * Biographia Britannica' were, as 
appears from an acknowledgment in that 
work, supplied by his son. Browne was 
twice mamed (1788 and 1805), his first wife 
being the daughter of the Hon. Edward Hay, 
son of the seventh earl of Kinnoul. Browne 
died in London 30 May 1818. 

[Gent. 3Iag. Izxxviii. part ii. 179.1 

J. M. S. 

1685), theologian, son of a father of the 
same names, of Mangotsfield, Gloucestershire, 
matriculated at Oxford as a student of Oriel 
in 1634, and took his B.A. degree in 1638. 
He then left the university, and is said to 
have become a chaplain in the parliamenta- 
rian army and to have been an eager dispu- 
tant. On the Restoration he conformed. 
He wrote: 1. * Antichrist in Spirit,' a work 
answered by George Fox in his * Great 
Mystery of the Great Whore,' pp. 259, 260, 
where the author's name is spelt Brown. 

2. * Scripture Redemption freed from Men's 
Restrictions,' 1673, and printed with it. 

3. ' The Substance of several Conferences and 
Disputes . . . about the Death of our Re- 

[Wood's Atbense Ozon. (ed. Bliss), iv. 604 ; 
Pox's Great Mystery (ed. 1669), 259.] W. H. 

BROWNE, JAMES, LL.D. (1793-1841), 
journalist and author, was the son of a manu- 
facturer at Coupar Angus, and was born at 
Whitefield, parish of Uarffill, Perthshire, in 
1793. He was educated for the ministry of 
the church of Scotland at the university of 
St. Andrews, wherehe specially distinguished 
himself in classics. After obtaining license 
to preach he spent some time on the conti- 
nent as tutor in a private family. On his 
return to Scotland he acted as assistant clas- 
sical master in Perth Academy, officiating at 
the same time as interim assistant to the 
minister of Kinnoul, Perthshire. About this 
time he published anonymously a ' History 
of the Inquisition,' which obtained a large 
circulation, and in 1817 he printed a sermon 
preached on the death of the Princess Char- 
lotte. Either because he found his work un- 
congenial, or because he saw little prospect 
of ODtaining a parish, he resolved to study for 
the bar. He passed advocate in 1826, and 
received the degree of LL.D. from the imi- 
versity of St. Andrews ; but failing to obtain 
a practice at the bar he gradually turned his 
attention wholly to literature. For some time 
he acted as editor of the ' Scots Marine,' and 
in 1827 he became editor of the * Caledonian 
Mercury,' to which in the same year he con- 


tributed certain articles which asi»isted to 
bring to light the Burke and Hare murders. 
Durmg his editorship of the * Mercury ' he 
became involved in a dispute with Mr. Cnarles 
Maclaren, editor of the ' Scotsman,' with the 
! result that they fought a duel, in which 
neither was injured. In 1830 he resigned the 
editorship of the * Mercury,' and started the 
* North Britain ; ' but after the discontinu- 
ance of that paper he resumed the editorship 
of the ' Mercurj'.' When the issue of the 
seventh edition of the * Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica ' was resolved upon, he was appointed 
assistant editor. In his books and in his 
newspaper articles the excitability of his 
temperament was mirrored in a boisterous and 
blustering mode of expression, cleverly cari- 
catured in an article in * Blackwood' (vol. 
x\dii.), entitled * Some Passages in the Life 
of Colonel Cloud.' 

He was the author of: 1. 'A Sketch of 
the History of Edinbur|j^h,' attached to Ew^- 
bank's * Picturesque Views of Edinburgh,' 
1823-5. 2. ' Critical Examination of Mac- 
culloch's Work on the Highlands and Islands 
of Scotland,' 182G. 3. * Aper9u sur les Hi6ro- 
glyphes d'Egypte,' Paris, 1827; a French 
translation of articles contributed to the 
' Edinburgh Review.' 4. * Remarks on the 
Study of the Civil Law, occasioned by Mr. 
Brougham's late attack on the Scottish Bar,* 
1828. 5. A popular and interesting * History 
of the Highlands and of the Highland Clans,' 
in four volumes, Ist ed. 1835-8, 2nd ed. 1845. 
By his excessive literary labours he over- 
tasked his strength and induced a severe at- 
tack of paralysis, from which his recoverv 
was never more than partial. He died April 
1841 at Woodbine Cottage, Trinity, near 
Edinburgh, and was buried in Duddingstone 
churchyard. In his later years he became 
a convert to the Roman catholic faith, and 
he wTote a tractate, entitled * Examination 
of Sir Walter Scott's Opinions regarding 
Poperv,' which was published posthumously 
in 1845. 

[Caledonian Mercury, 10 April 1841 ; Gent. 
Mag. new ser. xv. 662 ; Anderson s Scottish Na- 
tion, ii. 400-1 ; Encyc. Brit. 9th ed. iv. 389.1 

T. F. H. 

BROWNE, JOHN (1642-1700?), sur- 
geon, was born in 1642, probably at Norwich, 
where he lived in the early part of his life. 
He was of a surgical family, being, as he 
says, * conversant with chirurgery almost 
from my cradle, being the sixth generation of 
my own relations, all eminent masters of our 
profession.' Among these relations was one 
William Crop, an eminent surgeon in Nor- 
folk. He was acquainted with tue celebrated 


Browne 50 Browne 

Sir Thomas lirowne of Norwich [q. v.], who tween 1600 and 1682 to 92,107). Ilis trea- 
wrote coinmendatory letters prefixed to two , tise on the muscles consists of six lectures, 
of his namesake's books, but tnere is no men- illustrated bv elabonite copper-plates, of 
tion of any kinship between them. Browne ■ which the engraving is better tuan the draw- 
studied at St. Thomas's Hospital, I^ndon, j ing. It is probably the first of such books in 
under Thomas Hollyer, but after serving as a which the names of the muscles are printed 
surgeon in the navy settled down at Norwich. | on the figures. Browne's portrait, engraved 
In 1(377 he published his book on tumours, by R. "White, is prefixed in different states to 
and in the following year miptited to Lon- ' each of his books. 

don, being about the same time made sur- > Rewrote: 1. 'A Treatise of Preternatural 
geon in ordinary to King Charles II. On the Tumours,* 8vo, London, 1678 (with plates), 
occasion of a vacancy for a surgeon at St. | 2. * A Complete Discourse of Wounos,' 4to, 
Thomas's Hospital, the king sent a letter \ London, 1(5/8 (plates). 3. * Adeno-Choira- 
recommending him for the appointment, and delogia, or an Anatomick-C^hirurgical Trea- 
he was elected by the governors on 21 June tise,* &c., 8vo, London, 1684 ; in three parts 
1683, * in all humble submission to his ma- with separate titles, viz. (1) * Adenographia, 
je8ty*s letter,' though the claims of another or an Anatomical Treatise of the Glandules ; ' 
surgeon, Edward Rice, who had taken charge (2) * Choeradelogia, or an exact Discourse 
of the hospital during the plague of 166o, of Strumaes or King's Evil Swellings ; ' 
when all tne surgeons deserted their posts, (3) * Charisma Basilicon, or the Royal Gift 
were manifestly superior. This royal inter- of Healing Strumaes, &c., by Contact or Im- 
ference did not in the end prove a happy position of the Sacred Hands of our EJngs 
circumstance for Browne. In 1691 com- of England and of France.' 4. * Myograph la 
plaints arose that the surgeons did not obey Nova, or a graphical description of all the 
the regulations of the hospital, and pretended Muscles in the Human Body ; with one and 
that being appointed by royal mandamus forty copper-plates,' London, 1684; 2nd ed. 

Robert Ckyton, the governors were deter- [Browne's Works ; Archives of St. Thomas's 
mined to maintain their authority, and on jXospit-al 1 J F P 

7 July 1691 they 'put out' the whole of ^ '' 

their surgical staff, including Browne, and BROWNE, JOHN (1741-1801), en- 
appointed other surgeons in their place, graver, was bom at Finchfield, Essex, 
Browne appealed to the lords commissioners 26 April 1741. He was the posthumous son 
of the great seal, and the governors were of the rector of Boston, Norfolk, and was edu- 
called upon to defend their proceedings. The cated at Norwich. In 1756 he was appren- 
decision apparently went in their favour, for ' ticed to John Tinney, the engraver, who was 
in 1698 Browne humbly petitioned the go- j also William Woollott's master. With Tin- 
vemors to be reinstated, though without ney he remained till 1761, and then place<l 
success. Browne managed to continue in himselfunderWooUett, many of whose plates 
court favour after the revolution, and was | were commenced by Browne. On leaving 
surgeon to William IH. He died probably | WooUett he engraved a series of plates after 
early in the eighteenth century. ■ N. Poussin, P. P. Rubens, Claude Lorraine, 

Browne was a well-educated man, and in ! and other eminent masters. Browne practised 
all likelihood a good surgeon, as he was cer- exclusively as an engraver of landscape, and 
tainly a well-trained anatomist according to attained to a high degree of excellence in that 
the standard of the day. His books show j department. He was elected an associate en- 
no lack of professional knowledge, though graver of the Royal Academy in 1770, and 
they are wanting in originality. The most ! exhibited thirteen plates between 1767 and 

notable perhaps is * Charisma Basilicon, or 
an Account of the Royal Gift of Healing,* 
where he describes the method pursued by 
Charles II in touching for the 'king's evil,' 
with which as the king's surgeon he was 
officially concerned. Though full of gross 
adulation and a credulity which it is difficult 
to believe sinctTe, it is the best contemporary 
account of this curious rite as practised by 
the Stuart kings, and gives statistics of the 
numbers of persons touched (amounting l>e- 

1801. He died in West Lane, Walworth, 
2 Oct. 1801. Tlie following are some of his 
most important works, which are to be seen 
in our national collection of prints : 'Tlie 
Watering Place,' after Rubens ; * The Forest,' 
after Sir George Beaumont; 'St. John the 
Baptist in the Wilderness,' after S. Rosa; 
* A View of the Gtite of the Emperor Akbar 
at Secundrii,' after Hotlges ; * The Cascade,' 
after G. Poussin ; and four plates from his 
own designs, 'Morning,' * Evening,' * After 


[ReilgTHTeji Dictionnrj- of .\rtists, 1878.] 


BROWNE, JOSEPH (Jl. 1706), phyai- 
rian, has been generally described us a char- 
latan. Hin origin is unknown, and the par- 
ticulars of his periHinal history are scanty", 
but it is probable that he was the Joseph 
Brownp of Jesus College, Cambridge, who 
proceeded 3LIt. 1695 ; that he look the 
dt-gree of M.D. does not appear, though 
Le assumed the title. In 1706 he was 
twice convicted for libelling Queen Anne's 
administration. The first of these occasions, 
when he was fined forty markd and ordered to 
stand in the piUoir, wus for the publication 
of ' The Country Wrsun's Honest Advice to 
that judicious and wortliy Minister of State 
my Lord Keeper.' In a letter addressed to 
Secretary Harley, 'occasioned bv his late 
committment to Xewgnte,' he denies the 
authorship of this pamphlet, of which at the 
«ame time he gives a professedly disinterested 
explanation. He also npefllcs of Harley as 
having 'not only treated him like a patriot, 
but given him friendly advice.' For thus 
undertaking the office of political interpreter 
he was a^in fineil forty marks and ordered 
to stand in the pillort- twice. He has been 
described ' os a mere ti>ol of the booksellers 
and always needy ' (Gbaxobb, Bii^. Hi»t. of 
England (Noble's continuation), ii. 232). It 
is at any rate certain that he was an indus- 
trious writer, and that his effrontery may be 
discerned tlirough an obscure and rambling 
style. He wrote and lectured against Har- 
vey's theory of the circulation of the blood, 
and he continued the 'Examiner' after it 
had been dropped by Mrs. Manley, who had 
succeeded Swift and others; 'consequently 
it became as inferior to wliat it hod Deen as 
his abilities were to theirs' (ii.) Following 
the fashion of the lime, he sought the patron- 

Practice of Phvsick vindicated ' (two par , 
iroa-4) is dedicated to the Duke of Leeds 
without permission, for he was 'jealous it 
mi)^ht bo denied him.' He hopes, however, 
the duke will 'pardon the ambition I haveof 
publishing to the world that I am known to 
your grace.' A similar motive led him to 
dedicate his ' Lecture of Anatomy against 
the Circulation of the Blond ' (1701) to ' His 
E.xcellency Heer Vrybergen, Envoy Exfra- 
ordinary from the States-General.' His 
•Practical Trealisa of the Plague' (1720) 
has a prefatory epistle to an eminent medical 
autfaority of that day, Dr. Mead, and his last 



I known publication, ahio on the plague, was 
I address^ to the president and members of 
the Royal College of Physicians, with which 
body he was not affiliated. Beyond the data 
of this publication (1721) there is no trac* 

[Brit. Mns. Cat.; Granger's Kiog. Hist of 
EnglHiid, coDtiaaalion by Noble, ii. 232 ; Notm 
. and Quertes, 3rd set. i. 465, ii. 13.] J. M. S. 

I BROWNE, JOSEPH (1700-1767), pro- 
I vost of Queen's College, Oiford, son of 
I George Browne, yeoman, was bom at a place 
called the Tongue in Watermillock, Cum- 
berland, educated at Barton school, and ad- 
mitted commoner of Queen's College, Oiford, 
on 21 March 1710-17, the expense of his 
education being, it is said, partly de&ayed 
by a private benefactor. He was elected 
tabarder on the foundation of his college, 
and, having graduated M.A. on 4 Nov. 1724, 
became a cliaplain there. He was elected 
fellow I April 1731, and became a successful 
tutor; took the degree of D.D. 9 July 1743, 
and was present ea by the college with the 
liTingofBramKhot,nampsliire,l/46. Inthat 
year he was appointed professor of natural 
philosophy, and held that office until his 
death. He was instituted prebendary of 
Hereford on 9 June of the same year (he 
was afterwards called into residence), and 
on 13 Feb. 1752 was collated to the chan- 
cellorship of the cathedral. On 3 Dec. 1766 
he was elected provost of Queen's College. 
From 1759 to 1705 he held the office of vice- 
chancellorof tlieimiversity. He had a severe 
stroke of palsy 2~> March 1765, and died on 
17 June 1/67. He edited 'Maffei S. R. E. 
Card. Barberini postea Urbani \'II Poemata,' 

[Hutchinson's History of CumTiorlnud. i. *26. 
427; Wood's Hiatcry ami Antiquities of th« 
CollBges and Halb (Qutcli), 149, app. 172, 173; 
History of the Uui»erflity, ii. 871 ; Le Move's 
Fasti (Hiirdj), i. 494. 496. Tho lives of Dr. 
Browne in Chalmers's aud Hose's Biogmphicnl 
Dictionaries ore tiikcn from Hutchinson's Cum- 
berland.] W. H. 

BROWNE, LANCELOT(J.160.'i), physi- 
cian, was a native of York, He matriculated 
at St. John's Cnlli'ge, Cambridge, in May 
1559, graduatwl B.A. in 1562-3, and M.A. in 
1566. In 1567 he was elected fellow of Pem- 
broke Hall; in 1570 received the license of 
the university to practise physic. He took a 
leading part in tlic opposition to the i 

1572, and in 1573 was made proctor. lie was 
created M.D. in 1676, and after this would 
appear to Imve moved to London, as on 
10 June loSi he was elected fellow of the 

Browne 52 Browne 

College of Fhysicians. He was censor in ' Brown ;'Bibliothe<»Typo?ntphicaBritannica, 

1587, and several times afterwards ; an elect i. 64 ; Catalogns Veteris Jiyi varii, &c. ; Cata- 

in 1699; and a member of the council of the logo dei pii scelti e preiiosi Marmi, &c. ; 

college in 1604-6; but died in 1605, probably Lysons's Environs, i. 640, Supplement, 96; 

shortly befbre 11 Dec. Browne was physi- pr"^ate information.] J. H. 

cian to Queen Elizabeth, to James I, and to BROWNE, LYDE (d. 1803), the younger, 

his ju»en. He .s not known to have written Uemenant-colonel 2l8t royal Siiots Yusiliers 

anytlung except a commendatory letter in ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^ Emmett^s mob in Dublin in 

Latm prefixed to Gerardes 'Herbal (first jgoa entered the army as comet in the 3rd 

edition, 1597) He wm one of those en- dragons 11 June 1777,and obtained his tioop 

trusted by the College of Physicians in 1589 ;„ !^^ gOth light dragoons, a corps formed 

with the preparation of a pharmacopoeia, and during the American war iut of the light 

in 1594 was on a committee appoint^ forthe ^^'^^^ ^^^ ^^Xier cavalry regiments, tnd 

same object^ but for some ^ason the work ^.,^j^ ^^ disbanded in 17^3, when he was 
was stopped, and not resumed till twenty j^^ ^^ ^^^ jje was brought on full 

years afterwards, when Browne was nolonger ^^y j^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ j^ ^^^ 1794l^nd served 

living. with that regiment in the West Indies, and 

[Cooper's Athense Cantabrigienses, ii. 421 ; became major in the 4th (NichoU's) West 

Munk's Coll. of Phys. (2nd ed.) ii. 86.] Indiaregiment in 1797. His subsequent com- 

J. F. P. missions were major 90th foot, 1798 ; lieu- 

BROWNE, LYDE {d. 1787), the elder, teMntK:olond36ttfoot,withwhichhe8erved 

virtuoso, wara director of the liank of Engl ?tMalta, 1800 ; lieutenant-colonel 86th foot, 

land, haVing a town house in Foster Lane, Jf j ' '"L^* -A""} I^^ ^"* • ^*^ '"'''!"' 

City and I country house at Wimbledon! 25 Jan. 1802. -nie latter regiment was sta- 

He commenced the antioue-artcoUections for tioned in Cork Street, Thomas Street, and 

which he was distinguished about 1747. He ^^'"'^ Barracks m July 1803, and Browne 

became F.S. A. on 5 April 1752; he resigned Y^ repainng thither to lom his men on 

the fellowship in 1772. In April 17^ he ^^t "H."" ^'°? f J*M* ^"*'' "^i* ^'^^' 
was elected director of the Bank of England. "^^^ ^. T^'?« shot dead by some of thejame 
Bv that vear he had gathered together at his mob which immediately afterwards murdered 
^^^imbleaon house as many as eigity-one rare ^^^ "^^ ^^ Kilwarden in an adjoining 
Statues and otherprecious examples of Greek ®*^^®^*^* 

and Roman art. Browne's art treasures were [Annual Army Lists; Tri men's Hist. Rec. 
described in a Latin catalogue, 8vo, published 36th Foot (Southampton, 1874); H. Stooks- 
in 1768, together with the sources whence Smith's Alph. List Officers, 85th Lt. Inf. (Lon- 
some of them were obtained. By 1779 ^on, 1850) ; Cannon's Hist. Rec 21st Fiwiliers,] 
Jirowne had largely increased his collection. • 

An Italian catalogue of it (4to, Rivingtons) BROWNE, MOSES (1704-1787), poet, 
was published in that year, and this speaks ]jom in 1704, was originally a pen-cutter, 
of 236 pieces as being the choicest of Browne 8 ijjg earliest production in print was a we^k 
possessions, and compnsmg some said to be I tragedy called ' Polidus, or Distressed Love,' 
' d' imo stile il piu sublime ' and in perfect | ^^1 an equally weak farce ' All Bedevil'd, or 
preser^^atlon. About 1/86 Browne arranged i the House in a Hurry,' neither of which was 
to sell tlie whole of these treasures (or a ' ever performed by regular actore or in a 
portion. It IS not clear) to the impress of | ij^^ensed theatre. 'His earliest studies were 
Russia, and the price he was to be paid was I patronised bv Robert, racount Molesworth, 
2i>,000/. Choosing a merchant^in St. Peters- ^^d his poems of ' Piscatory Eclogues,' 1729, 
burg, on the recommendation of some friends, | ^ere dedicate«d toDodingtoA, afterwards Lord 

to receive and transmit this sum of money, 
Browne had 10,000/. of it duly forwarded, 
but the balance was never sent, owing to the 
merchant's bankruptcy. The loss caused 

Melcombe. They were reissued with other 
works in 1739 under the title of * Poems on 
various Subjects,* and again in 1773 as 
* Angling Sp<irts, in nine Piscatory Eclogues.' 

Browne much depression, and he soon after- , Browne found a kind friend in Cave, the pro- 
"^^J^^ (.19.^?P^J'^'^) ^^^.^ ®^ apoplexy. prietorofthe 'Gentleman's Magazine,' and for 

His A\ imbledon mansion was tenanted I ^ long time he was the principal poetical con- 
after his death by Henry Dundas (Lord j ^^j^utor to that periodical. The prize of 50/. 
Melville), and subsequently by the Earl of t offered by Cave for the best theological poem 
Aberdeen and by Lord I^vaine (Ltsons, ^^s awarded to Browne by Br. Birch ; it is 
Environs, Supplement, p. 96). printed, with other prize poems of his com- 

[Gcnt. Mag. 1787, vol. Ivii. pt. ii. p. 840, under position, in the ' Poems on yarious Subjects.' 




I^rowne was an enthusiastic angler, and 
in 1750, at the sug^tion of Dr. Johnson, 
brought out an edition of Walton and Cot- 
ton's * Compleat Angler/ adding to it * a 
number of occasional notes.* These were of 
value, but unfortunately the original text 
was altered to suit the taste of the age. 
Other editions appeared in 1759 and 1772, 
the former giving rise to a controversy with 
Sir John Hawkins, who was also an editor of 
that work. Browne's volume, ' Works and 
Kest of the Creation, containing (1) an Essay 
on the Universe, (2) Sunday Thoughts,* was 
published in 1752, and was several times 
reprinted, the last edition being in 1806. 
Tlirough the encouragement of the Rev. 
James Hervey he took orders in the English 
church and became curate to Her\ey at Col- 
lingtree in 1753. The small living of Olney 
was given to Browne by Lord Dartmoutn 
in the same year, but as the poet had a lar^e 
family — Cowper says * ten or a dozen * chil- 
dren, Hervey with greater precision * thirteen ' 
— he was forced to accept in 1763 the chap- 
laincy of Morden College, and to be non- 
resident at Olney. At a still later date he 
became the vicar of Sutton in Lincolnshire. 
Browne died at Morden CoUcjge 13 Sept. 
1787, his wife, Ann, having predeceased him 
on 24 March 1783, aged 65. A tablet to his 
memory is in Olney Church. John Newton 
was his curate there from 1764 to 1780, when 
Thomas Scott succeeded him. 

He was the author of several sermons and 
the translator of * Tlie Excellency of the 
Knowledge of Jesus Christ, by John Liborius 
Zimmermann,* which passed through three 
editions (1772, 1773, and 1801). At the 
command of the Duke and Duchess of Somer- 
set he wrote in 1749 a poem on their seat 
of * Percy Lodge,* but it was not given to the 
world until 1755. Had they lived, this poor 
poet would have been better provided for. 

[Gent. Mag. 1736, pp. 69-60, 1787 pp. 286, 
840, 932 ; Biog. Dram. (1812), i. 75 ; West wood's 
Bibl. Piscatoria (1883), pp. 43-4, 221-2; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 21, 436, v. 36-7, 51-3 ; 
Hawkins's Johnson, p. 46 ; Hervey's Letters, 
i. and ii.; Southey's Cowper, i. 243-4, iv. 154; 
Abbey and Overton's English Church, ii. 331.] 

W. P. C. 

BROWNE, PATRICK (1720P-1790), 
author of the * Civil and Natural History of 
Jamaica/ was the fourth son of Edward 
Browne of Woodstock, co. Mayo, Ireland, 
and was bom about 1720. In 1737 he was 
sent to reside with a relative in Antigua, but 
ill-health compelling him to return to Europe 
he went to Paris, where he commenced the 
study of phjrsical science, especially botany. 
Aftarwazos he removed to Leyden, where he 

continued his studies, obtaining the degree of 
M.D. 21 Feb. 1743 (Peacock, English Stu- 
dents at Leyden, p. 14). At Leyden he made 
the acquaintance of Gronovius, and began 
a correspondence with Linnieus, which con- 
tinued till his death. After practising his 
profession for two years in London he re- 
turned to the West Indies, spending some 
months in Antigua and other sugar islands, 
and thence proceeding to Jamaica. Here he 
occupied himself with the study of the geology, 
botany, and natural history of the island. In 
1765 he published a new map of Jamaica, and 
in 1750 * Civil and Natural History of Ja- 
maica' in folio, ornamented with forty-nine 
engravings, a map of the island, and a map 
of the harbour of Port Koyal, Kingston, &c. 
All the coppeq)lat08 as well as the original 
drawings used in the work were consumed 
in the great fire in Comhill 7 Nov. 1705, and 
conseauently the second edition of the book 
published in 1709, with four new Linnsoan 
indexes, is without illustrations. In June 
1774 he published in * Exshaw's London Ma- 
gazine ' a * Catalogue of the Birds of Ireland, 
whether natives, casual visitors, or birds of 

Sassage, taken from observation, classed and 
isposed according to Linnaeus ; * and in Au- 
gust of the same year a * Catalogue of Fishes 
observed on our coasts, and in our lakes and 
rivers.' He left in manuscript a ' Catalogue 
of the Plants now crowing in the Sugar Is- 
lands,* and a * Catalogue of such Irish Plants 
as have been observed by the author, chiefly 
those of the counties of Mayo and Galway.* 
He died at llushbrook, co. Mayo, 29 Aug. 
1790, and was interred in the family burying- 
place at Crossboyne, where there is a monu- 
ment to his memory with an inscription 
written by himself. 

[Walker's Hibernian Mag. 1795, pt. ii. pp. 
196-7.] T. F. H. 

BROWNE, PETER (^. 1735), divine, was 
born in co. Dublin soon after the Restoration ; 
entered Trinity College in 1(J82; became 
fellow in 1092, and provost in August 1099. 
He was made bishop of Cork and Ross in 
January 1710. He became first known as a 
writer by an attack upon Toland, who had 
published in 1090 his * Christianity not Mys- 
terious.* lirowne made one of the best known 
replies to this work ; and Toland was in the 
haoit of boasting that he had thus made 
Browne a bishop (Toland, Life prefixed to 
Collection of several Pieces, 1720, p. xx). 
Browne held that Toland was beyond the pale 
of toleration (Amory, Memoirs, &c., i. 85). 
He afterwards published a full elaboration 
of his argument in the * Procedure, Extent, 
and Limits of Human Understanding,* 1728 ; 

Browne 54 Browne 

and in * Thing-s .Sii])enmtural uiid Divine con- is described as a * woodmonger' in the list of 
ceived by Analogy with things Natural and adventurers for the reconquest of Ireland, to 
Human,M733. The argument in these books which enterprise he subscribed 600/. He 
resembles one afterguards put forward by took up arms for the parliament, and obtained 
DeanMansel. It is adopted irom Archbishop a command in the trained bands. In Sei)- 
King*s sermon on predestination (1709, and tember 1642 he disarmed the royalist gen- 
republished with notes by Archbishop try of Kent (Vicars, i. 163). In Decemljer 
V/hately, 1821). According to lirowne we 1642 he ser\ed under Waller, and his regi- 
can have no direct knowledge at all of the real ment was the first to enter the breach at the 
nature of the Divine attributes, though we capture of Winchester (ib. i. 229). In July 
may have an * analogical * knowledge through ICM^ he was charged with the suppression of 
revelation. The doctrine was intended at first the rising which took place in Kent in con- 
to upset Tolund's argument against mystery nection with Waller's plot, and crushed the 
as being equivalent to nonsense, l^rkeley, in insurgents in a fight at Tunbridge (16 Juh- 
his * Ah:iphron' (third dialogue, 1732), urged 1643, ib. iii. 12). On 23 Dec. 1(U3 the par- 
that it really led to atheism. Hrowne replies liament appointed Browne to the command 
to Berkeley at great length in the* Analogy.' of the two regiments (the white and the 
Iterkeley says (4 April 17.*U) that he did not yellow) sent to reinforce Waller's army, and 
answer the last attack, as the Dook had excited he shared the command at the victory of 
little notice in Ireland. Browne also took part Alresford (29 March KM). In the follow- 
in a controversy alx)ut the practice of drinking ing summer, by an ordinance dated 8 June, 
to the * glorious and immortal memory.' He he was constituted major-general of the 
maintained it to Ix* a superstitious rite inva- forces raised for the subduing of Oxford, and 
rious pamphlets: * Drinking in Kemembrance , commander-in-chief of the forces of thethrt^e 
of the Dead, Ix^ng the substance of a discourse associated counties of lierkshire. Bucking- 
delivered to the clergy of the diocese of Cork,* ' hamshire, and Oxfordshire (Rushworth, iii. 
1713 ; s<*cond part, 1714 ; * An Answer to a ' pt. ii. 673). With three regiments of auxili- 
Kt. Uhv. IV'late's Defence of, &c.,' 1715 ; a | aries raised in 1^( 

iondon he took up his head- 
tgdon, where * he was a con- 
great evil of the custom is shown,' 1710 ; and i tlnual thoni in the eyes and goad in the sides 

* Discr)ur8e of Drinking Healths, wherein the quarters at Abingdon, where * he was a con- 

vn,' 1710; and i tmualthoni in the c 

and *2S) Junt? 1720), and says that the bishop , while the royalist tracts and papers continu- 
is a ' whimsical gentlenuiu.' Browne died ally accuse him of plundering the country and 
2oAug. 173o, and was buried at Ballinaspic, ill-treating his ])risoners. An attempt was 
ufMir ( 'ork, when* he had spent 2,000/. on a I made by Lord Digby to induce him to betray 
house whicrh he left to his successors in the i his charge, but it met with signal failure 
bishrtpric. His body was exhumed 12 Jan. (September to December 1 644, Kushworth 
I HOI, in ('r)nseqvu»nce of a report that it had i iii. pt. ii. 808-16). 

Imm'U stolen, and found so perfect that the 
reseniblance to his portrait in the palace at 
<^»rk was rec(»gni sable. It was reinterred 
under the new cathedral church of St. Fin- 
bar, Cork. He is descrilKMl as a man of aus- 

In May 1645 Browne was employed for a 
short, time in following the king's movements, 
but was recalled to take part in the first 
siege of Oxford (June 1645). He took part 
in the final siege of that city in the summer of 

tere an<l simple habits, lavish and secret in | 1640. On the conclusion of the war he was 
his charities, and a verv' im])re4^sive preacher, i appointed one of the commissioners to receive 
I lis sermons, in two volumes, were published i Cliarles from the Scots (5 Jan. 1647, Kush- 
in 1742. lit* left various writings in manu- i worth, iv. pt. i. ;^4). While at Holmby he 
script, including a thinl volume of the ! was, accordmg to Anthony Wood, * converted 
'Analogy/ a tract * On the Use and Abuse of by the king's discourses' (Annals, ii. 474). 
Meta])hysicks in Ueligi<m,* and some other He was at Holmby when the king was seized 
tnicts and sermons. bv Comet Joyce, and told the soldiers * that 

[Fntser's IWkoloy, iv. 18, 222. 234; :Mant's {( \}^^, ^f^ stT^n^\i we should have had 

Church of Inland, ii. 193; A mory's Memoirs of *"» ^/^^r^^^l Y ^^"P^^*^ ^^^ king away, 

several Ljulies, &c., i. Hr); Ware's Bishops of " IndePcl, said the comet, **vou speak like 

Irohmd (Harris), 671. 572; Wiu^'s Writers of a gallant and faithful man;** but he knew 

Ireland (Harris), 206, 2U7.] L. S. well enough he had not the strength, and 

therefore sjmke so boldly* (Rushworth, 

BROWNE, Sir IHCHARD (</. 1669), iv. 516). Browne was elected member for 

parliamentary general, a citizen of London, Wycombe amongst the recruiterSy and in 

Browne 55 Browne 

1647 was also ch«)sen sheriff of London, liim fresh advancement. The city rewarded 
Clarendon describes him as having * a weat him with a pension of 500/. a year (7 Aug. 
name and interest in the city, and witli all , 1662, Kennet, p. 739)» and the king created 
the presbyterian party * {Rebellion, x. 70). ' him a baronet. He died on 24 Sept. 1669, 
With the majority of his party he changed *at his house in Essex, near Saffron Walden* 
sides in 1(U8, was accused by the army of {Obitvaiy of Richard Sniyth^\y. ^\)). He was 
confederating with the Scots and the secluded a brave soldier, and the charges of rapacity 
members for the invasion of England (6Dec.), and cruelty brought against him bv the royalist 
arrested (12 Dec.), exi)elled from the House ])amphleteers can hardly bt» regarded as proved, 
of Commons, and deprived of his sheriffdom A greater blot on his fame is his conduct at 
and other imsts (Walkeb, History of Inde- the trial of the regicides, lirowne repeated 
pendency, li. 39; KusHWORTii, iv. pt. ii. against Adrian Scroop words tending tojustiiy 
1354-61 ). For several years he remained in ; tlie king's execution which Scroop had spoken 
prison at Windsor, Wallingfiird, Warwick, in a casual conversation, and this testimony 
Ludlow, and other places. In the account i excited a feeling in the high court and the 
of his sufferings which he gave in parliament parliament which cost Scroop his life (W^OOD, 
in March 1659 he says: *I was used worse Afltenat, ii. 74, ed. 1721 ; Kennet, Register, 
than a cavalier ; taken and sent away prisoner p. 276). 

to Wales; used with more cruelty than if in [Vicars'.s Parliamentary Chronicle ;Ilu«hworth'8 
Newgate; in a worst* prison than common Historical Collections; Kennet. s Register, 
prisoners. My wife ana children could not , Vicars's England's Worthies (1647) contains a 
come under roof to see me. My letters , sketch of Browne's career and a portrait. The 
could not pass. The govt^nior demanded mv , correspondence with Lord Digby was printed in 
letters ; I said he should have mv life as a pamphlet entitled The Lord Digby s Design 
soon. I defended them with my 'weapon ' , <>" Abingdon (4 to, 1644), and several of Browne's 
(BUBTOX, Diary, iv. 263). This impnscm- 1 relations of diff-erent battles and skirmishes were 

published contemporaneously.] C. H. F. 


{Jl, 1674-1694), ]»]iysician, was educated at 
Queen's College, Oxford, but giiuluated at 
Ijeyden, where he was admitted 20 Sept. 
1675, being then fifty years old. lie became 
a licentiate of the College of Physicians on 
.*J0 Sept. 1676. His principal writings, some 
of whicli Ijear on the title-])age *bv Richard 

ment lasted for five years. In 1656 llrowne 
was one of the members excluded from ])ar- 
liament for refusing to take the engagement 
demanded by the Protector (see Protest of 
22 Sept. in Wuitblocke). In llichard 
Cromwell's imrliament he was one of the 
members for Ijondon, and foimd at length, 
in March 1659, an o])port unity for securing 
redress. On 26 March 1659 the House of 

Commons annulled the vote of 4 Dec. 1649 Browne, Apotheair>-ofOakham,' are: 1. 'Me- 
disablmcr him from the office of alderman, aicina Musica ; or a Mechanical Essav on the 
and ordered the payment of 9,016/. still , Eft^cts of Singing, Music, and Dancing on 
owing to him from tlie state. In the summer Human Bodies ; with an Kssav on the Nature 
of 1659 he was impliaited m Sir George .^j^jQure of the Spleen and Vapours,' l^mdon. 
Booth's rising, and his arrest ordered, but I 1^374^ ,1^.^^ edition 1729. 2. 'Utpi "Apx^v, 
he succeeded in lying hid at Stationers' : u\yeT in quo Principia Vt^tenim evertuntur, 
Hall, 'by the faithfid secrecy of Captain et nova stabiliuntur,*]^ndon, 1678. 3. ^ Pro- 
Burroughe8'(HFLmi'8CArw«c/^,p.737). The sodia Pharmacopoeorum, or the Apothecar\''8 
votes then passed against him were annulled p^wodv,' I^ndon, 1685. 4. * Knglish Grain- 
on 22 Feb. 1660 (Journals; and Pepys, mar,' Loudon, 1692. 5. 'General Historv of 
Diary), Browne was one of th.» ]>ersons wit h Earthtjuakes,' London, 1 694. A small book 
whom A\hitelocke took counsel for the fur- entitled 'Coral and Steel, a most ComjH^ndious 
therance of lus scheme of persuading lleet- Method of Preserving and Best oring Health, 
wood to recall tlieking(\\ hitelocke, 22 Dw. }jvB, B., M.D.,'nodate, is doubtfiillv assigned 
1659). Browne was chosen by the city as one ^/^ xhe same K. Brown. 
of the deputation to Charles II, and headed |^^i^^„^.^ (.^u' ^j. p, J (j^.g^ j 391^ 
the triumphal procession which brought the (^ Vp 3 
king back to London with a troop of gentle- 
men in cloth of silver doublets. His ser^ ices BROWNE, Sir HICHARD (1605- 
were liberally rewarded bv the king, who con- 168.S), dii)l(>, bom iu 1(505, was the 
ferred the honour of knig1itho(xl on lx)th him only .son of Christ opln^r Browne of Sayes 
and his eldest son. He was also elected lord Court, Deptford, and Thomasine Gonson, 
mayor on 3 Oct. 1660. During his mayoralty i whose father and grandfather, Benjamin and 
Venner's insurrection took place, and the William Gons<m, had betiu treasuries of the 
vigour he showed in suppressing it gained navy. Thefatherof Christopher, Sir Bichard 

Browne 56 Browne 

Browne, knight, was in the service of the present at a sen- ice in this chapel, when the 
Earl of Leicester while governor of the ordination took place of two Englishmen — 
Netherlands, and held the appointment of , Durell, afterwards dean of Windsor, and 
clerk of the green clotli under Elizabeth and Brevint, afterwards dean of Durham ; the 
James I. Richard Browne was educated at | Bishop of Galloway officiated, and the ser- 
Merton College, Oxford. After travelling mon was preached by the Dean of Peter- 
on the continent, and especially, as it would . borough. It is recorded that divers bishops^ 
seem, in France, he returned to England, and | doctors of the church, and others who found 
was sworn clerk of the council to King an asylum in Bro'N^Tie^s house at Paris, were 
Charles I on 27 Jan. 1640-1. In the same ^ accustomed, in their disputes with papists 
year he was sent on two diplomatic missions, and sectaries, at a time when the church 
to the Queen of Bohemia and the Elector of England seemed utterly lost, * to argue 
Palatine, and to Henry Frederick, prince of ' for the visibility of the church,* ^olely from 
Orange. In July 1641 Browne entered on the existence of Browne's chapel and con- 
tlie chief occupation of his life, being at gregation. About 1662-3 Browne also pur- 
that date appomted king's resident at the chased a piece of ground for the inter- 
coiut of France, in succession to the Earl of ment of protestants who died in or near 
Leicester. This appointment he held for no Paris. 

less than nineteen years, acting as the repre- ' A selection from Browne's correspondence 
sentative both of Charles I and of his exiled , has been published in the appendix to Bray's 
son. Bro\\Tie was a stavmch royalist, and his edition of Ev^elyn's ' Diary and Correspon- 
loyalty was thoroughly tried. During the ! dence;' the most important portion of it con- 
wnole of his diplomatic career in France he sists of the letters which passed privately 
seems to have been practically obliged to give , between himself and Sir Edward Hyde (after- 
his senices gratuitously. More than once he , wards Earl of Clarendon), principally from 
is found writing anxiously for some payment February 1662 to August 1669. In the corre- 
of his allowances, while on one occasion he spondence very frequent mention is made of the 
complained bitterly that he had not even 'prizes' captured, after the death of Charles I, 

* the wherewithal to provide himself out of , by the privateers of Scilly and Jersey. Those 
mourning a new coat and liveries.' The ' islands being then in the hands of the parlia- 
sum due to him for his allowance as resi- mentary forces, the freebooters were com- 
dent was stated, after the Restoration, to pelled to bring their prizes into the ports of 
amount to 19,732/., of which only 7,668/. France, and, in return for the sanction of the 
had been paid or deducted as a fine on the royal commission, were called upon to pay 
leasee to him of Saves Court. An attempt certain dues into the exchequer of the exiled 
made in 1649 by Augier, * the agent for tne English king (see Bray's notes to the Hyde 
rebels,' to bribe the king's resident if he and Browne Correspondence in vol. iv. of 
would * serve the new state, and discover , Evelyn). In the collection of these dues 
what came to his knowledge of the Lou^Te | Charles experienced great difficulties, and 
councils,' was, however, indignantly repelled, from the close of 1652 to 1664 Browne was 

* I replied,' wrote Browne at the time, * that I actively engaged in Brittany, at Brest and 
I took it very ill that he or any should Nantes, endeavouring to collect the sums 
dare to make any such overture to me . . . owing to the king. On 1 Sept. 1649 Browne 
that I held liis masters the most execrable had been created a baronet by Charles II, in 
villains that were ever upon the face of the virtue of a dormant warrant sent to him by 
earth, and that if liis majesty — now that I Charles I in Februarj- 1643. On 19 Sept. 
had spent my whole estate in this my last ! 1049 he had also received from Charles U the 
eight years' service — were neither able nor honour of knighthood. 

willing to use me, 1 would retire into some | At the Restoration the king's resident re- 
remote, cheap comer of the world, where, | turned to England, landing at Dover 4 June 
feeding only upon bread and water, I and 1660. He continued to hold office as clerk 
mine would hourly pray for his majesty's ^ of the council until January 1671-2. The re- 
re-i'stablishment.' But probably ]:5rowne's , mainder of his life was spent (according to 
greatest ser\-ice in the eyes of the royalists \ Wood, Fasti O.von.) at Charlton in Kent, 
was his maintenance of the public service ; where he passed his time ' in a pleasant re- 
and liturgy- of the church of England during j tiredness and studious recess.' For some few 
the exile of the English king. In his large months before his decease he suffered from 

house in Paris, Browne erected a chapel 
which was much frequented by many well- 
known English divines and other exiles. On 
the Trinity Sunday of 1660 John Evelyn was 

gout and dropsy, and died on 12 Feb. 1682-3, 
at Sayes Court, Deptford. He was buried 
in the churchjrard of St. Nicholas, Deptford, 
his funeral being attended by the brethren ot 

Browne 57 Browne 

the Trinity corporation, of which he had been | his name was placed eightieth on the list — it is 
master. 6rowne married Elizabeth, daugh- ' probable that he matriculated first at some 
ter of Sir John Prettyman of Dryfield in other college and migrated to Corpus for some 
Gloucestershire. Their only daughter, Mary, j reason which must remain unknown to us. 
became the wife of the well-known John Thomas Aldrich, one of the leaders of the 
Evelyn. ' puritan party at Cambridge, was master of 

The Sir Richard Browne of this article Corpus at this time, having been elected, on 
should be carefully distinguished from Alder- the recommendation of Archbishop Parker, 
man Sir Richard Browne (d. 1669) [q. v.] i 3 Feb. 1569-70. The college was in a 

[Evelyn's Diaiy and Correspondence (ed. Bray) flourishing condition, due in a great measure 
passim and Browne's Correspondence thereto *<> *"« favour shown to it by the pnmate, 
subjoined ; Monumental Inscriptions at Dept- ^^o had himself held the mastership from 
ford, printed in Lysons's Environs of London, j 1544 to 1553. It is hardly conceivable that 
vol iv. ; Wood's Fasti (Bliss), pt. i. pp. 439-40 ; ' Browne between the time of his entry at 
Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, especially Corpus and the taking of his deCTee should 
from 1640-1 to 1663.] W. W. ' have been admitted to the household of the 
unfortunate Thomas Howard, fourth duke of 

BROWNE, ROBERT (1560 P-1633 ?), | Norfolk, still less that he should in any sense 
the earliest separatist from the church of . have been the duke's domestic chaplain in 
England after the Reformation, and now June 1571, as Strype asserts he was. The 
claimed as the first exponent of their prin- ' duke at this time was deeply pledged to the 
ciple of church government by the modem , papal -party, of which he was soon to be ac- 
congregationalists in England and America, knowledged as the ostensible leader, and he 
was bom at Tolethorpe in Rutland about i was the last man just at this time to have 
the middle of the sixteenth century, though extended his patronage to a young firebrand 
the exact date of his birth is unknown. Tlie like Browne, whose violent denunciation of 
family from which he sprang had been settled ^ all that was * popish ' was quite ungovernable 
at Stamford in Lincolnshire since the four- and at any rate unrestrained. It is far more 
teenth century. They had amassed con- , probable that Strype has confused Robert 

siderable wealth, filled positions of trust and 
importance, and were recognised county mag- 
nates before the fifteenth century had closed. 
One of them, John Browne, a merchant of 

Browne with another man of the same name 
upon whom Cecil doubtless had his eye — 
the man who two months later was impli- 
cated when the Ridolfi conspiracy was clis- 

the staple, and a rich alderman of Stamford, ' covered, and who was to be the bearer of the 
built the church of All Saints in that town bag of money which was intended for Lord 
at his sole expense, and a brass in memory of Herries but never reached his hands. After 
him and his wife still exists in the church he taking his degree Browne appears to have 
erected. This man's son, Christopher Browne gone to London, where he supported himself 
of Tolethorpe, was high sheriff for the county as a schoolmaster, and delivered his soul on 
of Rutland m the reim of Henry VII, and his ■ Sundays by preaching in the open air in de- 
son, grand&ther of tne subject of this article, fiance of the rector of Islington, in whose 
received a curious patent teom Henry VIII, I parish it was that his auditors assembled, 
allowing him to wear his hat in the royal About 1578, the plague being more than 
presence when he pleased. Robert was the usually violent in London, his father ordered 
third child of Mr. Anthony Browne of Tole- him to return to Tolethorpe ; but unable to 
thorpe, by Dorothy, daughter of Sir Philip remain long without active employment, he 
Boteler of Watton Woodhall, Hertford- grew tired of the quiet home, and again went 
shire, and was connected more or less closely | up to Cambridge, probably with a view to 
through both parents with some of the most ' taking the higher degrees, or on the chance of 
wealthy and influential families in England. : a fellowship falling to him. At this time he 
In Cecil, lord Burghley, whose family had ' came under the influence of Richard Green- 
been connected with Stamford for genera- i ham, rector of Dry Dray ton, six or seven milea 
tions, and who on more than one occasion from Cambridge, a clergyman of great ear- 
acknowledged Browne as a kinsman, he found nestness and conspicuous ability, who had 
a friend indeed when he most needed his pro- remarkable influence upon the more devout 
tection and support. | and ardent young men in the university then 

Browne is said to have entered at Corpus preparing for hofy orders. Browne was pro- 
Christi College, Cambridge, in 1570, and to I bably placed for a while under Greenham as 
have taken his 6.A. degree in 1572. Both | a pupil in his family, and the elder man soon 

statements can hardly be true, and — as he cer- 
tainly did take the B.A. degree in 1572, when 

perceived that the younger one had gifts of 
no ordinary kind. Beginning by allowing 

Browne 5S Browne 

him to take a prominent part in the religious 
exercises of his householo, which was a large 
one, he went on to encourage him to preach 
in the villages round, without taking the 
trouble to get the bishop's license, though it 
is almost certain that ne must have been 
previously ordained. Soon the fame of his 
(>loquence and enthusiasm extended itself, 

claiming this new theory of ecclesiastical 
polity — and at this time it was a very new 
theory* — his health broke do>vn, and while 
still suffering fi-oni illness he was formally 
inhibited from preaching by the bishop. 
Browne, with characteristic perversity, told 
the bishop's officer that he was not in a 
position to preach just then ; if the circum- 

ana ho was invited to accept the cure of a stanceshadl)eendiHerent,'he would no whit 
parish in Cambridge, probably St. Benet's, lessceuse preaching' for the episcopal inhi- 

adjoining his own college, where he preached 

at the end of that time he *sent back the 

bition. &)on after this he heard that there 

fervently and effectively for some months ; were certain people in Norfolk who were 

' very forward * in their zeal for a new refor- 

moncy they would have g^iven him, and also mation, and consumed by his desire to spread 
gave them warning of his departure.' His his views of the importance of a separation of 
•congregation were not ' as yet so rightly ; the godly from the ungodlv, he felt called to 
grounded in church government' as they go down to East Anglia. It was just at this 
should be. In other words, he could not I time that a former acquaintance and fellow- 

Sersuade them to follow him as far as he j collegian of his, one Robert Harrison, re- 
esired to go. It was at this point in his i tum^ to Cambridge, or paid a brief visit to 
can»er that lie first became possessed with the ^ the university. Harrison, who was Browne's 
notion that the whole constitution of eccle- senior by some years, had recentlv been dis- 
siastical government was faulty and needed ' missed from the mastership of Aylsham school 
a radical reform. Ordination, whether epi- • in Norfolk for some irregularity or noncon- 
scopal or presbj'terian, was to his mind an j formity, but had been fortunate enough to 
abominable institution : to be authorised, li- , obtain another resting-place as master of St. 
censed, or ordained, by any human being was ' Giles's [?] Hospital in the city of Norwich, 
hateful. When his brother obtaintni for him Harrison s visit to Cambridge resulted in a 
t he necessar}' license from Cox, bishop of Ely, renewal of an old intimacy and in a closer 
and paid the fees, Browne lost one of the neces- union between two enthusiasts who had 
iMirv documents, threw the other into the fire, much in common. It ended by Browne 
and proceedeil optmly to preach in Cambridge, : leaving Cambridge and takuig up his resi- 
wheri*ver he had the opportunity, * against dence for a time in Harrison's house at 
the calling and authorising of preachers by Norwich. Gradually Browne, gaining ascen- 
bishops,' prot toting that though lie had been , dency over his friend, used him as a coadjutor, 
fortifieil with the episcopal license, he cartel the two working together — pretty much as 
not one whit for it and would have preached Keeve and Muggleton did a century later — 
whether he had been provide^.! with it or not. and round them there soon gathered a small 
If t heeoclesiajitieal government of the bishops company of believers who, accepting Browne 
in their st»veral stvs was iMid, not less objec- as their pastor, called themselves* the church,' 
tionable did the whole struct iin* of the paro- as others have done before and since, and 
ohial system Si*em to him, harmful to religion separated from all other professing christians, 
and a bondage from which it was high time who * were held in bondage by anti-christian 
that the true bt^lievers should bo set free. j>ower, as were those parishes in Cambridge 
* The kingdom of Gcxi,' he proolaimiHl, * wa:^ by the bishops.' The disciples became gene- 
not to be begun by whole parishes, but rather rally known as Brownists. Edmund Freake 
by the wortliiest, were they never so few.* was bishop of Norwich at this time, and it was 
Already he had pt^rsuaded himself distinctly not long bi'fore he took action against the new 
that the christian church, so far fnnn l>eing -ioct. On 10 April 15S1 he forwarded certain 
a ivqHiration comprehensive, all-embracing, articles of complaint * against one Robert 
and catholic, was to be of all conceivable as- Browne ' to honX IWrghley, in which he set 
scMMations the most narrow, fxclusive, and forth that *the said jmrty had been lately 
i\mtiiUHl in its intiuence and its aims. It apprehended on complaint of many godly 
was to b<* a s«xMety for a privilegiil and mini- preachers, for delivering unto the people 
oulously gifttHl few, a witness immeasurably ivrrupt and cimtentiousdiX'trine,' and further 
less for divine truth than ajrainst the world, that ne was seilucing *the vulgar sort of 
which was lying in wioktnlness. and which people, who gn^atly depended on him, as- 
Browne stvms to have considennl he had si'moling themselves tiwrether to the number 
little concern with, little call to conven of one lumdred at a time in private houses 
frv^m the errors of its ways. and convent iclt»s to hear him, not without 

While vehemently and incessantly pn-^- danger of some v\i\ elTect.' It was not at 

Browne 59 Browne 

Norwich but at Bury St. Edmunds that ; exclusive congregation were in no mood to 
Browne had produced this effect, and it is ally themselves with their fellow-exiles. 
probable that ne had been led to move into All other professing christians might come 
Suffolk by finding that at Norwich the to him, he certainly would not go to them, 
power of the bishop was too strong for him, To the amazement and grief of Cartwright 
or that the clergy of the city, then deeply he found in the newcomers no friends but 
affected with Genevan proclivities and as a aggressive opponents, and a paper war was 
body very zealous in their ministerial duties, carried on, Browne writing diligently and 
were by no means willing to befriend or co- printing what he wrote as fast as the funds 
operate with a sectary who began by assuming could be found. Harrison too rushed into 
that they were all in the bonds of iniquity, print, and the books of the two men were 
Lord Burghley returned a prompt reply to sent over to England and circulated by 
the bishop's letter of complaint, but as their followers so sedulously— for not all 
promptly sent back his kinsman to Bury the Norwich congregation had emigrated — 
with a kindly excuse for him, and a sug- thataroyalproclamationwns actually issued 
gestion that his indiscretions proceeded * of against them in 1583, and two men were 
zeal rather than malice.* Browne was no hanged for dispersing the books and one for 
sooner released than he returned to the old the crime of binding them ! 
course, and the bishop every day received Meanwhile the violent and imperious cha- 
some fresh complaint and became more and racter of Bro>^7ie led him into acts and 
more irritated. In the following August he words which were not favourable to har- 
again wrote a strong letter to the lord trea- mony even in his own little company of de- 
surer, in which he said that his duty * en- voted followers, and that which any outsider 
forced him most earnestly to crave his lord- who watched the movement must have fore- 
ship's help in suppressing ' this disturber of seen to be inevitable hapT)ened at last ; the 
his diocese. Agam Burghley stood his friend, Middleburg * church ' broke up, and Browne 
and when, a little after, Browne was brought towards the close of loS^i turned Iiis back 
before the archbishop, even the primate could upon Harrison and the rest, and set sail for 
not keep his prisoner, and he was set at Scotland accompanied by ' four or hve Eng- 
liberty only to return to his followers with lishmen with their wives and families,' so 
his influence over them increased tenfold, much already had the ^ church ' shrunk 
The truth is that the time was hardly fa- from its earlier proportions. 
Tonrable for exercising exceptional severity Arrived in Scotland Browne began in the 
against a zealot of this character, who was old way, denouncing everything and every- 
for ever declaiming against papistry and ' body concerned in matters religious or eccle- 
Boman errors. The Jesuit mission to p]ng- | siastical, and he had scarcely been a month 
land had only just collapsed by the appre- in the country before he was cit«d to appear 
hension of Campion on 10 July. Parsons before the kirk of Edinburgh, and on his be- 
waa still at large, and the rack was being having himself with his usual arrogance and 
employed pretty freely in the Tower upon ' treating the court with an insolent defiance 
the wretched men who, if they had succeeded I he was thrown into the common gaol till time 
in nothing else, had succeeded in rousing the should be given to two theologians who were 
anti-papal feelings of the masses and the appointed to examine and report upon his 

alarm of such statesmen as looked with 
apprehension upon a revival of catholic 
sentiment. Nevertheless it became evident 
that the little congregation, the ' church * 
which prized above all things human the 
privilege of having their * pastor' present 
with them, could hardly continue its assembly 
if Browne were to be continually worried 
by citations and imprisonment at the will 
of one after another of the stiff sticklers 
for uniformity ; and when they had sought 
about for some time for a retreat where 
they might enjojr liberty of worship un- 
molested, they emigrated at last in a body 
to Middleburg in the autumn of 1581. 
Oartwright and Dudley Fenner were the 
accredited ministers of the English puritan 
colony at Middleburg, but Browne and his 

books. Meanwhile some secret influences had 
been brought to bear in his favour, and just 
when it was confidently expected that this 
mischievous troublerwould be condemned and 
silenced, to the surprise of all he was set at 
liberty, why, none could ex])lain. Browne ap- 
pears to have remained some months or even 
longer in Scotland, but he made no way, left 
no mark, and gained no converts. In disgust 
at his reception he delivered his testimony 
against the Scotch in no measured terms, 
shook off the dust of his feet against them, 
and setting his face southwards was once more 
printing and publishing books in the summer 
of 1584. Chice more he was thrown into 
prison and kept there for some months, and 
once more Burghley interposed, Inicame se- 
curity for his good conduct, effected his 




release, and actually interceded for him in 
a letter to his father, who was still alive. 
Browne returned to Tolethorpe much broken 
in health bv his long imprisonment. On re- 
covering his strength his former habits and 
temper returned, and old Anthony Browne, 
vexed and provoked by his son's contumacy, 
applied toBurghley and obtained his sanction 
for his son's removal to Stamford, possibly 
under the eye of some relatives, members 
of the Browne or Cecil families. But such 
men as this are incorrigible. In the spring 
of 1586 he had left Stamford and was preach- 
ing as diligently as ever at Northampton — as 
diligently and as offensively — and on being 
cited by Howland, bishop of Peterborough, 
to appear before him, Browne took no notice 
of tne citation, and was excommunicated 
for contempt accordingly. 

This seems to have been the turning-point 
of his strange career. "Whether it was that 
Browne was prepared to suffer in his per- 
son all sorts of hardships, but had never 
thought of being cast out of the church 
from which he gloried in urging others to 
go out, and thus was startled and con- 
fused by the suddenness and unexpected 
form of the sentence that had been pro- 
nounced ; whether his disordered imagina- 
tion began to conjure up some vague, mys- 
terious consequences which might possibly 
ensue, and on which he had never reflected 
))efore ; or whether his fifteen years of rest- 
less onslaught upon all relijrions and all reli- 
gious men who would not follow nor be led 
by him, had almost come to be regarded by 
himself as a conspicuous failure, and he had 
given up hope ana lost heart, it is impossible 
to say. Certain it is that from this time he 
ceased to be a disturber of the order of things 
established, and his * church * or ' churches ' 
were compelled to seek elsewhere for their 
'pastors' and guides. In November 1586 
Browne was elected to be master of Stam- 
ford grammar school, certain pledges being 
exacted from him for good behaviour and 
certain conditions being extorted for the re- 
straining him from troubling the world with 
the expression of his peculiar views. To 
these conditions he aflixed his signature, and 
he began at once to discharge his new duties. 
He continut^d master of Stnmfonl school for 
five years, and resigned his mastership only 
on his being presented to the rectory of 
Achurch in Northamptonshire, a benefice 
which was in the gift of Lord Burgliley, 
who two vears before had made interest, 
but to no puripose, with the Bishop of Peter- 
borough to obtain some preferment for his 
kinsman. At Achurch Browne continued 
to reside for more than forty years, doing 

his duty in his parish with scrupulous fidelity 
and preaching frequently ana earnestly to 
his people ; and though doubtless many un- 
friendly eyes were watching him, he never 
again brought upon himself the charge of non- 
conformity or of being a disturber of the 
peace of the church. His end was a sad 
one ; it must be read in the words of Thomas 
Fuller, the facts of the narrative having 
never been disputed or disproved : * ... As I 
am credibly informed, being by the constable 
of the parish (who chanced also to be his 
godson) somewhat roughly and rudely re- 
quired the payment of a rate, he happened 
in passion to strike him. The constable (not 
taking it patiently as a castigation frt)m a 
godfather, but in anger as an afiront to hia 
office) complained to Sir Rowland St. John, 
a neighbouring justice of the peace, and 
Browne is brought before him. The knight, 
of himself, was prone rather to pity and par- 
don, than punisn his passion ; but Browne^s 
behaviour was so stubborn, that he appeared 
obstinately ambitious of a prison, as desirous 
(after long absence) to renew his familiarity 
with his ancient acquaintance. His mittt" 
mu8 is made ; and a cart with a feather-bed 
provided to carry him, he himself being too 
infirm (above eighty) to go, too unwieldy to 
ride, and no friend so favourable as to pur- 
chase for him a more comely conveyance. 
To Northampton gaol he is sent, where, soon 
after, he sickened, died, and was buried in a 
neighbouring churchyard ; and it is no hurt 
to wish that his bad opinions had been in- 
terred with him ' (Fuller, Church History, 
bk. ix. sect, vi.) Fuller is wrong in the 
date of Browne's death ; an entry in his hand 
is still to be seen in the parish register of 
Achurch made on 2 June 1631, and his suc- 
cessor in the living was not instituted till 
8 Nov. 1633. His burial-place is unknown. 

Browne's wife was Alice Allen, a Yorkshire 
lady ; by her he had four sons and three 
daughters. The hateful story that he ill- 
used his wife in her old age is in all proba- 
bility an infamous slander. Browne was 
very fond of music, and besides being him- 
self * a singular good lutenist,' he taught his 
children to become performers. On Sundays 
* he made his son Timothy bring his viol to 
church and play the bass to "the psalms that 
were sung.' Browne's issue eventually in- 
herited the paternal estate at Tolethorpe, 
and his last descendant died on 17 Sept. 
1839, as widow of George, third earl Pomfret. 

That so powerful and intelligent a body as 
thecongregationalists should desire to affibate 
themselves on to so eccentric a person as 
Browne, and to claim him as the first enun- 
ciator of the principles which are distinctiye- 




of their organisation, will always appear some- | 
what strange to outsiders. Into discussions ; 
on church polity, however, it is not our in- ■ 
tention to enter. The last three works quoted 
among the authorities at the end oT this ; 
article will give the reader as full a view as j 
he can desire of the congregationalist stand- 
point. Mr. Dexter's most able and learned 
volume contains an exhaustive account of 
the literature and bibliography of the whole j 
subject, and his elaborate monograph on ! 
Browne's life has materially added to our | 
knowledge of the man's curious career. Here 
too will be found by far the most complete 
list of his writings and some valuable ex- 
tracts from hitherto unknown works which 
prove him to have been a man of burning 
enthusiasm and one who, as we might have 
expected, could at times burst forth mto pas- 
sages of fiery and impetuous eloquence which 
must have been extraordinarily effective in 
their day, however much they may appear 
to us no more than vehement rhetoric. 

[Blore's Hist, and Antiq. of the County of 
Butland, 1813, p. 93, &c. ; Fuller's Worthies 
(Rutland) ; Lamb's Masters s Hist, of Corpus 
Christ! Coll. Cambridge, pp. 123 et seq., 460 ; 
commanication from Dr. Luard, Registrar of 
Camb. Univ.; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547- 
1580. p. 421 ; Froude's Hist. Engl. x. 289-90 ; 
Strype 8 Parker, ii. 68 ; Cooper's Athenje Cantab. 
ii. 177, 178; Fuller's Church Hist. bk. ix., cent. 
xvi., sect, vi., §§ 1-7, 64-9 ; Lansdowne MSS., 
qTiot<ed by all modem writers, No. xxxiii. 13, 20 ; 
Hanbury's Historical Memorials relating to the 
Independents, 1839, vol. i. ch. ii. ; John Browne's 
Hist, of Congregationalism in Norfolk and Suf- 
folk (1877). chs. i-iii. ; Dexter's Congregation- 
alism of the last Three Hundred Years, as 
seen in its Literature, New York, 1880.] 

A. J. 

BROWNE, SAMUEL (1575 ?-l 632), 
divine, bom at or near Shrewsbury, became 
a servitor or clerk of All Souls College, Ox- 
ford, in 1594, at the age of nineteen, gra- 
duated B.A. 3 Nov. 1601, and M.A. 3 July 
1605, took orders, and in 1618 was appointed 
minister of St. Mary's Church, Shrewsbury, 
* where he was much resorted to by precise 
people for his edifying and frequent preach- 
ing (Wood). In spite, however, of this 
notice of his ministry in the * Athenae Oxon.,' 
Browne can scarcely have been a puritan, for 
in the curious little book entitled *TbeLook- 
ing-glasse of Schisme, wherein by a briefe 
and true Narration of the execrable Murders 
done by Enoch ap Evan, a downe-right Non- 
conformist . . . the Disobedience of that Sect 
. . . is plainly set forth ' (1635), the author, 
Peter Studley, minister of St. Chad's, Shrews- 
buTTy speaks of him with great respect, and 

says that during the thirteen years of his 
ministry he was 'rudely and unchristianly 
handlea' by the disloyal and scliismatical 
party in the town, and that finally, * by an 
invective and bitter Libell, consisting of four- 
teene leaves in quarto cast into his garden, 
they disquieted nis painefull and peaceable 
soule, and shortened the date of his trouble- 
some pilgrimage.' Browne died in 1632, and 
was buried at St. Mary's on 6 May. He pub- 
lished * The Sum of Christian lleligion by 
way of Catechism,' 1630, 1037, 8vo, and * Cer- 
tain Prayers,' and left at his death several 
sermons which he wished printed. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 631 ; Past! 
(Bliss), i. 290, 306 ; Studley's Looking-glasso of 
Schisme, 180-1 ; Phillips's History and Anti- 
quities of Slirewslmry, 100 ; Some Account of the 
Ancient and Present Stiito of Shrewsbury (ed. 
1810), 216, 217.] W. H. 

BROWNE, SAMUEL (d. 1668). judge, 
wastheson of Nicholas Browne of Polebrooke, 
Northamptonshire, by Frances, daughter of 
Thomas St. John, third son of Oliver, lord 
St. John. He was thus first cousin to Oliver 
St. John, chief justice of the common pleas 
during the protectorate. He was admitted 
pensioner of Queens' College, Cambridge, 
24 Feb. 1614, entered as a student at Lin- 
coln's Inn 28 Oct. 1610, where he was 
called to the bar 16 Oct. 1623, and elected 
reader in Michaelmas term 1642. Two years 
previously he had been returned to parlia- 
ment as member for tlie united boroughs of 
Clifton, Dartmouth, and Hardness in Devon- 
shire. In the articles laid before the king at 
Oxford in 1642, with a view to negotiations 
for peace, the appointment of Browne to a 
seat on the exchequer bench was suggested. 
In November of the same vear lie was made 
one of the commissioners of the great seal. In 
March l(W3-4 he was appointed one of the 
committee to which the management of the 
impeachment of Laud was entrusted. His 
speech on this occasion hns not been ])reserved, 
but from the constant references which Laud 
makes to it he appears to have put the case 
against the archbishop in a very effective way. 
After the trial was ended (2 Jan. 1644-6) 
he was deputed, with Serjeants Wilde and 
Nicolas, to lay before the House of Lords 
the reasons which, in the opinion of the 
commons, justified an ordinance of attainder 
against the archbishop. This had already 
been passed by the commons, and the upper 
house immediately followed suit. In July 
1646 a paper was introduced to the House of 
Commons, emanating from Lord Savile, and 
containing what was in substance an im- 
peachment of Denzil Hollis and Whitelocke, 




of high treason in betraying the trust reposed 
in them in connection with the recent nego- 
tiations at Oxford, of wliich thev had had the 
conduct. After some discussion the matter 
was referred to a committee, of which Browne 
waanominated chairman. The affair is frankly 
described bv Whitelocke as a machination 
of the indeiKHidents, designed to discredit the 
presbyter ian ]>urty, of which both Hollis and 
himself wen* members; and as he accuses 
Browne of displaying a strong bias in favour 
of the im]x»acliment, it may be inferred that 
at this time he had the reputation of belong- 
ing to the advanced fact ion. The charge was 
idtimately dismissed. In October of the fol- 
lowing year Browne delivered the great seal 
to the new commissioners then appointed, the 
speakers of the two houses. In September 
1648 he was one of ten commissioners nomi- 
nated by the parliament to treat with the 
king in the Isle of Wight. On the receipt of 
letters from the commissioners containing the 
king^s ultimatum, the House of Commons, 
after voting the king's terms unsatisfactory, 
resolved * that notice be taken of the extra- 
ordinary wise management of this treaty by 
the commissioners.* Next day Browne was 
made a seijeant-at-law and justice of the 
king's bench by accumulation. The latter dig- 
nity, however, he refused to accept, whether 
out of timidity or on principle it is im|)Ossible 
to determine. After this no more is heard of 
him until the ilestoration, when he was re- 
admitted serjeant-nt-law( Trinity term KKJO), 
and shortly after (Michaelmas term) raised 
to the bench as justice of the common pleas, 
and knighted 4 Dec. lie died in 1068, and 
was buried at Arlesey in Bedfordshire, where 
he had a He married Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Meade of Nortofts, Finch- 
ingfield, Essex. 

[Wotton'sl5ar(>nt'tage,iv. 178; Dugdale's Grig. 
266. 324; Willis's Not. Pari. iii. 243; Dugdales 
Chron.S<'r. 114, 115 : Purl. Hist li. 606, iii. 70, 
182; Cobbett'sStateTrials,i7.347, 443,449,464- 
470, 509, 554-7, 599 ; Whitelocke's M«»m. 154, 
166, 160, 226. 334, 342, 378 ; Commons' Journ. 
iii. 734 ; SiderBu's Rop. i. 3, 4, 365 ; Le Neve's 
Pedigrees of Knip:ht.s(Hurleian Society, vol. viii.), 
122 ; Oal. State Papers, Dom. (1640), 103 ; Mo- 
rant's Essex, ii. 366 ; Lysons's Bedfordshire, 40; 
Foss's Lives of the Judges.] J. M. R. 

BROWNE, SIMOX (1080-1732), divine, 
was born at She]>ton Mallet, Somersetshire ; 
educated under Mr. Cumming, and at the 
academy of Mr. Moor at Bridgewater. lie 
began to ])n'ach ])ef<)re he was twenty, and 
after being a minister at Port.smouth became, 
in 1710, pa.Htor of the important congregation 
in the Old J«nvry, Ij<mdon. In 1720 he ])ul)- 
lished * Hymns and Spiritual Songs,' and in 

1722 a volume of sermons. In the Salters^ 
Hall controversy (1719) Browne had t^ken 
the side of the non-subscribers, who resisted 
the imposition of a Trinitarian test. This 
led to a rather sharp controversy in 1723 with 
the Rev. Mr. Thomas Reynolds in regard to 
the dismissal of a preacher. About the same 
time the simultaneous loss of his wife and 
only son (or, according to another story, the 
accidental strangling of a highwayman) un- 
hinged his mind ; and though his faculties 
remained perfect in other respects he became 
persuaded that God had * annihilated in him 
the thinking substance,' and that his words 
had no more sense than a parrot's. He tried 
by earnest reasoning to persuade his friends 
that he was * a mere beast.' He gave up his 
ministry, retired to Shepton Mallet, and 
amused himself by translating classical au- 
thors, writing books for children, and com- 
{)osing a dictionary. * I am doing nothing,* 
le said, * that requires a reasonable souL I 
am making a dictionarv; but youknow thanks 
should be returned to 6od for everything, and 
therefore for dictionary-makers.' He took 
part, however, in the controversies of the 
time, as an opponent of the deists from a ra- 
tionalist point of view. In 1732 he published 

* a sober and charitable disquisition concern- 
ing the importance of the doctrine of the 
Trinity,* &c., * A Fit Rebuke to a Ludicrous 
Infidel, in some remarks on Mr. Woolston's 
fifth discourse,' &c., with a preface protesting 
against the punishment of freethinkers by the 
magistrate ; and a * Defence of the Religion 
of Nature and the Christian Revelation,' See, 
in answer to Tindal's * Christianity as old as 
the Creation,' a concluding part 01 which ap- 
peared in 1733 posthumously. To the last 
of these works he had prefixed a dedication 
to Queen Caroline, asking for her prayers in 
his singidar case. He was * once a man,' but 

* his very thinking substance has for more 
than seven years oeen continually wasting 
away, till it is wholly perished out of him.' 
This was suppressed at tiie time by his friends^ 
but afterwards published by Hawkesworth in 
the * Adventurer,' No. 88. Bro"WTie died at 
the end of 1732, leaving several daughters. 

[Biog. Britannica ; Atkey's Funeral Sermon ; 
Town and Country Magazine for 1770, p. 689; 
Adventurer, No. 88; Gent. Mag. xxxii. 453; 
Protestant Dissenters' Magazine, iv. 433, v. Ill ; 
Loland's View. i. 110, 130; Wilson's Dissenting 
Churches, i. 165, iii. 338-67, where is a fall list 
of Ilia works.] L. S. 

1835), unitarian clergyman, bom at Derby in 
1 763, entered as a student at Christ's College, 
Cambridge, graduated B.A. and MA., took 




orders, and was admitted a follow of Peter- 
house on 15 July 1785. In December 1793 
he was presented to the college Hvingj of 
Cherry Hint on, Cambridgeshire. AMiile vicar 
of this country parish he adopted the posi- 
tions of the Pnestley school of unitanans, 
and resigned his living. In 1800 he became 
minister of the jpresbyterian congregation at 
Warminster. In 1807 he left Warminster 
for the post of classical and mathematical 
tutor at Manchester College, York. At mid- 
summer, 1809, Browne left York to become 
minister of the Octagon Chapel, Norwich. 
He had preached at Norwich as a candidate 
in the previous January, and appears to have 
dissatisfied the college authorities by doing 
so without notice to them. His ministry at 
Norwich was unhappy ; he is said to have 
* magnified his office, and not to have under- 
stood the dislike of his congregation to any- 
thing in the shape of a dogmatic creed. He 
took his stand upon his vested right to a 
small endowment, and was paid for his re- 
signation at the end of 1810. He did not at 
once leave Norwich. A letter from him, dated 
Colgate, Norwich, 10 March 1812, appears in 
the * Monthly Repository,* in which ho says 
he will be at liberty to take a congregation 
at the end of March, and ofl'ers to go on six 
months' trial. He was minister at Congle- 
ton from 1812 to 1814. For a short time he 
acted as a supply at Chester, but removed to 
Barton Street Chapel, Gloucester, in 1815. 
He established a fellowship fund at Glouces- 
ter on 1 Nov. 1818, and a y^'ar or two after- 
wards created some consternation by propos- 
ing that unitarian fellowship funds should 
invest in state lotteries, with a view to gain- 
ing windfalls for denominational purposes. 
He remained at Gloucester till the close of 
1823. From this time he resided at Bath, 
preaching only occasionally. He took great 
interest in education, and was president of 
the Bath Mechanics' Institution. His friend 
Brock speaks of him as 'conscientious almost 
to a fault,' and very generous to the poor. 
He lost his wife Anno, three years liis senior, 
on Christmas day, 1884, and died, after a 
short illness, on 20 May 181V). He was 
buried at Lyncomb Vale, near Bath. Tliere 
is a tablet to his memory in Trim Street 
Chapel, Bath. He published: 1. 'Eight 
Forms of Prayer for Public Social Worship/ 
Bath, 1803, 12mo. 2. 'Plain and Useful 
Selections from the Books of the Old and 
New Testament,' 1805, 8vo (intended as a 
lectionary, but not much esteemed ; Browne 
projected a sequel to be taken from the 
apocrypha). 8. * Religious Liberty and the 
Kights of Conscience and Private Judgment 
grossly violated,' &c., 1819, 12ino, and a ser- 

mon. The tfrms in which he dedicated this 
•pamphlet to the liev. T. Belsham, ' to whom, 
if to anv, may be justly applied the title Head 
of the Unitarian Church, gave great offence 
to his co-religionists. Besides these he 
edited: 1. Select parts of William Melmoth's 
' Great Importance of a Religious Life ' (ori- 
ginally published in 1711). 2. A selection 
of ' Sermons '(1818, 12mo) by Joshua Toulmin, 
D.D. 3. 'Devotional Addresses and Hymns' 
(1818, li>mo), by William Russell of Birm- 

[G. B. B. (Gt-orge Browne Brock) in Chr. Ro- 
fornier, 183'), pp. 507 st'q., soo also p. 806; 
Monthly Repos. 1812, pp. 64, 272, 1818, p. 760, 
1819, pp. 18. 300, 1820, p. 392; Murch's Hist, of 
Presb. and Gen. Bapt. Churches in W. of Eng. 
1835, pp. 13, 16, 92 ; Taylor's Hist, of Octagon 
Chapel, Norwich, 1848, p. 55; Roll of Students, 
Manch. New Coll. 1868 ; Pickford's Brief Hist, of 
Congleton Unit. Chapel, 1883, p. 12; manuscript 
correspondence of Rov. C. Wellbeloved, in posses- 
sion of G. W. R. Wood, Manchester ; information 
from Rev. J. K. Montgomery', Chester.] 

A. G. 

BROWNE, THOMAS (d. loSr)), head- 
master of Westminster, was honi about 1535, 
and educated at Eton, whence he proceeded 
to King's College, Cambridge, in 1550. He 
graduated B.A. in 1554-5, M.A. in 1558, 
and B.l). in 1559. In the 'Alumni Eto- 
nenses' (p. 166) he is styled S.T.P. Wood 
( Af/ietfOff iii. 1004) also calls him a doctor of 
divinity. He was presented by the provost 
and scholars of King's College to the rectorv 
of Dunton-Waylett in Essex, which he held 
from IH April 1564 till his death (Newcourt, 
ii. '2'M). In 1564 he was appointed to the 
head-mastership of Westminster School. In 
the following year he was made a canon of 
tli«» church of Westminster, and acted for 
some time as sub-dean (Le Neve, iii. 360 ; 
WID3I0RE, Antiq. of West. p. 219). Browne 
was next promoted to the rectory of St. 
Leonard, Fc^ster Lane, on the presentation 
of the dean and chapter of Westminster, 
11 July 1567 (Newcourt, i. 394). This pre- 
ferment he resigned when presented, 7 Jinu^ 
1574, to the rectory of Chelsea, by Anne, 
duchess dowager of Somerset and Francis 
Newdigate (Newcourt, i. 586). He had 
meanwhile resigned the mastership of West- 
minster in 1570 (so Weu^h, Ahimiu We»t. ; 
WiDiiORE, p. 227, gives 15(59 as thn date). 
In 1584, when it was proposed to translate 
Aylmer to the vacant see of Ely, and pro- 
mote Day, the provost of Eton, to Ijondon, 
the names of Mr. Browne and Mr. Blithe 
were submitte<l for the nrovostship in a 
.«icheme sent by Whitgift to the queen 
(Strype, Whityifty i. 337), but the scheme 

Browne 64 Browne 

fell through, and Browne died in the follow- 
ing year (1586) on 2 May (Lb Neve, iii. 350). 
He was buried in the north transept of the 
abbey (WiDMORE,^ld, 227), or according to 

storation he recovered his benefices. In 
1661 he was recommended for the provost- 
ship of Eton, but the king passed nim by. 
He died in 1673 and was buned at Windsor. 

Faulkner in the cloisters (^Ch^hea, i. 179). | He published *Tomus alter et idem, a History 

In the register of Chelsea parish for 3 April of the Life and Reign of that famous Prin- 
1576 is found the baptism of Gabriel, son of cess Elizabeth,' a translation of vol. ii. of 

Thomas Browne, Pars. (Faulkner, ii. 1 19). Camden's * Annals,' to which he added an 

Browne was the^ author of occasional poems * Appendix containing animadversions upon 
in Latin and 
poem, prefixed 
gium Graeca) Lingu? 

poem in John Prise's ' Defensio Historise Bri- Revenues of the Clergy ... in a sermon 

tannicsB ' (1573). 3. A Latin poem on the preached . . . before the university upon 

death of the two Dukes of Suffolk (1552). taking a B.D. degree 8 June 1637,' pre- 

4. * Thebais, a tragedy.' 5. ApoeminEng- served in *The Present State of Letters,' 

lishon Peterson's *Galateo' (15/6) (v. Ames, where it is described as *a notable specimen 

ii. 903). 6. Wood(-4Mtf/i^»,ii. 130) mentions of the learning, wit, and pulpit oratory of 

verses by a Thomas Browne, prebendary of that time ; ' * A Key to the King's Cabinet, 

Westminster, in Twyne*s translation of or Animadversions upon the three printed 

Humphrey Lloyd's * Breviary of Britain.' Speeches of Mr. L'Isle, Mr. Tate, and Mr. 

7. Prefixed to a sermon by Richard Curteys, Browne, spoken at a Common Hall in Lon- 

bishop of Chichester, preached before the don, 3 July 1645,' Oxford, 1645; * A Treatise 

B.D. at Westminster. This is probably the 'Dissertatio de Therapeuticis Philonis,' pub- 
work of the man under notice. I lished with 'The Interpretation of the Two 

[Cooper 8 Athenae Cantab. i. 5 10; Tanner'sBibl. ■ Books of Clement by other writers,' 1689. 
Bnt ; Welch's Alumni Westmonast. p. 9 ; Har- | [Wood's Athon® Oxen. (ed. Bliss) iii. 1003 ; 
wood's Alumni Eton. p. 166 ; Newcourt's Reper- j Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, pt, ii. 93 ; 
torium, i. 394, 586, 923, ii. 231 ; Wood's Athenae Present State of Letters (od. Andrew Reid), 
Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 231, iii. 1 004 ; Faulkner's Chel- , vi. art. 21, 199-219 ; Hearne*s Collections (ed. 
s^'a, i. 179, ii. 119; Widmore's Antiouities of Doble), 102, 363 (Oxford Hist. Soc.)! W. H. 
Westminster, pp. 219, 227 ; Strype's Whitgift, , '•• 

i. 337 ; Ames (Herbert), ii. 903 ; Curteys's Ser- BROWNE, SiR THOMAS (16a5-1682), 
mon before the Queen at Greenwich, 1573-4; phvsician and author, was bom in London, 
Le Neve, ni. 350.] A. G-n. \^ \^^ ^^^-^^^ ^f ^o;^ Michael, Cheapside, on 

BROWNE or BROWN, THOMAS 19 Oct. 1605. His father was a mercer at 
(1604 P-1673), divine, a native of Middlesex, Upton, Cheshire, but came of a good family, 
was elected student of Christ Church, Ox- From a pedigree (printed by Wilkin) in the 
ford, in 1620, took the degree of M.A. in College of Arms, we learn that his mother was 
1627, was proctor of the university in 1636, Anna, daughter of Paul Garraway of Lewes, 
and took the degree of B.D. and was ap- Sussex. His father died prematurely; his 
pointed domestic chaplain to Archbishop mother, who had received 3,000/. as a third 
Laud in 1637. A sermon of his on John part of her husband's property, married Sir 
xi. 4 was highly offensive to the puritans, and Thomas Button, and lett her young son com- 
they were indignant at his appointment to a pletely under the care of rapacious guardians, 
eanonry at Windsor in 1639. This sermon Having been educated at Winchester College, 
was found in manuscript in Laud's study Browne was sent at the beginning of 1623 
when the archbishop's papers were seized, as a fellow-commoner to Broadgate Hall 
and appears not to have been printed, (now Pembroke College), Oxford. He was 
Browne held the rectories of St. Mary admitted to the degree of B.A. on 31 June 
Aldermary and Oddington in Oxfordshire. 1626, and proceeded M.A. on 11 June 1629. 
Beinp forced bv the puritans to leave his Turning his attention to the study of medi- 
cure in London, lie joined the king at Oxford, i cine, he practised for some time in Oxford- 
was made his chaplain, and received the shire ; afterwards, throwing up his practice, 
degree of D.D. by letters patent 2 Feb. 1642. he accompanied his stepfather (who held 
On the overthrow of the royal cause he took i some official position) to Ireland on a visi- 
shelter in Holland, and was appointed chap- ' tat ion of the forts and castles. Prom Ireland 
lain to the Princess of Orange. At the lie- I he passed to France and Italy; stayed at 




Montpellier and Podiia, where were flourish- 
ing schools of medicine ; and on his return 
through Holland was created doctor of medi- 
cine at Leyden circ. 1633. His name is not 
found in the list of Leyden students, for the 
Thomas Browne who graduated on 22 Aug. 
1644 (see Peacock's £n/den Students) must 
certainly have been another person ; but the 
register is in a faulty state. Having con- 
cluded his travels, he established himself as 
a physician at Shipden Hall, near Halifax. 
In 1637 he removed to Norwich. Wood 
states that he was induced to take this step 
by the persuasions of Dr. Thomas Lushing- 
ton, formerly his tutor, then rector of Bum- 
ham Westgate, Norfolk ; but, according to 
the author of the life prefixed to ' Posthu- 
mous Works,' 1712, he migrated at the soli- 
citations of Sir Nicholas Bacon of Gillinff- 
ham. Sir [or Dr.] Justinian Le\vyn, and Sir 
Charles le Gros of Crostwick. Probably 
both statements are correct. A few months 
after he had settled at Norwich, Browne was 
incorporated doctor of medicine at Oxford on 
10 July 1637. His fame was now established, 
and ' he was much resorted to for his skill in 
physic' (Whitefoot). In 1641 he married 
Dorothy, fourth daughter of Edward IMile- 
ham 01 Burlingham St. Peter. She bore 
twelve children (of whom one son and three 
daughters survived their parents), and died 
three years after her husoand. Whitefoot 
describes her as ' a lady of such symmetrical 
proportion to her worthy husband, both in 
the graces of her body and mind, that they 
seemed to come together by a kind of natural 

The famous treatise * lleligio Medici ' was 
.surreptitiously published in 1642. It was 
probably written in 1635, during Browne's 
residence at Shipden Hall. Ho states, in 
the preface to the first authorised edition, 
pubbshed in 1643 : * This, I confess, about 
seven years past, with some others of affinity 
thereto, for my private exercise and satisfac- 
tion, I had at leisurable hours composed.' 
In pt. i. 5 xlL he says : * As yet I have not 
seen one revolution of Saturn, nor hath my 
pulse beat thirty years ; * and again, in pt. ii. 
§ xi., we find: *Now for my life it is a 
miracle of thirty years.' The authors manu- 
script was passed among his private friends, 
by whom freouent transcripts were mode 
with more or less inaccuracy, and at length 
two surreptitious editions in octavo were 
printed in 1642 by Andrew Crooke. Tliere 
18 some doubt as to which of these editions 
is to be entitled the editto princeps (see 
Oreenhill's Introduction to the facsimile of 
the first edition of < Religio Medici,' 1883). 
In 1643 appeared the first authorised edition, 

VOL. vu. 

with a preface, in which Browne informs us 
that he had * represented into the world a 
full and intended copy of that piece which 
was most imperfectlv ..nd surreptitiously 
published before.' hy transcription the 
work had become * successively corrupted, 
until it arrived in a most depraved copy at 
the press.' The alterations in the authorised 
edition mainly consist of corrections of tex- 
tuol errors; but Browne also took occasion 
to modify various positive assertions. The 
treatise, on its appearance in 1642, immedi- 
ately secured attention. It was commended 
by the Earl of Dorset to the notice of Sir 
l^enelm Digby, who reviewed it in a lengthy 
paper of * Observat ions.' Hearing that tnese 
* Observations ' hud been put to press, Browne 
sent Digby a courteous letter (dated 3 March 
1642-3), in which he stated that the treatise 
was unworthy of such notice, that it had 
been intended as a private exercise, and thut 
the surreptitious edition was corrupt; and 
he concluded with a request that the * Ob- 
servations * should not be published unt il 
the authorised edition appeared. On 20 March 
Digby replied that on the receipt of Browne's 
letter he had at once sent instructions to the 
printer not to proceed with the * Ob8er\'a- 
tions,' which were hastily put together in 
one sitting — the reading of the treatise and 
the composition of the * Observations ' hay- 
ing occupied only the space of twenty-four 
hours. ?fot withstanding Digby 's instructions 
to the printer, the animadversions (pp. 124, 
8vo) were published without delay. \Vhen 
the authorised edition of * lleligio Medici ' 
a])peared there was prefixed an admonition 
(signed *A. B.') : * To such as have or shall per- 
use the" Obser\'at ions" upon a former corrupt 
copy of this book,' in which Digby is severely 
reprehended. The admonition is written 
much in Browne's style, and there is reason 
to doubt whether it was prefixed (as * A. B.' 

frofesses) * without the author's knowledge.' 
n the preface Browne endeavours to secure 
himself against criticism by observing that 
'many things are delivered rhetorically, 
many expressions merely tropical, and there- 
fore many things to be taken in a soft and 
flexible sense, and not to be called unto the 
rigid test of reason.' It is clear that he 
was not without misgivings as to how liis 
treatise would be received. Wilkin protests 
against the view favoured by Dr. Johnson, 
that Browne procured the anonymous publi- 
cation of the treatise in 1642 in order to try 


its success with the public before openly 
acknowledging the autliorship. The autho- 
rised edition, in any case, was issued by the 
publisher of the surreptitious edition. The 
probability is that, though Browne did not 





personally procure the publicution of the 
anonymous editions, he took no active steps 
to hinder it. A Latin translation of * Reliffio 
Medici ' (from the edition of 1G43), by Jonn 
Merr3rweather, was published in 1644. It 
immediately passed through two editions at 
Lcyden, and was twice reprinted in the same 
year at Paris. From an interesting- letter 
(dated 1 Oct. 1649) of Merryweather to 
Tirowne it appears that there was consider- 
able difficulty in finding a publisher for the 
translation. In the first instance Merry- 
weather offered it to a Leyden bookseller 
named Ilaye, who submitted it to Salmasius 
for approbation. Salmasius kept it for three 
monUis, and then retiu^ed it with the remark 
that * there were indeed in it many things 
well said, but that it contained many exor- 
bitant conceptions in religion, and would 
probably find but frowning entertainment, 
especially amongst the ministers ; ' so Have 
refused to undertake the publication. Finally, 
after it had been offered in two other quarters, 
it was accepted by Hackius. In 1645 Alex- 
ander Ross published ' Medicus Medicatus : 
or the Physician's lleligion cured by a Leni- 
tive or Gentle Potion,' in which he attacked 
both Browne and Digby — the former for his 
application of * rhetorical phrase ' to religious 
subjects, fot his leaning towards judicial 
astrology, and generally on the score of 
heresy: the latter for liis llomanism and 
metaphysics. Browne did not reply to this 
attack, but issued in the same year a new 
t»dition of his treatise. A Latin edition, 
with prolix notes by * L. X. M. E. M.,' i.e. 
Levinus Nicolaus Moltkius (or Moltkenius) 

were appended annotations by Thomas Keck. 
The title-page of the annotations has the 
dat« 1659, but the preface is dated March 
1654. Dutch, French, and German transla- 
tions appeared respectively in 1665, 1668, 
and 1680. Merry weather's version contri- 
l)uted to make the book widely known 
among continental scholars. Guv Patin 
(Lettres, 168.S, Frankfort, p. 12), in* a letter 
datetl from Paris 7 xVpril 1645, writes : * On 
fait icy grand 6tat du li^Te intitul6 " lleligio 
Medici.' Get auteur a d»^ I'esprit. II y a 
de gentilles choses dans ce li vre,' &c. Browne's 
orthodoxy was vigorously assailed abroad 
for many years, and vigorously defended. 
The editor *of the Paris edition (1644) of 
Merryweather's translation was convinced 
that Browne, though nominally a protestant, 
was in reality a Roman catholic; but the 
papal authoiities judged otherwise, and 
placed the treatise in the 'Index Expurga- 

torius.' Samuel Duncon, a quaker residing 
at Norwich, conceived the hope of inducing 
Browne to join the Society of Friends. It 
is not surprising that such divergence of 
opinion should have existed in regard to the 
purport of Browne's speculations; for the 
treatise appears to have been composed as 
a tour deforce of intellectual agility, an 
attempt to combine daring scepticism with 
implicit faith in revelation. At the begin- 
ning of the treatise the author tells us that 
he was 'naturally inclined to that which 
misguided zeal terms superstition/ and that 
he 'could never hear the Ave Mary bell with- 
out an elevation.' After stating that he 
subscribes to the articles and ol^rves the 
constitutions of the church of England, he 
adds : ' In brief, where the Scripture* is 
silent the church is my text ; where that 
speaks, 'tis but my comment ; where there is 
a Joint silence of both, I borrow not the rules 
of my religion from Home or Geneva, but 
the dictates of my own reason.' He depre- 
cates controversies in matters of religion, 
asserting that he has ' no taint or tincture' 
of heresy; after which announcement ho 
proceeds with evident relish to discuss seem- 
ing absurdities in the scriptural narrative. In 
the course of the treatise he tells us much 
about himself. He professes to be absolutely 
free from national prejudices : ' all places, all 
airs, make unto me one countrv ; I am in 
England everywhere and under any meridian.' 
The one object that excites his derision is 
the multitude, 'that numerous piece of 
monstrosity, which, taken asunder, seem men 
and the reasonable creatures of God, but, 
confused together, make but one great beast 
and a monstrosity more prodigious than 
Hydra.' For the sorrows of others he has 
quick sympathy, while he is so little afflicted 
by his own sufferings that he ' could lose an 
arm without a tear, and with a few groans 
be Quartered into pieces.' He understands 
six languages, besides the patois of several 
provinces ; he has seen many countries, and 
has studied their customs and politics ; he is 
well versed in astronomy and botany; he 
has run through all systems of philosophy, 
but has found no rest in any. As 'death 
gives every fool gratis ' the knowledge which 
is won in this life with sweat and vexation, 
he counts it absurd to take pride in his 
achievements. Like other great men of his 
time, Browne believed in ])lanetary influ- 
ence : ' At my nativity my ascendant was 
the waterj' sign of Scorpius ; I was bom in 
the planetary hour of Saturn, and I think I 
have a piece of that leaden planet in me.* 
He is not ' disposed for the mirth and gal- 
liardise of company/ jet in one dream he 

can cniupose 

leisafely in mm vein oi woimaicui hbidj- 

gerioatDpa^, from time to Lime he allows his 

UDkginAtion free ih:d|H^. and embodiea the 

loftiest thoiiglit in laiiguuge of surpassing 


At tlieniitbrenk of the civil wars Browne's 
ariup«thie^ were entirely with the royalists. 
He was among the 433 principal citiiKiie who 
in 1943 refu*eil to coutributu to the fund for 
regnining the town of Newcastle, but there 
it na evidence to ahow that he gave any 
sctire aaaixlnnce to the king's cause. Bin 
gnat work, ■ Psnndodoiia Epidemica, or 
Bnqninea into very many received tenets 
and commonly presumed truths, which ex- 
amined prove hut Vulgar and (jimmon Er- 
rors," appeared in 1816 (fol.) On the com- 
position of this treatise, which contains an 
extraordinary amount of leamiag and re- 
e<«rch, he must have been engagedfor many 

KtK. In the preface he apologises for 
ring undertaken single-handed a work 
which well deserved ' the conjunction of 
many hend».' He knows how difficult it is 
to eradicate cherished beliefs from men's 
minds : bul he does nr>t despair of raining a 
bvourabht hearing. His prolessional employ- 
ment has been at once a hindrance and ad- 
Tantage in the pursuit of his investigations; 

of many truths, thev have not leisure 
iftnge their mBteriais or make 'those infal- 
Ubw experiments and those assured deter- 
minations n'hich the sul^ject sometimes 
requireth.' Ho had originally determined to 
publiah his treatise in Latin, but consider- 
ing that hi« countrynien, especinlly the "in- 
genuoua gentry,' had a nrior claim upon his 
aenticMf he had abandoned his intention 
and written in English. Readers, however, 
must be prepared to find the style «omewhat 
difficult; DiKilogiem is imavoidablc in the con- 
duct of 6)ich inquiries — besides, the writer is 
•ddreaiiing not the illiterate mnny, but the 
diaoeming few. To modem renders ' Vulgar 
Errow' pree^nts an inexhaustible store of 
«Bt«rtninm(^nt, The attainment of scientific 
truth waa not for Browne th<» sole object; it 
b In the <li«cu<ision itantf that he deligkt«, 
ud tiw more marvellous a fable is, the mora 
Mdaloualv he applies himself to the investi- 
■ " 11^ its truth. Tliongh he professed 

tbn apirit of ereduUty. He believed in aa- 
trology, Hlchemy, witchcraft, and magic, and 
b- never shandtined the Itolemaic system 
of «»lroniimy. Tlw sulfject may perhaps 

' ' " ' ' a hint m Biyjoii'a 

chapter on the ' Idols of the UnderBtauding.' 
Both at home and abroad the tre-alise at- 
tracted immediate attention, In 165*2 Alex- 
ander Rosa publiahed 'Arcana Hicrocosmi 
. . . with a refutation of Dr. Browne's " Vul- 
gar Errors," the Lord Baeon'e " Nntiiral His- 
tory," and Dr. Harvev'a Book " De Gene- 
ratione," " Comenius,' and others, &o.,' in 
which he shows amusing persistence in de- 
fending the absurdest of superstitions. John 
Robinson, a fellow-townsman of Browne and 
a physician, passed some not un&iendly anim- 
adversions on ' Vulgar Errors ' in his ' Venti- 
latioTranquilla ' appended to ' Endoxa,' 1656 
(englished in 18ii8). Isaac Gruter proposed 
to translate Browne's treatise into Latin, and 
addressed to him five letters (preserved in 
Rawltnson MS. D, 301) on the subject, but 
the translation was never accomplished. 

Browne's fame for encyelopiedic know- 
ledge being now firmly established, his aid 
was frequently solicited by scholars engajred 
on scientific or antiquarian inquiries. The 
bulk of his correspondencf has perished, but 
enough remains to show that ho spared 
neither time nor trouble in answering in- 
quiries addressed to him. Ontf of his earliest 
correspondents was Dr. Henry Power, after- 
wards a noted pbyatcian of Haliiax, to whom 
he addressed in 1647 a letter of advice as to 
the method to be pursned in the study of 
medicine. There is extant a letter of Power's 
to Browne, dated 15 Sept. 1648, from Christ's . 
College, Cambridge, in which he expresses a, 
desire to reside for a month or two at Nor- 
wich in order to hove tiie advantage of 
Browne's personal guidance, for at Cam- 
bridge there are ' such few helpee ' that he 
fears hu will ' make hut a lingering pro- 
^esse.' Another of his correspondents -was 
Tlieodore Jonas, a Lutheran minister reatding 
in Iceland, who came yearly to England and, 
in gratitude for some professional directions 
against the leprosy, never failed before his 
return to visit Browne at Norwich. Sir 
Hamon L'Eatrange, of Hunstanton, equolly 
xealouB as a naturalist and as a parliamen- 
l.arian, showed bis admiration of Browne 
by sending him in January 1663-4 eighty- 
five pages of manuscript ' Ohservations on 
the Pseudodoxia ' (preserved in 81oane MS. 
1839). His advice was sought in 1656 by a 
botanist of reputation, Willianj How, who, 
after serving as anofficer in a royalist cavalry 
regiment, had established himself as a phy- 
sician, first in Lawrence Lane, and afterwards 
in Milk Street. By the death of Joaoph 
Hall, bishop of Norwich, in SeptembtTltlM, 
Browne was deprived of a dear friend. He 
attended the bishop in his last illoese. In 
iSfiS fiiowae enttiied into coireBpondenc^ 




with John Evelyn and William Du^dale. 
The correspondence with Evelyn was begun 
at the request of Mr. (afterwards Sir) Robert 
Paston, created earl of Yarmouth in 1673. 
At this time (January 1667-8) Evelyn was 
preparing for publication a work to be en- 
titled 'Elysium Britannicum/ and he was 
anxious to receive assistance from Browne. 
The tract, *0f Garlands/ and perhaps the 

* Observations on Grafting/ were written at 
Evelyn's request. Though only a few let- 
ters have been preserved, the correspondence 
appears to have been kept up for some years. 
In * Sylva * Evelyn gives an extract from a 
letter which Browne addressed to him in 
1664. The correspondence with Dugdale re- 
lates t^ the treatise 'On Embanking and 
Draining,' which Dugdale was then prepar- 
ing for publication. 

In 1668 appeared (1 vol. 8vo) *Hydrio- 
taphia. Urn hurial ; or a Discourse of the 
Sepulchral Urns lately found in Norfolk' 
ana * The Garden of Cyrus ; or the Quincun- 
cial Lozenge, net^work plantations of the 
Ancients, artificially, naturally, mystically 
considered.' The former treatise is dedicated 
to Thomas Le Ghros of Crostwick ; the latter 
to Sir Nicholas Bacon of Gillingham. In 

* Ilydriot^phia ' Browne discusses with great 
learning the burial-customs that have existed 
in various countries at various times. More 
than one quotation is made from Dante ; he 
was among the very few men of his time 
who had read the * Inferno.' The concluding 
chapter is a solemn homily on death and 
immortality, unsurpassed in literature for 
sustained majesty of eloquence. Lamb was 
an enthusiastic admirer of * Hydriotaphia.' 
The * Garden of Cyrus ' is the most fantastic 
of Browne's writings. Beginning with the 
garden of Eden, he traces the history of hor- 
ticidture down to the time of the Persian 
Cyrus, who is credited with having been the 
first to plant a quincunx, though Browne 
discovers the figure in the hanging gardens of 
Babylon, and supposes it to have been in 
use from the remotest antiquity. The con- 
sideration of a quincuncial arrangement in 
horticulture leads him to a disquisition on 
the mystical properties of the number five. 
He finds (in Coleridge's words) * quincunxes 
in heaven above, quincunxes in earth below, 
quincunxes in the mind of man, quincunxes 
m tones, in optic ner\'es, in roots of trees, in 
leaves, in everything.* At the end of the 

* Garden of Cyrus ' Browne inserted a note 
disclaiming the authorship of a book called 

* Nature's Cabinet unlocked,' which had been 
impudently published under his name. 

Browne took a lively interest in the train- 
ing of his children. His eldest son was 

Edward [q. v.] Thomas, the second son, was 
sent in 1660 at the age of fourteen, unaccom- 
panied, to travel in France. Ainong the 
Rawlinson MSS. (D. 391) are transcripts 
made by Mrs. Elizabeth Lyttleton of letters 
written by Browne to * honest Tom ' (as the 
address always runs) between December 
1660 and January 1661-2. The postscript of 
one letter concludes : * You may stay your 
stomack with little pastys sometimes in cold 
mornings, for I doubt sea larks will be too 
dear a collation and drawe too much wine 
down ; be warie, for Rochelle was a place of 
too much good fellowship and a very drink- 
ing town, as I observed when I was there, 
more than other parts of France.' There 
appears to have been a perfect understand- 
ing between father and son. The youth 
joined the navy in 1664, and had a brief but 
brilliant career. He disappears from 1667. 
There are extant two of nis letters to his 
father, written in May 1667, which prove him 
to have been a man of scholarly attainments 
as well as a gallant officer. Browne cherished 
the memory of his lost son, and often al- 
ludes to him in letters of later years. Whit«- 
foot stiLtes that two of Browne's daughters 
were sent to France, but we have no account 
of their travels. In 1669 Browne's daughter 
Anne had been married to Edward Fairfax, 
grandson of Thomas, lord viscount Fairfax. 
She and her husband spent the Christmas of 
1669 under her father s roof, and the visit 
was either prolonged or repeated, for the 
registers of St. Peter's, Norwich, contain 
entries of the birth and burial of their first 
child, Barker Fairfax, on 30 Aug. and 5 Sept. 

An unfortunate practical illustration of 
Browne's credulity was given in 1664, when 
ALmy Duny and Rose Cullender were ar- 
raigned for witchcraft before Sir Matthew 
Hale at Bury St. Edmunds. Browne, who 
was in court at the time of the trial, having 
been requested by the lord chief baron to 
give his opinion on the case, declared 'that 
the fits were natural, but heightened by the 
devils co-operating with the malice of the 
witches, at whose instance he did the vil- 
lainies / and he mentioned some similar cases 
that had lately occurred in Denmark. It 
is supposed that this expression of opinion 
helped in no slight deffree to procure the poor 
women's conviction (Htttchinson, Huttori- 
cat Essay concerning Witchcraft^ 118-20). 

In December 1664 Browne was admitted 
socius honorarius of the College of Physicians, 
receiving his diploma on 6 July 1665. In 
1666 he present^ to the Royal Society some 
fossil bones found at Winterton in Norfolk. 
Two years afterwards he sent some informa- 

lion on the natural LJituty of Nurlblk lo 
Dr. Ohristophei Merrett, wuo was then con- 
t«tnplnting a third and enlareed edition 
(whi^ never appesKil) of his'Pinox Uerum 
NBtuntlium Britannicnmia.' lie aUo lent 
a numWr of coloured drawings to Roy, 
who acknon-ledged in his editions of Wil- 
lou^by't 'Ornithology' and 'Ichthyology' 
the Assistance that he hud receiTed firom 
Browne, but was at no paina to return the 

On SB Sept. 1671, Chnrles II pnid a state 
risit to Norwich. He was anxioiM to confer 
llie dignity of knishthood as a memorial of 
the "Tisit on one of the leading inhabitants. 
As the mayor declined the honour, Browne 
was knighted. Early in October Evelyn, 
who was staying at EuGton as the guest of 
the Earl of Arlington, drove over with Sir 
Thomas Clifford to join the royal parly at 
Norwich. His chief desire was to nee 
Browne, and he has left a brief but interest- 
ing account of a visit paid to 'that famous 
•cbolar and physician.' Ue foiud the bouse 
•nd garden ' a paradise and cabinet of 
rarities, and that of the best collectione, 
especially medails, books, plants, and natu- 
nl things.' He took particular notice of 
BtDwnt^'a extenaive collection of birds' egga. 
After inspecting the rarities, he was con- 
ducted round the city by Browne, who 
pcontml out to him whatever wae worthy of 
observation. In the following year Browne 
bore peisonal evidence (in a note dated 
SO July 1673) to the marvellous precocity of 
William Wotton [q. v.] He communicated 
inMarchl672-3toAntEonjii Wood through 
Aflbrej some notices concerning his former 
tutor, Dr. Lushington, and others, also some 
biographical particulars about himself. In 
answer to inquiries of EliasAshmole respect- 
ing Dr. .Tohn De«, he sent some curious in- 
(bnnation that he had derived from the al- 
chemist's son, Dr. Arthur Dee, himself a firm 
believer in aluhemy, who had resided at Noi^ 
wicb for many jenrg. 

Browne pubb abed nothing after 11158, but 
tie appears to have bad the intention of col- 
lecling his scattered numtiscript tracts for 

EubUcation. In the blcigrnphiciil notice of 
inuelf that he sent Ihruiigh Aubrey to 
Wood, he says that he had ' some " Miscel- 
UneouB Tracts " which may be published.' 
To the close of his life he continued to make 
observations and experiments. His last ex- 
t«nt letter to his son Edward was written 
on 16 June 1683. It is a gossipy letter, re- 
lating to )■!« daiighter Elixabelh, who had 
mamed Captain George Lytllelon, and was 
Mittted in Ouernsey. Dr. Edward Browne 
e on 3 Oct. to ask his father to ' thinke 

of some »lfectuall cbeapu medicines for tba 
hoapitall.' A few days afterwards Browne 
was seized with a sharp attack of colic, to 
which he finally Muccumbed on 19 Oct., the 
day on which he completed his seventy- 
Beventh vear. He was buried in the church 
of St. Peter Mancroft at Norwich, where 
a mural monument was erected to bis me- 
mory by his widow. In August 1840, while 
some workmen were digging a vault in the 
chancel of the church, his coffin-tid was 
broken open by n blow from a pickaxe. The 
bones were found to be ingood preaervation, 
and the tine auburn hair had not lost its 
freshnees (Prixtedinffi of Iht Archceotogifal 
Inttitute, 1847). On the brass coffln-plate 
was found a curious inscription (perhaps 
written by his son) which supplied matter 
for antiquarian controversy. His skull is 
now kept, under a glass case in the museum 
at the Norwich hospital. 

Browne left considerable property, both 
real and personal. On 2 Dec. 1879 he pre- 
pared a will, by which ample provision was 
made for his widow and bis two unmarried 
daughters, Elizabeth and Frances. Elisabeth 
was married some time before his death to 
Captain Lyttleton. At the reciuest of Dame 
" "' 'Some Minutes for the 

Browne ' were drawn up 
1 intimote friend the Rev. John 
ector of Heigham. In these 
' Minutes' we are told that Browne's ' stature 
was moderate, and luibit of body neither fat 
nor loan, but tiaapKot.' He was simple in 
his dress, and 'kept himself always very 
warm, and thought it most safe so to do.' 
His modesty ' was visible in a natural habi- 
tual blush, which was Increased upon the 
least occasion, and oft discovered without 
any observable cause.' He attended church 
very regularlv and read the best English 
sermons, but had no taste for controversial 
divinity. He was liberal ' in his house en- 
tertainments and in his charity.' It has 
been already mentioned that he subscribed 
towards building a new library in Trinity 
College, Cambridge. Kennet \R^\ater, p. 
346) records nnotber instance of his gene- 
rosity — that he contributed 130/. towards 
the repairs of Christ Church, Oxford. From 
Rawlinson MS. D. 391 we learn that he gave 
12/. ' towards the building of a new scnool 
in the college near Winton.' 

Various writings of Browne were published 
posthumously. lu 1684 appeared a collec- 
tion of ' Miscellany Tracts,' 8vo, under the 
editorship of Archbishop Tenison, who states 
in the preface that he ' selected Ibcm out of 
many disordeml papers and disposed them 
into such a method as they were capable of.' 

Doriilhy Broi 
Life of Sir llioi 
by his old ai 





These tracts chiefly consist of letters in reply 
to inquiries of correspondents. A copy that 
belonged to Wilkin contains a manuscript 
note ij Evelyn : ' Most of these letters were 
addressed to Sir Nicholas Bacon.' The con- 
tents are : 1. ' Observations upon several 
Plants mentioned in Scripture.' 2. * Of Gar- 
lands and Coronary or Oarland Plants/ 
against which in Evelyn's copy is the note : 
'This letter was written to me from Dr. 
Browne; more at large in the Coronarie 
plants.' 3. * Of the Fishes eaten by our 
Saviour with his Disciples after his Kesur- 
rection from the Dead. 4. ' An Answer to 
certain Queries relating to Fishes, Birds, and 
Insects.' 5. * Of Hawks and Falconry, an- 
cient and modem.' 6. 'Of Cvmbals/ &c. 

7. *0f Ropalic or Gradual Verses,' &c. 

8. 'Of Languages, and particularlv of the 
Saxon Tongue.^ 9. 'Of Artificial Hills, 
Mounts, or Burrows in many part« of Eng- 
land/ addressed to ' E. D.,' an evident mis- 
take for ' W. D./ i.e. William Dugdale. 
10. ' Of Troas,' &c. 11. ' Of the Answers 
of the Oracle of Apollo at Delphos to Croesus, 
King of Lydia,' frt)m which tract (as from a 
passage of ' Reliffio Medici ') it appears that 
Browne believed in the satanic origin of 
oracles. 12. 'A Prophecy concerning the 
Future State of several Nations.' 13. ' Mu- 
ssBum Clausum, or Bibliotheca Abscon- 
dita,' a whimsical j>u cTespnt, suggested (as 
Warburton supposed) bv Rabe&ds' cata- 
lo^e of the books in tlie library of St. 
Victor. These tracts were republished in 
the 1686 folio of Browne's works. The fine 
and solemn ' Letter to a Friend upon occa- 
sion of the death of his intimate friend ' was 
issued in 1690 as a folio pamphlet by Dr. 
Edward Browne. It closes with a string of 
maxims which reappear with slight varia- 
tions in * Christian Morals.* A manuscript 
copy of the * Letter,' differing largely from 
the printed text, is preserved m Sloane MS. 
1862. In 1 7 1 2 appeared ' Posthumous Works 
of the learned Sir Thomas Browne, knt., 
M.D., late of Norwich: printed from his 
original manuscripts/ &c. The volume opens 
with a short life of Browne, to which are 
appended Whitefoot's ' Minutes,' and the 
diploma given to Browne by the College of 
Physicians when he was chosen socius hono- 
rarius. The miscellanies embrace : 1. 'An 
Account of Island, altos Iceland, in the year 
1662.' 2. ' Repertorium, or some Account 
und Monuments in the Cathedral Church of 
Norwich,' written in 1680. In the preface 
to the 1684 collection Archbishop Tenison, 
speaking of Browne's unpublished manu- 
scripts, referred to this tract in the following 
terms: 'Amongst these manuscripts there 

is one which gives a brief account of all the 
monuments of the cathedral of Norwich. 
It was written merely for private use, and 
the relations of the author expect such justice 
from those into whose hands some imperfect 
copies of it are fallen, that, without their 
consent first obtained, they forbear the pub* 
lishing of it. The truth is, matter equal to 
the skill of the anticjuary was not there 
afforded.' 3. 'Concerning some Umes found 
in Brampton Field, Noiiolk, ann. 1667,' a 
supplement to ' Urn BuriaL' 4. ' Some Let- 
ters which pass'd between Mr. Dugdale and 
Dr. Browne, ann. 1658 j a letter " Con- 
cerning the too nice curiosity of censuring 
the Present or judging into Future Dispen- 
sations ; " a note " Upon reading Hudibras." ' 
6. 'A Letter to a Friend,' &c. (ori^rinally 
published in 1690). The first edition of 
'Christian Morals' was published in 1716 
by Archdeacon Jefiery. It is sijpposed that 
this treatise was intended as a continuation 
of ' Religio Medici.' A correspondent of the 
'European Magazine' (xi. 89) found in a 
copy of the 1686 edition of Browne's works 
a manuscript note by White Kennet stating, 
on information derived from Mrs. Lyttle- 
ton, that when Tenison returned Browne's 
manuscripts to Dr. Edward Browne the 
choicest papers, which were a continuation 
of his ' Religio Medici,' could not be found. 
This note is supported by the statement of 
Jefiery in the preface, that the reason why 
the treatise had not been printed earlier was 
' because it was unhappily lost by being mis- 
laid among other manuscripts for whicli 
search was lately made in the presence of 
the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, of which 
his grace, by letter, informed Mrs. Lyttleton 
when he sent the manuscript to her.' It 
may be assumed with certainty that Browne 
never intended ' Christian Morals ' for pub- 
lication in its present shape. Of all lus works 
it is the weakest, and has the appearance of 
being a collection of fragmentary jottings 
from notebooks — a piece of patchwork. Of 
course it contains some noble passages, but 
too often the thought is thin and tue lan- 
guage turgpd. 

The manuscripts of Browne and of his 
son and grandson, Dr. Edward Browne and 
Dr. Thomas Browne, were sold afrer the 
death of the grandson. Most of them were 
purchased by Sir Hans Sloane, and are now 
preserved in Sloane MSS. 1825-1923. A 
full list of these manuscripts is given by 
Wilkin at the end of the K)urth volume of 
the 1835 edition of Browne. All the pieces 
in the collection that could be shown to be 
by Browne were printed by Wilkin. Amonf 
these are : 1. ' Account of Birds, Fiahi and 

otber Animale found in Norfolk/ 2. ' Oratio 
AmuTewBria Tlarveisna,' written to be de- 
livered by liia son. 3. ' Oii the Ostrich,' a 
p&per dniwn u^ for hie son's use. 4. >Un 
■, Dreamv,' a striking fragroent. H. ' (Jbservu- 
tiofiB on Grafting,' jirobobly written for 
Evelyn. 6. 'Hints nnd Extntcts' (from 
commonptBCti books), set down for the us« 
of bi» «on. ' They aw not trite or vnlpit,' 
eny* Browne, ' and very few of them aiiy- 
wnere to be met with. I sot ihem not 
down in order, bnt oe raemary, fnncy, or oc- 
caMonnlobstTvatiunjiroduciedthein; whereof 
you may tnke llie (Hunc to single out sul'Ii aa 
tihall conduce unto your jiuqwHe.' 7. ' De 

Enucitnte Garrulo,' 

I of 

1 memomndn 
Sloans MS. 1643 it appears thai Browne 
inedit«ted writing (1) 'A Dialogue lietwetsii 
an Inhabitant of the Earth and of the Moon,' 
and (2) 'A Dialogue betweun two Twins in 
the Womb concerning the world they were 
to corn? into.' In the fourth chapter of 'Urn 
Burial ' he observes : ' A dialo^ie between 
two infants in the womb concerning the state 
of this world might handsomely illuatrate 
onr ignorance of ine next, whereof methiaks 
WB yet discourse in Plato's den, and are but 
embryo philosophers.' Whether the dialogues 
ware ever actually written is uncertain. A 
* Oot^Pctnral 1te«toration of the lost Dialogue 
between two Twins, by SirThomus Browne,' 
waa published in l@o5 bv fi. Docray. The 
' Fragment on Mummies, wluch Wilkin re- 
ceivt^ without suepicioa nnd printed in the 
fourth volume of Browne's Works (1835), 
wfts writtt^n by .Tames Crossley. iVjianonv- 
rnoud manuscript play, called 'The Female 
Ihbellion,' baa been ascribed to Browne, 

without the slightest show of probability, by 

n correspondpnt of ■ Notes and Queries' (5tli 

i. Sil-I). A few unpublished letters 

:i profesaionol subjeets 

ite libraries (Silt. MSS. Qmm. 

of Browne 


A v»ry careful bibliographv of ' Religio 
Medici ' has been drawn up nvDr. QreenhilL 
Ue ontiraemtea thirty-three English editions, 
ranging^ from 1642 to 1881. Of the Latin 
tranolation ten wlitions were uiiblUlied be- 
tween 1644 and 1743; a Dul^^li translalion 
(Wearod in 1065, and was reprinted in \Sli^ 
and lO^t ; a French translation, madv from 
tbBDntch,isdal«d 16fl8, and Watt mentions 
an edition in two volumes, l^mo, 1732; a 
Oemmii translation was published in 1S80, 
and republished in 174(1. In a letter to 
Aubrey, dated U March 1672-% Bromie 
atatea that the treatise had been already ^ 
Uaaalat«d into high Dutch and Italian. No 
a, liOA been (lisi:ovt!n»L 

Five manuscript copies of > Heligio Medici' 
are known (see Gikxines's Pre&ce Ui IteL 
Med. 1845, p. Ti not*). 'Pwudodoxia Epi- 
deniica' WftKorigiuallvpublished(in pot folio) 
in I64U. Tlie secami edition, which is typo- 
graphically the best, appeared in 1650. Two 
editions are dated 1656, one in folio, and the 
other (which includes ' Uvdriotaphia' and 
' The Oarden of CVus ') in'quarto. The fifth 
edition, 1669, 4to, has a portrait of the author 
which bears Lttle resemblance to the other 
portraits. The sixth edition, 167:2, 4to, with 
a portrait by Vau Hove, was the last that 
appeared in the author's lifetime, and contains 
bis final corrections. A Dutch translation 
wag published in 1668 by Oriindahl, end a 
German translation in 1680 bv Christian 
Knorr (Pernios). In the British Museum 
there in an Italian translation, in 3 vols. 
12mo, publiahed at Venice in 1737. 'Ilie 
Italian translation was made (as we lenm 
from the title-page) &om the French; but 
the earliest French translation yet discovered 
is dated 1738. The first collective edition 
of Browne's works was publislied in 1686, 
fol. It contains everything that had been 
printed in his lifetime, together with the 
' Miscellany Tracts ' that Tenison had edil«d 
in 168S. ''Hydriotaphia' and the 'Garden 
of Cyrus, ' origijially published in 1 658, reached 
their siTth edition in the folio of 1086. In 
1736 Curll reprinted 'Hydriotaphia' and a 
portion of the ' Garden of Cyrus,' including 
in the same collection the tract on Brampton 
urns and the ninth of the miscellany tracts. 
No new edition of 'Hydriotaphia' appeared 
until Id'ii, when it was edited (with ' A 
Letterto a Friend' and'MuHa-umClausum') 
by James Crossley. The ' Garden of Cyrus ' 
is included in Wilkin's editions of Browne's 
complete works ; it has not been published in a 
aeparat* form. Of a ' Letter to a Friend ' Dr. 
Oreenhill describes eleven editions, ranging 
from 1690 to 1869 ; his own edition, acvata- 
The ' Posthumous Works,' 1712, were not re- 
issued in a separate form, but are included 
in Wilkin's editions. * Christian Morals,' 
1716, was republiahed in 1756, with a life 
of Browne by Dr. Johnson and notes. The 
edilioiia of 1761 and 1765 are merely the 
unsold copies (with (resh ritle-pages) of the 
1756 vdilioii. ' Christian Monus has been 
appended to severul modem editions of "Re- 
ligio Medici.' The only complete collection 
of Browne's works is PickennR's edition in 
four volumes, I8ii6-6, edited by iMmonWilkin. 
Tliis is a worthy edition of a great English 
classic. Wilkin spent twelve Tears in col- 
lecting and arranging his material ; he spared 
hi msel f nu iiMuble and left 




information unexplored. The tliree-volume 
reprint, 1862, of Wilkin's edition is far in- 
ferior to the 1835 edition ; some of the most 
interesting portions of the correspondence 
and several miscellaneous pieces are omitted. 
Dr. Greenhiirs edition of *lieligio Medici,' 
1881, displays great care and learning. 

Portraits of Browne are preserved in the 
Royal College of Physicians, in the vestry 
of St. Peter 8, Norwich, and at Oxford. 

[Wood's Athenae (Bliss), iv. 56-9 ; Wood's Fasti, 
i. 426, 451, 498; Life, and Whitcfoot's Minutes, 
prefixed to Posthumous Works, 1712; Life by 
Dr. Johnson and Supplementary Memoir by Simon 
Wilkin ; Blomefield's Norfolk, iii. 414, iv. 193- 
194; Works (ed. Wilkin), 1835-6; Greenhill's 
editions of Beligio Medici, 1881 and 1883 ; Cole- 
ridge's Literary Bemains, i. 241-8, ii. 398 ; Pro- 
ceedings of the Archaeological Institute, 1847 ; 
The Palatine Note-book, vol. iii. No. 34.1 

A. H. B. 

BROWNE, THOMAS (1672-1710), phy- 
sician, was the son of Dr. Edward Browne 
[q. v.], president of the College of Physicians, 
and tnus grandson of the author of ' Religio 
Medici.' He was bom in London, and 
baptised on 21 Jan. 1672-«3. His childhood 
was spent with his grandfather at Norwich, 
as is Known from the numerous references 
to * Tomey ' in Sir T. Browne's correspon- 
dence with his son. He entered Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and proceeded M.B. in 
1695, M.D. 1700. He was admitted a candi- 
date of the College of Physicians on 30 Sept. 
1704, and a fellow on 30 Sept. 1707 (Munk). 
In 1698 he married his cousin Alethea, 
daughter of Henry Fairfax, but had no issue. 
He inherited his other's estate at Northfleet, 
Kent, and (according to a statement in Le 
Neve's pedigree of the Brownes, printed in 
Wilkin's 'life and Works of Sir T.Browne') 
died in 1710, in consequence of a fall from 
bis horse. Browne was not eminent as a 
physician, and what interest attaches to his 
memory is chiefly through his family con- 
nections. He wrote, however, a curious ac- 
count of an antiquarian tour through Eng- 
land in company with Dr. Robert Plot 
(historian of Oxfordshire, &c.), which exists 
in manuscript in the Brit ish Museum (Sloane 
1899), and is printed in Wilkin's work above 

[Wilkin's Life and Works of Sir Thomas 
Browne, London, 1836, i. ; Munk's Coll. of Phys. 
2nd ed. ii. 18.] J. F. P. 

BROWNE, THOMAS (1708 ?-l 780), 
Garter king-of-arms, the second son of John 
Browne 01 Ashbourne, Derbyshire, became 
Bluemantle pursuivant in 1737, Lancaster 
herald in 1743,Norroyking-of-arms in 1761, 

and Oarter in 1774. He was the most eminent 
land sur\'eyor in the kin^om, and was called 
' Sense Browne,' to distinguish him from his 
contemporary, Lancelot Brown [q. v.], who 
was usually called * Capability Brown.' At 
first he resided at his seat of Little Wimley^ 
near Stevena^, Hertfordshire, which he re- 
ceived with his wife; afterwards he removed 
to Camville Place, Essendon, in that county. 
But he died at his town house in St. Jameses 
Street (now called Great James Street), Bed- 
ford Row, on 22 Feb. 1780. His portrait has 
been engraved by W. Dickinson, from a 
painting by N. Dance. 

[Noble^s College of Arms, 394, 395, 415, 422, 
439 ; Evans's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, 13196 ; 
Bromley's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, 340 ; Gent. 
Mag. I. 103.] T. C, 

BROWNE, Wn^LIAM (1591-1643?}, 
poet, second son of Thomas Browne, who is 
suj^posed by Prince to have belonged to the 
knightly family of the Brownes of Browne 
Hash in the parish of Langtree, near Great 
Torrington, Devonshire, was bom at Tavistock 
in 1 591 . Wood states that he was educated at 
the grammar school of his native town, and 

* about the beginning of the reign of James I ' 
was sent to Exeter College, Oxford. On 
leaving Oxford (without a degree) he entered 
himself at CI ifford*s Inn, whence he migrated 
(November 1611) to the Inner Temple. A 
certain William Browne was granted on 
18 April 1615 the place of pursuivant of wards 
and liveries during life ; but we cannot be 
sure that it was the poet who received the 
sinecure, for at this time there were other 
William Brownes belonging to the Inner 
Temple. A W^illiam Browne of Chichester 
was admitted student in November 1588, and 
anotherof * Walcott, Northants,' in November 
1579 (Students of the Inner Temple, 1571- 
1625, pp. 32, 57). Browne's earliest publica- 
tion was an elegy on Prince Henry, who died 
in November 1612. It was printed in 1613, 
with an elegy by Christopher Brooke [q.v.], in 
a small quarto, entitled Two Elegies, con- 
secrated to the never-dying memorie of the 
most worthily adm3rred : most hartily loued ; 
and geuerallv bowayled Prince, Henry Prince 
of Wales,* 1 / leaves. There is a manuscript 
copy of this elegy in the liodleian. It was 
afterwards introauced, in a somewhat altered 
form, into the fifth song of the first book of 

* Britannia's Pastorals.' The first book of the 

* Pastorals ' appears to have been composed 
before the poet had attained his twentieth 
year ; for in the fifth song he ^UTites — 

O how (methinkes) the impes of Mneme bring 
Dewes of Invention from their sacred spring I 
Here could I spend that spring of Poeeia 
Which not twice ten tunnea have bestowed on me. 

The ciiriuiiiily i-JiftrHvi^d title-pitgi? oftL^ Bi«t 
editiun uf book L, foL, bears na ilali', biit tbe 
adilnnw W the render is dated ■ Krom the Inner 
Temple, June the 18, 1613.' I'relixed are 
c[>mmen<iaioi7 rerses (in I^tin, Greek, and 
Etiglish) by Dmylon. Selden. ChriBlopher 
Rroolee, and otUeni ; and the bock is dedicated 
to Edwanl, lord ZoucB. In ItilfJ appeared 
the aeriinil IxKJk, nnth a deilii'Hliirv*iiiint>l to 
William, earl if Pembrok--, mid rommenda- 
tory verse* by Jnhn Giani'dl, John Davies of 
Hereford, Wither, Bon Jonaon, and others. 
The two bnoka were republished in one toI. 
8vo in loaS. A copy of the edition of 1625, 
ennloining mtinuaeripc additional commen- i 
datorj vereea by friends of the poet, wbb in . 
the poiseaBion of Iklne, nho printed the I 
whoM of the moiiuecript cnatt.-r m the sixth ' 
volume of his ' Anpcdotefi n( Lllernture.' 1 
The third book of ili.> ' l'«sinrnls ' was not j 

Khlished in the anibiir's lift-iiuii': but Tieriah 
terinls for his work on ' t-'nibiTlnil Libraries," 
discovered u manuBcrJpl copy of it in the 
library of Salisbury I'athe^l. In I8G2 
tbt" manuscript was printed for the Percy 
Society, And it h&a ainee been reprinted in 
Mr. W. Corew ITaitlitt'A collective edition of 
Browne's worl(s(3vol8. 1808). As the third 
book is muck inferior M the first and se- 
cond books, doubta were cast, on its authen- 
ticity at the time of the publication of the 
nuuiiucript ; but Ibia inferiority is probably 
due to lite fact that the third book ittin an un- 
reviaed stnte. ' Britannia's Pastorals ' were 
jjTWtdy opplaiideSTirtteTTme of their first ap- 
pearance, and still Lold a diatinguisbed place 
iD'Engliiifa poetry. Browne was an ardent 
ailmtrcr of Spenser, to whose memory he pays 
■n eloquent tribute in the first songof the ae- 
condbook, Slanypassatitesare written inclose 
imitutioD of Spenser, and it was from the 
Bludtj of the ' Faerie Queene' tJiat he drew 
his iondness for allegory. The nnrratiTS is 
very Tagnn iind shadowy : and it is doubtful 
whether there is some real story of love trou- 
bles, or whether the churactere are wholly 
fictitious. Browne is at bi« be#t when be 
to Ijike care of itself and 
idulges in pastoral descriptions. Few have 
shown a truer approciation for the sighta and 
•ouAds of the country, though bin descriptions 
OK aometimes weakened by the introduction 
of cmwded details. He is particularly fond 
of diKwing similes from the homeliest objecte, 
ood bis (juaint simplicity of imagety is not 
the leaal of bis charms. The boldness of the 
narrstive nnd the tediousneasof iheollegori- 
HiiiK ftre forgotten when he sings of the trim 
hedgerows aud garden walks of bis native 
"■ " Browne has always been a (avDurite 


with the poets. PaasngviH iu Milton's ' L'AI- 
Ipgm' ftr.1 imitated from the 'Poslorals;" 
Keats's earlv poems show clear traces of 
Browne's influence ; and Mrs. Browning took 
some lines from 'Britannia's Pastorale' as the 
tuotto of her ' Vision of the Poets.' Browne 
■was indeed, as Michael Drayton says of him 
in the epistle to Henry Keynolds, a 'rightly 
bom poet." There is iir^setred (in the li- 
braiy of Alfrt^ H. Huth) a cony of the first 
edition of ' Britannia's I'aslomis ' containing 
notes in the handwriting of Mtlton. The 
volume WHS subiaitled to the suiitiny of 
experts, and there is no reason for doubting 
the authenticity of the notes, which am 
meagre and of no great interest. In 1614 ap- 
peared 'The ShepheardH Pipe,' small 8vo, de- 
dicated to Edward, lord Zoucb. It contains 
sai'en eclogues by Browne, to which are ap- 
pended eclogues by Cbristoplier Brooke, 
Wither, and Baviee of Hereford. In the lirst 
of Browne's eclogues is incorporated the story 
of Jonathas by Occteve, then printed for the 
first lime. At the end of the eclogue Browne 
makes the following note : — ' As this shall 

E lease I may be drawne to publish the rest of 
is workes, being all perfect in my bands.' 
Unfortunatelv the manuscripts were never 
published. The fourth eclogue is a smniithlW 
written elegy (which may have supplied Mil J 
ton with hints for 'Lyciifas') on the death of^ 
Thomas Manwood,sonof Sir Peter Manwood. 
In the ftftb eclogue the poet oddnisses Chris- 
topher Brooke, urging him to write poetry of a 
higher strain. After the seventh eclogue there 
is a second tille-poffe, * Uther Eglogi'es : bv 
Mr. Brooke, Mr. Wither, and Sir. Davies',* 
The first piece is inscribed to Browne by 
Brooke ; in the second (which is by Wither) 
Brooke and Browne are figured under the 
names of Cut tie and Willy; the third, which 
is by Davies, is entitled ' An Eclogue be- 
tween young Willy the singer of bis nalivt" 
Pastorals and old Wemocke bis friend.' 
Then follows a third title-pagi', ' Another 
Eclogue by Mr. George Wither. Dedicated 
to his tniely louing aud worthy friend, Mr. 
W. Browne.' Browne's next work was the 
' Inner Temple Masque,' on the subject of 
Ulysses and Ciree, written to be represented 
by the members of that societv on l^l Jan. 
iei4-15. Afl the booksof the Inner Temple 
contain no mention of any expenses incurred 
by the performance, it is jirobuble that the ar- 
rangements for the representation of the 
masque were at the last moment counter- 
manded. The piece was printed for the first 
time iu Daviess edition of Browne's works 
(3 vols. 1 772) ,from a manuscript in Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge. Warton suggests, with I 
little show of plausibility, that the ' Inner 




Temple Masque * supplied Milton with ^ the 
idea of a masque on the subject of Comus.' 
Few facts are known about Browne's per- 
sonal history. From Harleian MS. 6164 Sir 
Egerton Brydges discovered that he married 
the daughter of Sir Thomas Eversiield of 
Den^ near Horsham, and had two sons, who 
died in infancy. He survived his wife and 
wrot« an epitaph on her. At the beginning 
of 1624 he returned to Exeter College and 
became tutor to the Hon. Robert Dormer, 
afterwards earl of Carnarvon. In the * Ma- 
triculation Book ' is the entry, * 30 An. 1624, 
William Browne, son of Thomas Browne, 
gentleman, of Tavistock, matriculated, age 
.Sd.' It is possible (though improbable^ that 
he did not matriculate during his earlier re- 
, sidence. On 25 Aug. 1624 he received per- 
' mission to be created master of arts, out 
■ the degree was not actually conferred until 
• the 16tli of the following November. In 
the public register of the university he is 
styled * vir omni humana literarum et bona- 
rum artium cognitione instruct us.* Wood 
states that he was afterwards received into 
the family of the Herberts at Wilton, where 
he * got wealth and purchased an estate.* In 
1629 Samuel Austm [jq. v.] of Lostwithiel 
dedicated to Browne, jointly with Draj'ton 
and Seijeant Pollexfen, the second book of 
his * Urania.' Ashmole MS. 36 contains a 
copy of verses by Abraham Holland ad- 
dressed * To my honest father M. Michael 
Drayton and my new yet loved friend Mr. 
Will. Browne.' In November 1640 Browne 
was residing at Dorking, whence he addressed 
a letter (presented in Ashmole MS. 830) to 
Sir Benjamin Ruddyerd. Among the Lans- 
dowTie MSS. (No. 777) is a collection of poems 
by Browne, first printed at the Lee Priory 
Press in 1815. The collection includes a 
series of fourteen sonnets to 'Ccelia,' in 
which the writer seems to refer to the death 
of his wife and to his second wooing ; some 
tender epistles and elegies ; six * Visions,' on 
the model of Du Bellay ; jocular and baccha- 
nalian verses ; epigrams and epitaphs. Among 
the epitaphs are found the famous lines 
* Underneath this sable herse,' &c., which 
haA'e been commonly attributed, on no better 
authority than Peter Whalley, to Ben Jon- 
son. In * Notes and Queries,' Ist ser. iii. 262, 
it was pointed out that in Aubrey's * Me- 
moires of natural 1 remarques in Wilts' the 
lines are stated to have been * made by Mr. 
Willia Browne, who wrote the Pastoralls, 
and thev are inserted there.' No new infor- 
mat ion was elicited bv the recent discussion 
in the pages of the * Academy ' (Nos. 608-10, 
and 617). Tlie Lansdowne MS. makes the 
~^*taph consist of twelve lines ; and in this 

form it is found in * Poems WTitten by the 
Right Honourable William, Earl of Pem- 
broke' (1660) and Osborne's * Traditional 
Memoirs of James I.* The epitaph certainly 
reads better as a single sextain ; and Hazlitt 
makes the plausible sug^tion, that ' who- 
ever composed the original sextain . . . 
the addition is the work of another pen, 
namely. Lord Pembroke's.' Among the hu- 
morous poems in the Lansdowne MS. is the 
well-known * Lydford Journey.' Prince in 
the * Worthies of Devon ' makes the poem con- 
sist of sixteen verses. The manuscript gives 
seventeen verses ; and the copy in Thomas 
Westcote's 'View of Devonshire in 1630* 
(Exeter, 1 846) contains nineteen verses. Com- 
paring Westcote's text with the text of the 
Lansdowne MS., we get twenty verses (vide 
Academy, No. 623, p. 262). 

After 1640 we hear no more of Browne. 
In the register of Tavistock, under date 
27 March 1643, is an entry, * William Browne 
was buried ' ( Works, ed. Hazlitt, i. xxxviii) ; 
but, as the name is so common, we cannot be 
sure that this William Browne was the poet. 
Another William Bro"vvTie died at Ottery St. 
Mary in December 1645. From a passage in 
Carpenter's * Geographia' (1636, p. 263) it has 
been frequently asserted thatBrowne intended 
to write a history of English poetry from the 
earliest times to his own day : but Carpenter's 
words, which are usually quoted at second 
hand and without reference to the context, 
do not bear this interpretation. What he 
says is : * Many inferiour faculties are vet 
left, wherein our Devon hath displaied her 
abilities as well as in the former, as in Philo- 
sophers, Historians, Oratours, and Poets, the 
blazoning of whom to the life, esjwcially the 
last, I had rather leave to my worthy frienc^ 
Mr. W. Browne, who, as hee hath already^ 
honoured his countrie in his elegant and^ 
sweet Past oralis, no question will easily bee 
intreated a little farther to grace it by draw- 
ing out the line of his Poeticke Auncasters be- 
ginning in Joseph us Iscanus and ending in 
himselfe.' Wood, making no reference to 
Carpenter, writes : * So was he expected and 
also intreated, a little farther to grace it [sc. 
his country] by drawing out the line of nis 
poetic ancestors beginning in Josephus Is- 
canius and ending in himself ; but whether 
ever published, having been all or mostly 
icritten as ^twas said, I know not.* Whether 
there is any truth or not in the italicised 
words, it is certain that the work woidd have 
been merely an account of Devonshire ^^Titer8, • 
not a complete survey of English poetry. 
Browne was a good antiquarian. In a mar- 
ginal note at the beginning of the first book of 
' Britannia's Pastorals ' he corrects a passage 

it) th« prinltid copy of William of Malmes- 
hary 5^)m a manu»('ri[>t copy in the hands of 
his ■ very icumoil fripni! Mr. Selden.' Michael 
Ihnylon in the Episrle to Henry R^yntilda 
epeikt of Browne aa one of his 'dear com- 
pnniona' and ' bosom friends.' To the second 
edition of the ' I'olyolbiQii ' (1622) Browne 
pivlixt^d a I'opy of laudatory verww ; and Drav- 
tOD aliow^ his respect for Browne by dedi- 
cating to him an elegy. Christopher Brooke's 
' Oh.wt of Richard the Third,' 1614, and the I 
later nditions of Dverbury'a ' Wife,' contain ', 
poeticsl tributes by Browne, to whom may i 
oe safely aaaigned the commendatory verses, | 
bwaring the signature ' W. B.,' prefixed to I 
Maeaiuger's ' Duke of Mitlaine ' ilS23) and 
' nondmait '(11)24). Browne wna also a con- 
tributor to ' EpitliHlamiii Oxoniensia,' 1025. I 
Like his frienu Michael Drayinn, whom he i 
nuetnbled inmanyreapeclfiifirowne possessed | 
a gCDllcnpsaand simplicity of character which , 
secured him the affection and admiration of I 
hia coutemporarieB. Priaoe tel Is iis that ' he 
had a gireal mind in a little body.' Whether 
this dMcription is to be token merely ns a 
flower of speech, or whether the poet was 
nf short Etuture, it would be dlilicult to 

Browne'a works were edited in 1773, a vols. 
12ino,b^ Thomas Davies (he bookseller. The 
po«iu in Laiisdowne MS. 777 were first 

K'ntud by Sir E^erton Brydges at the Lee 
ioty Pre*s. In 1866 a iximplete edition of 
Bmwno'a works was edited for tlie Rox- 
buiBfaeiOwl), in 2 vols. 4to, bv Mr. W, Carew 
I Ha2itt, 

[Uemoir by W. C. Hjulilt prefixed to val. i. 
DtBrvwar't works, ud. 1868; Wood's Alheaie 
(BllM). ii. 3(14-7 ; Wood's Foati, i. 4]fl ; Boasu's 
Rig. Bxater Coll. Oion. ; Prinw's Worthim of , 
Davos : Carpentpr's (^M^raphin, 1635, p. 263 ; 
Beloe's Anivdotea. vi. 68-SS ; Warton's Hisl. of 
English PiMtry.iHLlSTl. iii. 321 ; BelroBpactiTo ' 
JlaTi««,ii. 119; Conur'sCulloctaDM.] A. H. It. I 

BEOWNE, WILLIAM (1638-1678), | 
botanist^ was bum at (.liford, and trained at i 
that imivumiiy, where liegradualed B,A. on ' 
2 Not, 1647, buind des^rlhiid as of Magdalen I 
CoUr^n. IJn 2 July t6»2 he wos one of the 
vummereof Anthonyi^ Woodforll.A. Con- 
jointly wiib Dr. P. Stejihen, principal of' 
Mudalen Hall, lie odited a ni^w edition of 
HoUirt's ' C'ntalogue of the Oxforcl Garden.' 
Tliif i* notable as being the Krsl botanical 
b(«-ik iwiied in thi» country which cites tlic"' 
pBg<»of nutli-iraiiiioied. Tie look the degree 
qf B.1}. on M .riily 166.1. und preached oue 
. €if tho nnivereitv sermons at St. Matr's on 
32 ,\ag. 1671. Id-died suddenly on 25 March 


L And was buried in the d 

r chapei 

5 Browne 

of Mugdulen College, of which he waa senior 

[Wood's Faali (Blisa). ii. 104. 282 ; Wood's 
.\theD(E Oxon. (filiu) Life, ii, lii; Fnlteney'a 
Biog. Skewhetiof BoI»uit(I790), i. 166-8.1 
B. It. 1. 

Ls bom in ibo county of Dur- 
, and was t he son of a physician. 

He entered I'eterhouse, Cambridge, in 1707 ; 
' graduated B.A. 1711, and M.A. 1714. In 
1716, having received a license from the uni- 
versity, he began to practise medicine at 
hyan, Norfolk, where he lived for over 
thirty years. He was contiidered to be eC' 
centric, but he succeeded in making a for- 
tune, and in 1749 he moved to London, 
where he lived for the rest of bis life in 
Queen S^iuare, Bloomsbury. In 1721 he 
took bin M.D. degree at Cambridge. In 
172'> he waa admitted a candidate at the 
College of I'hvsicians, and in the next year 
afelbw. On"l March 1738-9 be was ad- 
mitted a fellow of the Royal Society, and in 
1748 he was knighted through the interest 
of the Ihike of Montagu. Alter settling in 
London he passed through the various omces 
of the College of Physicians, and in 1766 
and 1786 was president. At tliis time there 
was a violent dispute between the college 
and the licentiatea. Browne was a defender 
of the privileges of the universities, and had 
offended the licentiates by a pamphlet in the 
dispute with Dr. Scliomberg(a ' Vindication 
of the Royal College of Phyaiciana,' 1753). 
Footc caricatured him on the stage in his 
farce 'The Devil on Two Sticks.' Browne 
sent Foote a card complimenting him on hia 
accuracy, but sending^ia own muff to com- 
plete the likeness. He found it ditticult Ut 
maintain his dignity at'the college, and on 
one occasion, when be was holding the 
comltia, the licentiates forced their way 
tumultuously into the room. Resolving to 
avoid such an affront in future, he deter- 
mined to resign bis office instead of holding 
it for the usual term of five years. Un quit* 
ting the chair he delivered a humorous ad- 
dress, which was published in Latin and 
English. In this he declared that he had 
found fortune in the country, honour in the 
college, and now proposed to find pleasure 
at the medicinal spnngs. lie accordingly 
went to Balh, where he called upon War- 
huHon ut Prior Park. Warburton gives a 
ludicrous description of the old gentleman, 
with his mull', his Horace, and his spy-glass, 
who showed all the alacrity of a boy both in 
body and mind. Ho returned to London, 
where, on St. Luke's day 1771, he appeared 





at BuUon's cofTee-House in % titc«d coal and I 
fringed c'loves to show liimself to tlm lord 1 
mayor. He eKpluined his healthy appearance 
by saying that he had neither wife nor debts. 
ti'" wife bad died on ^5 July 1763, in her 
Biity-fourth year. Browne died on 10 JIareh ! 
1774. He was buried at Hillington, Nor- I 
folk, under a Latin epitaph written by him- | 
ielf. He left a will pvofiieely interlarded 1 
-with Greek and Latin, and directed that his 
Elzevir Horace should be placed on his ' 
coffin. He left three gold medals worth fire ! 
guineas each to be given to undergraduates j 
at Cambridge for Greek and Latin odea and 
epignune. He also founded a echolarabi^ of 
twenty guineas a yiiar, the holder of whicli 
■wttB to remove to Peterhouse. 

Browne's only daughter if ary was second 
wife of William Foflies, brother of Martin 
Follies, president of the Royal Society, In 
1767 he presented his picture by Hudson to 
the College of Physicians. 

Browne's works are as follows; 1. 'Trans- 
lation of Dr. Gre^ry'a Elements of Catop- 
tries and Dioptrics (with eome additions),' 
17ie and 1785. 2. ' Two Odea in imitation 
of Horace,' 1783 and 1765; the second 
written in 1741 on Sir Robert Walpole 
censing to be minister, and dedicated 10 the 
Earl of C>rford, from whose family he had 
received many favoure. 3. ' Opnacula varia 
utriuBijue linguiB,' 1765 (containing the 
Harveian oration for 1751, also publiahed 
separately at the time), 4. 'Appendix al- 
tera ad opiucula,' his farewell oration, 
also published in Englisli, 1768. 5. 'Frag- 
mentum Isaaci Hawkins Browne, arm., 
aire Anti-BoUugbrokius,' translated for a 
aecond ' IMigio Medici,' 1768 (the I-alin of 
I. H. Browne from the poems published by 
his BOn in 1768, with English by W. B.) 
6. 'Frogmeutum completum,' 1769 (con- 
tinuation of the last in Latin and English 
by W. R.) 7. ' Appendix ad Opuscula ' (a 
Latin ode with English translations), 1770. 
6. ' A Proposal on our Coin, to remedy all 
Present and prevent all Future Disorders," 
1771 (dedicated to the memory of Speaker 
Onslow). 9. ' A New Year's Gift, a Problem 
and Demonstration on the Thirty-nine 
Articles' (explainii^ difficulties which had 
occurred to him on having to sign the articles 
at Cambridge), 1772, 10. ' The Pill-plot, to 
Dr. Ward, a quack of merry memory,' 1772 
[ (written at Lynn in 17»4). 11. 'Uorrec- 
■ ions in Verse from the Father of the College 
in Son Cadogan's Gout Disai-rtation, irontain- 
P lag False Physic. False Logic, False Philo- 
Lcophy,' 1772. 12. 'Speech on the Itoyal 
IBociety, recommending Mathematics as the 
~. Qualification for their Chair,' 


Browne's best known produc 
bably the Cambridge answer to the much 
better Oxford epigram upon George Vb 
present of Bishop Moore's library to the 
university of Cambridge: — 
Thi' king t« Oxford sent a troop of horse, 
Fur toriee oxta iiu argument but force ; 
With equnl cam to Cambridge books he sent. 
For whigs nilow uo force but argQment. 
[Muok'a Ctdl. of Phyi. ii. 95 ; Nichola'a lit. 
Anerd. iii. 315-30; LuUen from a lat« EnuDcot 
Prelate, p. 404.] L. 8. 

BROWNE, WILLIAM(I748-I825),geiii 
and seal engraver, obtained the patronage of 
Catherine fl, empress of Russia, who gate 
him much employment and appointed liim 
her ' gem sculptor.' In 1788 he was living in 
Paris, where he worked for the rujal Gunilj, 
but in Che outbreak of the revolution in to» 

fotlowingyearreturned to England. Hew 
a frequent exhibitor at the Itoyal Academy 
between 1770 and 1823 of classical headaand 

Browne's talents met with but 

little recogniiionin liis own country, and tlia J 
finest specimens of his art were sent to Rus- 
sia. Some of his portraits of eminent peraoos 
ate in the royal collection at Windsor. H« 
died in John Street, Fitiroy Square, 20 July 
1825, aged 77. 

[Redgrave'!! DicCJonary of Artists (137B)i H8. 
Notts in British Museum.] L. F. 


1813), oriental traveller, was bom in London 
on 26 July 1768, and descended from an old 
Cumberland family. He was educated pri- 
vately until entering at Oriel College, Oxford, 
where, receiving ' no encouragement and little 
assistance in his academical studies,' he dili- 
gently strove to educate himself. Ait«r 
leaving Oxford (B.A. 1789) he for a tiin« 

Eursiied the study of the law, which he re- 
nquisbed upon becoming independent by hia 
father's death. His earnest though sMata 
temper was deeply stirred by the French 
revolution. He reprinted at hia own expense 
V. portion of Buctiannn's trestiw 'Do Jura 
Hegni apud Scotos,' and other political trado, 
and seemed inclined to a public career, when 
his thoughts were diverted into a new channel 
by reading Brunt's travels and the fint n 
port of the African Association, and he n 
solved lo devote himself to the exploratioa 
of Africa. Among his qualilicattuns he enii 
merates 'a good constitution, though by n 
means robust, steodineesof purpose, much ir 
difference to personal accommodations and 1 

cnjojments, logetber with a degree of pa- ' 
tience which could eudure reverses and itiK- ' 
appnintmpniB without murmurmg.' He also 
pofweosed n fair Bcquaiolance with the cloesics, 
And an clemeAtiuy knowledge of chemistry, 
botony, iiud mineral o(^, Ue arrived st Alex- 
andria in >l an uaiy 1 7C2, and aAer two months' : 
iveidtuu.'e prot^ceded westwards along the | 
cwft to visit the mitts at Siwah, which, ^ 
with a candour rare among explorers, he ; 
praitounccd not to he the remains of the 
t«mple of Jupiter Anunon. Kennell, who 
differed from him on this queation, remarks 
that Browne's Ammonian e.'cpedition in- 
volved miU-'h more personal risk than Alex- ' 
twder's. He sabgequentl; spent some time i 
at Cairo, studyina; Arabic and investigating I 
lb« political and social condition of the | 
conntry, and visited the principal remains I 
of Ef^tion antiquity, now familiar, but in 
his titno little known, lo Europwrna. Ri'iiig . 
prevented by war from entering Nuhia, he ' 
turned afiide to thf vast lioman quarries at 
Coswiir on the Red Sea, which he explored 
in the diflguise of an oriental. The war still 
ContiDiuDK, he determined to accompany the 
gnat Scudan caravan M Darfur, a country 
not previously described by any European, 
frnm which he hopfd to penetrate into 
Abya^in. After eneounteriitg great hard- 
■liipa he reached Darfiir in July 1793, only 
to tall sick of dysenterj-, to l*a robbed of 
most of hi^ property, and to be detained by 
the sultan. He was not, however, imprisoned 
or pert«>nally ill-treated, and employed hia 
enforced residence in examining the cha- 
raet«r and productions of the uninviting 
country, solacing hismnuihj the education 
of two young hons. At length the sultan 
WM induced to dismiss him oy the fear o£ 
Kpriaals on Darfurian merchants in Egypt, 
Mid Rrowne returned with the caravan of 
1796, having made no remarkable discoveries 
flf hisovm, but having gnintMl much informa- 
tum, aapecially on the course of the Nile, 
ihecorrectuess of which has been established 
by suheo(|iH'tit research. Having joumeved 
over Syria iind through Asia Minor to Cfon- 
■tantinnple, he arrived in England in 1708, 
and published an account of his travels in 
1800. The unfavourable reception of this 
valuable work was chiefly owing to the de- 
fects of the writer's style. As a traveller 
Browne is uot only observant hut intelli- 
gent and judicious, hut bis good sense deserts 
him whon he takes ihi ' ' 

■mpanied Dv fancy 
or iwi agination, and bis faithful registry of 
obaerrationa and occurrences is rarely un- 
iiraBed bjr any gleam of descriptive power. 

His work was further prejudiced in the eyes 
of the public by the prominence g* 
physiological details and c 

of ei 

of the civilisation of Europe. 
There is, nevertheless, an element of reason 
Id Browne's paradox, and hia favourable 
judgment of orientals after all he had under- 
gone at their hands says much for his good 
temper and philosophic candour. 

From 1800 to 1802 Browne travelled again 
in Turkey and the Levant generally, and 
collected much valuable information, par- 
tially published after his death In Walpole's 
' Travels in various Countries of the East.' 
He »!pont the next ten years in England, 
' leading the life of a scholar and recluse in 
the vast metropolis,' hut intimate with several 
men of similar taat-es. especially Smiihson 
Tennant, the Ciimbridge professor of che- 
mistry, who speaks of hia 'soothing, romantic 
evening conversations.' In 1812 he again 
' left England with the oWect of penetrating 
I into Tortary^ by way of Persia. Travellii^ 
' through Asia Minor aud visiting Armenia, 
he proceeded in safety as far as Tabriz, which 
be left for Teheran towards the end of the 
summer of 181.3, accompanied by two ser- 
vants. According to one account these men 
returned a few days afterwards, declaring 
that lirnwne had been murdered by banditti. 
According to another, the discovery was 
made by the mehmandar, or officer cfiargod 
to insure his safety, whom Browne bad un- 
fortunately preceiied. His body could not 
ho recovered, but his effects, excepting his 
money, were restored to the English ain- 
hassador, and after some lime his bones, or 
what were represented as such, were brought 
to Tabriz and honourably interred. There 
seems no good reason for the suspicions 
entertuned of the Persian government, and 
it remains a question whether the motive of 
the murder was plunder or fanaticism exas- 
perated by Browne's imprudence in wearing 
a Turkish dress. 

Browne isdescribed se grave audsstumine, 
'with a demeanour,' says Beloe, 'precisely 
that of a Turk of the better order.' Beneath 
this reserve he concealed an ardent en- 
thusiasm, his Bttacbnients were warm and 
durable, he acted from the highest principles 
of honour, and was capable of great gene- 
rosity and kindness. In politics he was a 
republican, in religion a free-thinker. Hia 
intellectual endowments were rather solid 
than shining, but he possessed in an eminent 
degree two of the traveller's most essential 
qualifications, exactness and vemcily. 

[BroW'ni"9 TrnveU lu .Africa. Egypt, and 
Syria, 1800; Walpole's Travels la variaus 




Ck)antriefl of Uie East, 1820 ; Beloe's Sezagens^ 
rian, voL ii.] B. G. 

(1809-1861), poetess, was bom at Bam Hall, 
Durham, on 6 March 1809. She was the eldest 
daughter of Edward Moulton, and was chris- 
tened by the names of Elizabeth Barrett. Not 
long afterwards Mr. Moulton, himself succeed- 
ing to some property, took the name of Bar- 
rett. In after times Mrs. Browning signed 
herself at length as Elizabeth Barrett Brown- 
ing. Her mother was Mary Graham, the 
daughter of a Mr. Graham, afterwards known 
as Graham Clarke of Feltham in Northum- 
berland. Soon after the child's birth her pa^ 
rents brought her southwards to Hope End, 
near Ledbury in Herefordshire,where Mr.Bar- 
rett possessed a considerable estate, and had 
built himself a country house, with Moorish 
windows and turrets. It is described by one 
of his family as standing in a lovely park 
among trees and sloping hiUs all sprinlded 
with sheep. The house, too, was very beau^ 
tif ul, and this same lady remembers the great 
hall with the organ in it, and more especially 
^ Elizabeth's room,' a lofty chamber with a 
stained glass window casting lights across the 
floor, and upon little Elizabeth as she used to 
sit propped against the wall with her hair 
falling all about her face, a childlike fairy 
figure. Elizabeth was famed among the chil- 
dren for her skill with her white roses ; she 
had a bower of her own all overgrown with 
their sprays. The roses are still blooming for 
the readers of the * Lost Bower,' * clear as once 
beneath the sunshine.' 

Another favourite device of the child's 
was that of a man of flowers laid out in beds 
upon the lawn ; a huge giant wrouglit of 
spade, *eyes of gentianella's azure, staring, 
winking at the skies ' (see * Hector in the 
Garden '). Elizabeth's gift for learning was 
extraordinary- ; at eight years old she had a 
tutor and could read Homer in the original, 
holding her book in one hand and nursing 
her doll on the other arm. She has said her- 
self that in thost? days * the Greeks were her 
demi-gods.' * She dreamed more of Aga- 
memnon than of Moses her black pony.' At 
the same age she too began to write poems. 
When she was about eleven or twelve her 
great epic of the * Battle of Marathon ' was 
written in four books, and her father had it 
printed ; * papa was bent upon spoiling me,' 
she writes. A cousin remembers a certain 
ode, which the little girl recited to her father 
on his birthday about this time. This cousin 
used to pay visits to Hope End, where their 
common grandmother would also come and 
stay. The old lady did not approve of these 

readings and writing, and used to say she 
had far rather see Elizabeth's hemming more 
carefully finished off than hear of Si this 
Greek. Elizabeth was growing up mean- 
while under happy influences. She had 
brothers and sisters in her home, her life was 
not all study, she had the best of company, 
that of happy children, as well as of idl 
bright and natural things. She was fond of 
ridmg, she loved her gardens, her woodland 

Slayground. As she grew older she used to 
rive a pony and go further afield. A child 
of those days flying in terror along one of 
these steep Herefordshire lanes, perhaps 
frightened by a cow's horns beyond the 
hedge, still describes bein^ overtaken by a 
young girl in a pony carnage with a pale 
spiritual face and a profusion of dark curls, 
who suddenly caught her up into safety and 
drove rapidly away with ner. All these 
scenes are turned to account in 'Aurora 
Leigh.' One day, when Elizabeth was about 
fifteen, the young girl, impatient for her ride, 
tried to saddle her pony alone, in a field, and 
fell with the saddle upon her, in some way 
injuring her spine so seriously that she was 
for years upon her back. 

She was about twenty when her mother's 
last illness began, and at the same time some 
money catastrophe (the result of other 
people's misdeeds) overtook Mr. Barrett. 
lie would not allow his wife to be troubled 
or told of this crisis in his affairs, and com- 
pounded at an enormous cost with his cre- 
ditors, materially diminishing his income for 
life, so as to put oft* any change in the ways 
at Hope End until change could trouble the 
sick lady no more. After Mrs. Barrett's death, 
wlien Elizabeth was a little over twenty, 
they came away, leaving Hope End among 
the hills for ever. * Beautiful, oeautiful hills,' 
Miss Barrett wrote long afterwards from her 
closed sick room in London, * and yet not for 
the whole world's beauty would I stand among 
the sunshine and shadow of them any more : 
it would be a mockery, like the taking back 
of a broken flower to its stalk ' (see betters 
of E, B. Brormdng to JR, H, Home), 

The family spent two years at Sidmouth 
and then came to London, where Mr. Barrett 
bought a house at 74 Gloucester Place. 
Elizabeth Barrett had published the *■ Essay 
on Mind ' at seventeen years of age, * Pro- 
metheus ' and other poems at twenty-six ; she 
was twenty-seven when the * Seraphim ' came 
out. Her continued delicacy kept her for 
months at a time a prisoner to her room, but 
she was becoming known to the world. 
* Prometheus ' is reviewed in the * Quarterly 
Review ' for 1840, and there Miss Barrett^ 
name comes second among a list of the most 

■CConipUsKed women of tbosp days. Het 
noble poam on Cowp^r's grave was repub- 
lished with the ' Seraphim; on which (wliat- 
a ber later opinion may hnve been) she 
at the time seems to have sat small count ; 
k11 thn remaining copies of the book being 
lackt^ Bws;, she writes, in the 'wardrobe 
in her fatUftr'a bedroom,' entombed ss safelj 
as (Edipuaamonglbeolivea. In a surviving 
copy of thia book, belonging to Mr. J. Dykes 
Campbell, there ia an added stanza to the 
image of Ood, never yet printod, and many 
n funt correcllon in her delicate hand- 
writing. From Gloucester Place Miss Bar- 
rett went an unwilling exile for her bualth'g 
sake to Torquay, where the tragedy occurred , 
which 'gave a nightmare to her life for : 
ever.' Her brother had come Cosee ber and 
to bo comforted by her for some trouble of 
bis own. when he was accidentally drowned, 
under circumetancea of torturing auspeniie, I 
wbicli added to the shock. All that year j 
the «ra beating upon the shore Bounded to j 
her as n dirge, she says, in a letter to Miss | 
Uitford. It was long before Miss Barrett's ' 
health was sufficiently restored to allow of 
her being brought home to Gloucester Place, ' 
wbirre many years passed away in the con- 
finement of a sick room, to which few besides , 
tiw members of her own family were ad- 
nultvd. Among these exceptions were to be 
found MiH Milford, who would travel forty 
milM to see her for an hour, Ktrs. Jameson, 
and above all Mr. Kenjoa, the 'friend and 
dearest cousin' to whom she afterwards de- 
dicate ' Aurora Leigh.' Mr Kenyon had 
SB almost fatherly auction for her. and from 
the fint recognised his young relative's ge- 
nine. He was ber constant visitor and link 
with the outside world. As Miss Barrett 
lay on her couch with her dog Flush at her 
ibet, Hias Mitiord describes her as reading 
'boohs in almost every language,' giving 
hetself heart and soul to poetry. She also 
occunied herself with prose, writing literary 
articl(« for the ' AthenEeum,' and contn- 
bttting to a modem rendering c)f Chancer, 
which was Ibenbeingeditedhy herunknown 
friend, Mr. R, H. Homo. These early letters 
of Hm. Browning to Mr. Horoe, published 
aflw her death with her husband's sanction, 
MV full of the suggestions of her fancy ; as 
fca instanru, ' Sappho who broke off a frag- 
Rif>nt of her soul lor us to guess at.' Of her- 
•nlf she nnee writes (apparently in answer to 
some qunslion of Mr. Ilontu's) : ' My story 
amountBtothe knife-grinder's, with nothing 
at all for n catastroplie ! A bird in a cage 
would have ss good n story; most of my 
OTCnl* and iwarly all my intense plewupe 
_hivi) jnmrirt in ny thoughta.' 

In 1&43 Miss Barrett wrote the ■ Cry of 
the Children,' so often quoted. It was sug- 
gested by the report, of the commissionera 
appoint«il to invextigale the aubject of the 
employment of youngchildren. in theeorly 
part of 1B46 she assisted Mrs. Jameson, who 
was preparing a volume of collected papers, 
by contributing a translation from the ' Odys- 
sey.' About this time Mr. Kenyon first 
brought Mr. Browning as » visitor to the 
bouae. tt must have been about this time 
that Miss Barrett, writing to Mrs. Jameson, 
says, in a warm and grateful lett«r in the 
possession of Mrs. OUphaat : ' First I was 
drawn to you, then I was and am bound 
to you, but I do not move into the confes- 
sional notwithstanding my own heart and 

In 'Lady Geraldine'a Courtship' MJsa 
Barrett had written of Browning among 
other poets as of the ' pomegranate which, 
if cut deep down the middle, shows a heart 
within blood-tinctured, of a vtined hu- 
manity.' Very soon uftertbeir first acqxiain- 
tance ihej became engaged, and were married 
in the autumn of the same year, 1846. The 
sonnets from the Poriuguese are among the 
loveliest in the English language, and were 
, written in secret by Mrs. Browning before 
her marriage, although they were not shown 
to her husband till long afterwards. He 
himself had once called her ' his Portuguese * 
(see Mrs. Browning's ' Caterina toCamoena'), 
and she hod replied by writing these son- 
nets. There is a quality in them which is 
beyond words ; an echo from afar which 
belongs to the highest human expression of 
I feeling. Leigh Hunt may be quoted as ex- 
I pressing his wonder at the marvellous heauty, 
I 'the entire worthiness and loveliness' of 
these sonnets. Some time in 1846 the doc- 
, tors had declared that Miss Barrett's life 
depended upon her leaving England for the 
winter, and immediately after tlieir marriage 
I Mr. Browning took bis wife abroad. Mrs. 
I Jameson was at Paris when Mr. and Mrs. 
, Browning arrived there. In the life of Mrs. 
j Jameson, by her niece, Mrs. Macpherson, 
I there is an interesting description of the 
meeting and tlie surprise, and of their all 
journeying together southwards by Avipion 
and Vaucluse. They came to a rest nt Pisa, 
whence Mrs. Browning writes to her old 
friend, Mr. Horne, to tell him of her marriage, 
and she adds that Mrs. Jameson calls her, 
notwithstanding all the emotion and fatigue 
of the last six weeks, rather ' transformed ' 
than improved. From Pisa the new married 
pair went to Florence, where they finally 
settled, and where their boy w:ts bom in 
1849. Those omong us who only knew 

Browning 80 

Mrs. Browning as a wife and as a mother 
have found it oifficult to realise her life under 
any other conditions, so vivid and complete 
is the image of her peaceful home, of its fire- 
side where the logs are burnings and the mis- 
tress established on her sofa, with her little 
boy curled up by her side, the door opening 
and shutting meanwhile to the quick step of 
the master of the house, and to the life of the 
world without, coming to find her in her 
quiet comer. We can recall the slight figure 
in its black silk dress, the writing apparatus 
b^ the sofa, the tiny inkstand, the quill- 
nibbed pen-holder, the unpretentious imple- 
ments of her work. * She was a little woman ; 
she liked little things.' Her miniature edi- 
tions of the classics are still carefully pre- 
served, with her name written in each m ner 
sensitive fine handwriting, and always her 
husband's name added above her own, for she 
dedicated all her books to him: it was a 
fieincy that she had. Nathaniel Hawthorne, 
who visited Mrs. Browning at Florence, has 
described her as ' a pale small person scarcely 
embodied at all,' at any rate only substantial 
enough to put forth her ' slender fingers to 
be grasped, and to speak with a shrill yet 
sweet tenuity of voice.' * It is wonderful,' 
he says, ' to see how small she is, how pale 
her cheek, how bright and dark her eyes. 
There is not such another figure in the world, 
and her black ringlets cluster down into her 
neck and make her face look whiter.' There 
is another description of Mrs. Browning by 
an American (also quoted in the pap^Jrs of 
the Browning Society), * a soul of fire en- 
closed in a shell of pearl,' and, in common 
with all who knew her best, the writer 
dwells on her sweetness of temper and purity 
of spirit. 

Mrs. Browning lias had readers worthy of 
her genius. The princess of poets, says George 
Macdonald, in idea she is noble, m phrase 
magnificent. When Wordsworth died, the 
* At hen leum ' urged that Mrs. Browning should 
succeed him as poet laureate. Mr. Uuskin 
and George Eliot were among her readers. 


lished bv Mr. J. W. Cross); * it contains, among 
other admirable things, a very noble expres- 
sion of what I believe to be the true relation 
of the religious mind of the past to that of 
the present.' liana Andersen was another of 
her devoted friends. Mrs. Browning writes 
of him to Mr. Thackeray * as delighting us 
all, more espt»cially the cnildren.' Tne author 
of * Vanity Fair ' had a most special feeling 
of tender, admiring respect and affection for 
Mrs. Browning. j 

Among the Brownings' greatest friends in 
Italy were Mr. and Mrs. Story, with whom 
they lived during two or three summers 
at Siena in villeggiatura, Walter Savage 
Landor found first at Siena, and then at 
Florence, a refuge and a home with Mr. and 
Mrs. Browning after he had been left deso- 
late — * a Lear whose own were unkind ' (CoL- 
vnr. Life of Landor). Landor finally settled 
down near the Brownings in Florence, being 
established by their care in the house of a 
former maid of Mrs. Browning's, who had 
married an Italian, and who was living close 
to Casa Guidi. Mr. Story has written an 
interesting letter about Casa Guidi prefiixed 
to the American edition of Mrs. Browning's 
works. He describes the square ante-room 
with its pictures, and the pianoforte where 
*her young Florentine ' already strikes the 
keys, the little dining-room covered with 
tapestry, the large drawing-room where she 
always sat : * It opens upon a balcony fitted 
with plants, and looks out upon the iron-^rey 
church of Santa Felice ' (Hawthorne speaks in 
his * Memoirs ' of listening from this room to 
the sound of the chanting from the opposite 
church). Mr. Story goes on to write of the 
tapestry-covered walls, and old pictures of 
samts that stare out sadly from their caned 
frames of black wood ; of the * laive book- 
cases brimming over with learned-looking 
books, tables covered with more gaily bound 
volumes, the gift of brother authors, Dante's 
gprave profile, a cast of Keats's face and brow 
taken after death, a pen-and-ink sketch of 
Tennyson, the genial face of John Kenyon, 
Mrs. Browning s good friend and relative, 
little paintings of the boy Browning, aU at- 
tracted the eye in turn; a quaint mirror,*" 
easy chairs and sofas, a hunared nothings, 
were all massed in this room.' Mrs. Brown- 
ing used to sit in a low armchair near the 
door; a small writing-table, strewn with 
writing materials and newspapers, was always 
by her side. It was here she wrot^ * Casa 
Guidi Windows ' and ' Aurora Leigh,' which 
the authoress herself calls ' the most mature 
of my works, the one into which my highest 
convictions of work and art have entered' 
(see preface of Aurora Leigh), The poem 
is full of beauty from the first page to the 
last. The opening scenes in Italy, the impres- 
sion of light, of silence, the beautiful Italian 
mother, the austere father with his open 
books, the death of the mother, who lies laid 
out for burial in her red silk dress, the epi- 
taph, * Weep for an infant too young to weep 
much, when death removed this mother;' 
Aurora's journey to her father^s old home, 
her lonely terror of England, Uie slow yield- 
ing of her nature to its silent beauty, her 




frieodship with her cousin, Itomncy Leigh, 
tb^r udacning, widcniig; knowled^ of the 
bnrden nnd sorrow of the life around, and 
thomtylhis knowledge inJlaeiices both their 
fktM, ill U desoribeil with that irresiitiblo 
ferrour which U the transktion of the essenc* 
of tbingi into words— ^if their very soul into 
tonunon life. When the manuacript of 
' Aurora Le^h ' was nwirly finished, the 
Browninep catoe over to Engldnd for a time, 
And U H&rseiUes, bj some oversight, tlia box 
waa lost in which the miwui^ritit hud been 
packed. In Ihis same box were sJbo csrefuUy 
put awrtycertainvelvBt suits and Iflue cnllars, 
tn whicli the little son was to muke his sp- 
pMratira amon^ his English relatives. Mra. 
BMwnio^s chief concern was not for her 
maanscnpta.but for the loas of her little boy's 
wtidrobe, which had been devised with so 
much tender motherly care and pride, Hap- 
pily one of her brathors was ut Marseilles, 
and tbu boi was discovered stowed sway 
in some cellar at the customs there. The 
happy influence of Jlrs. Browning's mar- 
riage is shown in the added beauty and vivid 
flMn of reidity of her lat«r poetry, although 
the hoaband and wife carefully abstained 
£nm reading each other's work while it was 
fCinng on. In Leie-h Hunt's 'Ck»rrespon- 
dtnce,' vol. ii., there is a joint loiter from Mr. 
■nd Mrs, Browning', dated Bagni di Lucca, 
in which mention is mode of Leigh Hunt's 
ptaUo of 'Aurora Leigh:' 'I am still too 
near the production of" Aurora Leigh " to be 
able to see it ail.' Mr. Browning says : ' My 
wife used to write it and lay it down to hear 
our child spell, or when a visitor came in it 
im thrust under the cushions then. At 
I^uia, a year ago last March, she gave me 
tbe fir«t six books to read, I never having 
aeea a line before. She then wrote the rest 
and transcribed them in London, where I 
read them also. I wish in one sense that I 
had written and she had read it,' 

Mrs. Browning's later poems chiefly con- 
cenipd public ailairE, and the interests of 
Italy so near her heart. Mrs. Kemblequotea 
with admiralioQ the noble poem of the 
'Court Ijody,' included in the 'Poemfi before 

Mr". Ilmwning's feeling for Napoleon III 
was the eJipifssion of her warm gratitude 
for tho liberator of her adopted country ; 
her own eiithusiasm coloured her impres- 
WDUB of those who appealed to her generous 


jielodioHsness and splendour of poeli 

gift Mrs. Browning st4in^, to the best of 

f knowledfce, first among women,' says a 

. itic(I'.B*r!»ii, GreatA'ny/wAJcam^n). She 

maf not, as he goes on to say, have tUo know' 

ledge of life, the insight into character, the 
comprehensiveneas of some, but we must all 
a^e that a poet's far more essential ouali- 
ties are hers, usefulness, fervour, a noble a»- 
piration, and, above all, tender, fkr-reaclung 
nature, loving and beloved, and touching the 
hearts of her readers with some virtue from 
its depths. She seemed even in herlifesome- 
thing of a spirit, and her view of life's sor- 
row and shame, of its beauty and eternal 
hope, is something like that wluch one might 
imagine a spirit's to be. 

It has been said that the news of the 
death of Cavour, coming when she was very 
ill, hastened her own. Glixabeth Barrett 
Browning died at Florence 30 June 1861. 
A tablet Das been placed to her memoir on 
the malls of Casa Guidi. It was voted by 
the municipality of Florence, and written 
■ ""ommaseo— 'Quiscriasee moriE.B.B., 
in cuore di donna conciliava acieuze di 
dotto e spirito di poeta e fece del eno verso 
o anello fra Italia o Inghilterra. Pose 
questa memoria Firenia grata, J861.' 

Mrs. Browning's worlra are as follows : — 
1. 'An Essay on Mind, with other Poems,' 
12ino, 1926 ; anonymous, dropped by the 
author, but reprinted (by H. H. Shepherd) 
in 'The Earlier Poems of E. B. Brown- 
ing," 1826-33, 12mo, 1878. 2. 'Prome- 
theus Bound : translated from the Greek of 
vlischyluB, and Miscellaneous Poema by the 
author of " An Essay on Mind," with other 
Poems,' 8vo, 1B33; anonymous, dropped 
by the author, but the miscellaneous poems 
reprinted in 'The Earlier Poems,' Ac, men- 
tioned under 1. The ' Prometheus Bound ' 
was rewritten and printed in 5. 3. ' The 
Seraphim, and other Poems,' by E. B. Bar- 
rett, author of 'A Translation of the Pro- 
metheuBBaund,'&c.,13mo,I838. 4. 'Poems 
by E. Barrett Barrett,' author of ' Tho Ser*. 
pbim,' &c., 2 vols. 12mo, 1844. Preface 
says, all written later thain 3. 6. ' Poema 
by E. B. Browning,' 2nd edition, 2 vols. 
12mo, 1S60, containing new poems and an 
entirely new version of the ' Prometheus.' 
3rd^ edition, 1853 ; 4th, 1806, &c. 6. ' Caaa 
Guidi Windows,' a poem by E. B. Brown- 
ing, ISrao, 1851. 7. 'Aurora Leigh,' by 
E. B. Browning, 8vo, 1857; 2nd edition 
same year, 18th edition 1884. 8. 'Poems 
before Congress,' by E. B. Brovniing, 12mo, 
1860. fl. 'Lost Poems,' by E.B. Browning, 
12mo, 1862. Posthumous, edited bv Robert 
Browning, who states that there are included 
some translations written in early life. 
10, 'The Greek Christian Poets, and tho 
English Poets," by E. B. Browning, 12nio, 
1S63. Posthumous, edited by Robert Brown- 
ing, who states these (prose essays and truns- 





lations) were published in the ' Atheiueum ' 
in 1842. 11. ' Selections from Poems by 
E. B. Browning/ edited by Robert Brown- 
ing, first series, 12mo, 1866, reprinted in 
Tauchnitz series. 12. ' Selections/ &c., se- 
cond series, 12mo, 1880. 13. * Lady Geral- 
dine's Courtship,' illustrated by Barton, 1876. 
14. ' Rhyme of the Duchess May,* illustrated 
by M. B. Morrell, 1873. There are many 
American editions and selections. 

rPersonal information from Miss Browning, 
Lady Carmichael, and Mr. J. Dykes Campbell 
(secretiiry of the Browning Society); Home's 
Letters of £. B. Browning, ed. Stoddard ; Miss 
Mitford's Recollections of a Literary Life ; British 
EncjTclopeedia, art ' Browning ; ' Macmillan's 
Magazine, vol. iv. : Quarterly Review, 1840 ; 
Biographie O^nende, parts i. and ii. ; Bayne*8 
Two Great Englishwomen; Forster's and Col- 
vin's Lives of Landor ; Revue Lttt^raire, art. by 
Leo Quesnel on Mrs. Browning; Field's Yester- 
days with Authors; Ireland's Bibliography of 
Leigh Hunt; Leigh Hunt's Correspondence, ii. 
264; Mrs. Jameson's Memoirs; Browning So- 
ciety's Papers, Nos. 1 and 2.] A« R. 

BROWNING, JOHN (/. 1584), divine, 
matriculated as a sizar at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, on 14 Nov. 1658, and was after- 
wards elected to a scholarship and a fellow- 
shij). He proceeded B.A. 1562-8, M. A. 1566, 
ana B.D. 1577. He opposed the adoption of 
the new university statutes of 1572. At 
the close of the same year he was charged 
before Dr. Whitgift, deputy vice-chancellor, 
and the heads of houses, with preaching the 
Novatian heresy at St. Mary's, and was or- 
dered to abstain from preacning for a time. 
But he disobeyed the order, and was com- 
mitted by the vice-chancellor to the Tolbooth 
on 27 Jan. 1572-3. In February he was re- 
leased on giving sureties to abstain from 
preaching until he had come up for further 
examination. He afterwards sent to Lord 
Burghley (17 March 1572-3) a formal con- 
fession of his errors. Burghley forwarded the 
coniession to the "vdce-chancellor, with a 
warning that steps should be taken to see 
that Browning acted up to his professions of 
conformity. On 8 July 1580 Browning was 
created D.D. at Oxford. Dr. Still, master 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, complained to 
Lord Burghley that Browning's standing did 
not permit him to receive the degree ; but on 
8 Dec. 1581 Still signed the grace by which 
Browning was incorporated D.D. of Cam- 
bridge. On 7 Sept. 1584 Browning, as vice- 
master of the college, issued an order sus- 
pending Still, the master, from his office, on 
the ground that he had married, contrary to 
his oath, that he had broken many college 
statutes, and had wasted the college resources. 

Still replied by dectin^ Browning from his 
fellowship ; but Brownmg refusea to leave, 
and had to be dragsed from his rooms by 
force. Browning hi^been chaplain in earlier 
years to Francis, earl of Bedford, and the 
earl appealed to Burghle^r to restore Brown- 
ing to his fellowship, insisting on * his suffi- 
ciency in the sounde prechinge of the trueth,' 
and his ' godly conversacion.' But nothing 
is known of the result of this appeal, or of 
Browning's subsequent career. 

Another John Bbowning was rector of 
Easton Pana, Essex, from 22 April 1634 
till 1639, and of Easton Magna from 9 Nov. 
1639. He was the author of 'Concerning 
Publike Prayer and the Fasts of the Church : 
six sermons and tractates,' 2 parts, London, 
1636 (Newcoubt, Diocese of London; Brit. 
Mu8. Cat) 

[Cooper's Athene Cantab, ii. 239 ; Wood's 
Fasti (Bliss), i. 216; Strype's Annals, n. i. 
278-81 ; Strype's Whitgift, i. 98 ; Strype's Fkiiker, 
ii. 195-7 ; Hist MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. 214.1 

8. L. L. 

BROWNLOW, RICHARD (1553-1638), 
chief prothonotary of the court of common 
pleas, was the son of John Brownlow of 
High Holbom, by a daughter of Sir John 
Zouch of Stoughton Grange, Ijeicestershire. 
He was bom 2 April 1553, and baptised 
12 April at St. Andrew's, Holbom. In 1583 
he was entered at the Inner Temple, and was 
treasurer of that society in 1606. ()n 9 Oct. 
1591 he was made chief prothonotary of the 
court of common pleas, which office he con- 
tinued to hold until his death, deriving from 
it an annual profit of 6,000/., with which he 
purchased the reversion of the estate of Bel- 
ton, near Grantham, and other properties in 
Lincolnshire. He married Katherine, daugh- 
ter of John Page of Wembly, Middlesex, one 
of the first governors of Harrow School, and 
by her had three sons and three daughters. 
He died at Enfield on 21 July 1638 in his 
eighty -sixth year ; his bowels were buried in 
Enfield church, but his body was carried to 
Belton, and buried 1 Aug. in the church 
there, where there is a figure of him in his 
prothonotary's fjown surmounting his monu- 
ment. A portrait in similar dress is preserved 
at Belton House, and was engraved by Thomas 
Cross as frontispiece to his works. His will 
is dated 1 Jan. 1637-8, and was proved 8 Aug. 
1638 by his two sons, Jolm and William 
Brownlow, who were both created baronets, 
the latter being the ancestor of John Brown- 
low, viscount Tyrconnel, whose sister married 
Sir Richard Oust, bart., the ancestor of the 
present Earl Brownlow. A street in Holbom 
still bears the name. After his death yarious 




cuUMtions frnm his mttuiwcripts wwe pub- ' 
liahed, includinff : 1. ' Itcpnrts of diverse' 
Choice Coses <n Law, Inken b; lUchnrd | 
Drawnlow and John Goldesborough,' 1651. 1 
2. 'Reports' la second jmrt of ' Di^'eree ] 
Choico C*sm of Law ■), 1852. 3. ' Deck- . 
niiiaiis And PleHdinf^s in EnKlish,' 165:ij| 
:2nd put 1654i 8rd wlitinn \SS^. 4. 'Writs 
Judicial; 1663. 5. 'PlacitaUtiDO Itediviva: 
B Dooll of Entrieit collected iu the Times , 
and out of some of the Manufcri^ts of those 
funniu and learned prothunotariea Richard 
Hnjwnlow, John Gulston, Robert Moyland, 
atii) Thoniis Cory, by R. A. of Fumival's 
Inn/ 1B61 ; 3nd edition 1673. 6. 'ASecood 
Dock of Judgements >n Real, Personal, and 
Milt Actions and upon the Statute ; all or 
rooet of them affirmed upon Writs of Error. 
Boins the collection of Mr. George HiiJiley 
of I^ncoln'g Inn, Kent., out of tlie choice 
auwuscripts of Mr. Brownlowe and Mr. 
Moyk." &c., 1674. 7. ' LatinS Redivivus: 
u UDoi of Entries of such Declarations, In- 
formstioi), Pleas in Bar, &c,, contained in 
the first and second ports of the Declara- 
tions and Pleadings of Richard Brownlow, 
eaq., late cliief prutbonotaiT' of the Court of 
CcnniDon Pleas (unakillfully turned into 
Engliah and) printed In the years 16o3 and 
1S£|. Now published in I^tin, their origi- 
nal Lani^uage, with additions,' ltl93. 

[Tttttiors CollMTtionit for tho Historj- of tho 
Town and Soke of Gninthnm, pp. 01-5, 100 ; 
<twit. Hog, xcri. 2S ; Barrington's Obeerra^ 
tions on the more Ancir-nt Statutes; Onnger't 
Biognttibicitl Bistory of Kngland (oth wlit.), ill. 
it ; Visitatidns ofLincolDshire, Harl. MSS. 1 19U, 
1650, ISJl, 3S2S, and Heralds' College; Brit, 
Uus. Catalogue ; family papvrs belonging Ut 
Earl BromiloT.] T. F. H. 

BBOWNRIO, HALPII (1.592-1659), 
bishop of Exeter, was bom at Ipswicli of 
parenld who ore described as being ' of mer- 
chaully condition, of worthy reputation, and 
of Tery christian conversation.' His father 
died when he was only a few weeks old, but 
hs was well brought up by a pious and ju- 
dicioas mother, who sent him at an early age 

o the e; ^ 

There he remained until his fburt«eiith vear, 
wb6n hv was sent to Pembroke Hall, Cam' 
bridgv. Il<iwH«e]»cled scholar of the 'house,' 
and then fellow sooner than the statutes 
permilled, bocMUse ' ihe crtll^e wanted to 
mnhr sure of him.' Ho took his M.A. dufree 
in IB17, B.D. in 1621, and DM. in 1626. 
"Wlica James I was entertained at Cam- 
briilipi with a ' Philosophv Act,' Brownrig 
waa clioson by ite uaivutsity to act thi- joco- 
part of ' Pneraricator,' and grently 

delighted the king and the rest of thuaudicnoa 
by 'such luiuriancy of wit consistent with 
innocency.' Thomas Puller, who knew him 
personally, tells us that 'he had wit at wiU, 
but BO that he made it his page, not his privy 
counsellor, t« obey, not direct his judgment.' 
In 1621 he was mode rector of'^Barley iji 
Hertfordshire, and in the same year was 
appointed to a prebend at Ely by Dr. Feltrwi, 
the bishop of that see. He ministered to Us 
rustic parishioners at Barley for some yeaB, 
' and fitted,' says his biographer, ' bis net to 
the fish be had to catch ; but,' he adds, ' lie 
was more fit to preside in the ecliouls of the 
prophets tlian to rusticate among plain people 
that follow the plough.' And tie was pre- 
sently called upon to preside in a school of 
the prophets, being cboaen master of Bt. 
Catharine's Hall, Cambridge. He appears to 
have been a very auccessful master, the hall 
improrinE both in the quality and quantity 
of lie stuojBnts in consequence of his care and 
the fame of his name. In 1629 he was made 
prebendary of Lichfield ; in 1631 archdeacon 
of Coventry. He held the office of vice- 
chancellor of the university in 1637 and 1638. 
He was presented to the eleventh stall in 
Durham Cathedral by Bishop Morton, whose 
chaplain he was, in 1611 ; and finally, in the 
same year, upon the translation of Bishop Hall 
to Norwich, he succeeded him in the see of 
Exeter. He was vice-chancellor again in 
1643-4, when the Earl of Mancheeter visited 
, the university, and it is highly probable that 
i his interposition was serviceable to thecbuich 
I party at Cambridge. But it is also probable 
that his retention of his mastership was due 
not only to ' the procerity of his parts and 
piety,' but also l/i the fact that bis lawn 
' sleeves did not altogether alienate his pres- 
' byterion friends, and moreover that in some 
points he agreed with them rather than with 
their adversaries. For lie was a strict Cal- 
viniat, and in other respects was opposed 
to the Laudian type of churctunsnship. 
He was also nominated one of the assembly 
of divines. Yet, in his way, he was tho- 
' roughly attached to the church of England, 
i ' which' (he said) he liked better and better 
' as he grew older.' In 1645 be was brave 
t enough to preach a royalist sermon before 
' the university, and was deprived of bis 
mastership in consequence, and was obliged 
to quit Cambridge. He bod previously hceu 
deprived of all his other preferments. He 
found refuge among the independent laity, 
who were stiU faithful to the church. He 
divided his time between London, Bury St. 
Edmunds, Higligale, and Suimitig, a vHlage 
, in Berkslure, by far the greatest part of it 
I being spent in the last-named place at the 





Louse of his good friend Mr. Rich. At Sun- 
ning he had the moral courage to exercise 
his episcopal functions. He ordained there, 
among others, the famous Edward Stilling- 
tleet. It is said that Oliver Cromwell asked 
his counsel about some public business, and 
that he bravely replied, * ^ly lord, the best 
counsel I can give you is, Render unto Caesar 
the things that are Csesar^s, and unto God 
the tilings that are God's/ with which reply 
the Protector was silenced rather than satis- 
fied. About a year before his death Brownrig 
was invited by the honourable societies of 
both Temples to come and live among them 
and be their chaplain. He accepted the in- 
vitation, and * was provided with handsome 
lodgings and an annual honorary recom- 
pense ' (Gauden). This hardly amounted to 
his being appointed, as Neal says {Ilut^nf of 
the Puritans), master of the Temple. He 
preached in the Temple church in Easter 
term 1659, when there was so large a crowd 
that many were disappointed of hearing him. 
His last sermon was on 5 Nov. in the same 
year, and on the 7th of the following month 
he died. He was buried, at his own desire, in 
the Temple church, his funeral sermon being 
preachecfby Dr. Gauden, afterwards his suc- 
cessor in the see of Exeter. Dr. Gauden also 
published a * Memorial of the Life and Death 
of Dr. Ralph Brownrig,* which is, in fact, 
merely an amplification of what he said in 
the sermon. Fulk^r, who was present at the 
funeral, says : * I observed that the prime per- 
sons of all denominations were present , whose 
judgments going several ways met all in a 
general grief at his decease.' Echard says 
* he was a great man for the anti-Arminiau 
cause (for he was a rigid Calvinist), yet 
a mighty champion for the liturgy and 
ordination by bishops, and his death was 
highly lamented by all parties;' and Xeal 
owns that * he was an excellent man, and of 
a peaceable and quiet disposition' (JTifffoty 
of the Pui-itans). I lis reputation was so great 
that TUlotson, when he first came to Lon- 
don, sought him out and made him his mrnlel, 
both for his preaching and for his mode of 


Brownrig published nothing during his 
lifetime, but at his death he * disposed all his 
senuons, notes of sermons, papers, and paper- 
books,' to the Rev. W. Martyn, * sometime 
preacher at the Rolls,' with liberty to print 
what he should think good. Mr. Martyn de- 
t^Tuiined to print nothing without the sanc- 
tion of Dr. Gauden, whose rather exaggerated 
view of Brownrig's merits he seems to have 
adopted, for he calls him * one of the greatest 
lights the church of England ever enjoyed.' 
He published forty sermons of Brownrig's in 

1652, which were reprinted with twenty- 
five others in 1665, making two volumes. 
They are full of matter, and, after the 
fashion of those times, they pick their texts 
to the very bone. As they are very long, 
full of quotations, and divided and sub- 
divided into innumerable heads, it is not 
surprising that they never reached the rank 
of the great classical sermons of the seven- 
teenth century. They are not, like Bishop 
Andrewes's sermons (which they resemble in 
form), of such superlative excellence as to 
overcome the repugnance which set in after the 
Restoration against this mode of preaching. 

[Bishop Gauden's Memorial of the Life and 
Death of Dr. Ralph Brownrig; Fuller's Worthies ; 
Bioff. Brit. (Kippis). ii. 674-6 ; NeaVs History of 
the Puritans, iii. 112, iv. 242-3 ; Bishop Brown- 
rig's Sermons.] J. H. 0. 

murderess, was the wife of James Brownrigg, 
a house painter, who lived at Fleur de Luce 
Court, Fleet Street. For some years she 
practised midwifery, and about 1765 was ap- 
pointed by the overseers of St. Dunstan's in 
the West to act as midwife to the poor women 
of the parish workhouse. She had three 
apprentices, Mary Mitchell, Mary Jones, and 
]\lary Cliftbrd, all of whom she treated in a 
most inhuman manner. On 3 Aug. Clifford 
was found in a dying state, hidden in Brown- 
rigg's premises, and d i ed short ly after. James, 
the husband, was committed for trial. Eliza- 
beth and her son John fled, but were appre- 
hended on the Kith. Elizabeth was tried at 
the Old Bailey, before Mr. Justice Hewitt, 
on 12 Sept. 1767, found guilty, and received 
sentence. Her husband and son were ac- 
(piitted. It appears that after practising all 
sorts of diabolical cruelties upon Cliftbrd, the 
woman Brownrigg tied her up to a hook fixed 
I in one of the beams in the kitchen, and flogged 
her no less than five times on 31 Julv. She 
\ was hanged at Tyburn on 14 Sept. 1767. Her 
■ skeleton was ex])Osed in a niche at Surgeons' 
i Hall in the Old Bailey, * that the heinousness 
of her cruelty might make the more lasting 
I impression on the minds of the spectators ' 
' (Gent. Mfiff.) A well-known reference to 
I her crime is made in some verses in the * Anti- 
: Jacobin.' 

I [ Knapp and Baldwin's New Newgate Calendar, 
iii. 216-23; Celel)ratedTrials(1826),iv. 425-31 ; 

I Sessions Papers (1766-7), 257-76 ; The Ordinary 
of Newgate's Account of Elizabeth Brownrigg ; 

I Bayley'rt Life of Elizabeth Brownrigg ; Wilson's 
Wonderful Characters (1822), iii. 321-30 ; Gent. 
Mag. (1767), xxxvii. 426-8, where a picture of 
the ill-treatment of the apprentices will be found, 
476.] G. F. R. B. 

Brownrigg 85 Brownrigg 

Rockingham, county Wicklow, and was lK)m ' murdered ten Jiritish sulijects. anci Brown- 
there in 1758. He was gazetted an ensign : rigj^ issued a proclamation, declarinpr war. 
in the 14th regiment in 1775, and joined it ' But it was not until December 1«I4 that 
in America; but it was at once sent home, .lie formed his available troops, consisting 
His family was not rich, and he had only of the 19th and 7.*Jr(l n?giments and four 
himself to depend upon for rising in his pro- Ceylon regiments, three thousand men strong, 
fession. He became lieutenant and adjutant intothree divisions, tc»ok the command in per- 
in 1778. In 1780 and 1781 he served as a son, and occupied Kandy on 14 Feb. l^<15. 
marine on board the fleet, and from 1782 to ! The king was taken pris(»ner (m 18 Feb., and 
1784 he was stationed in Jamaica. In March on 2 March iHl'i the kingdom of Kandv 
1784 he was promoted captain into the 100th I was annexed by proclamation. Brownrigg 
regiment; in the October of the same year he | had l)ecn gazetted K.CMi. in January 1815, 
exchanged into the 35th, and in June 1786 and he was now created a baronet in March 
into the 52nd; and was promoted major in 1810. He was promoted full general in 
May 1790. In that year he was appointed | Au^rust ISIO, and returned to P^ngland in 
deputy adjutant-general to the so-called 1820. He was given leave to bear the crown 
Spanish armament, which was equipped at sceptre, and banner of the kingdom of Kand"! 
the time of the affair of Nootka Sound, and in liis arms in 1821, and was made G.C.B. 
when the Spanish armament was broken up in 1822. He died at Helston House, near 
he was made commandant and paymaster at Monmouth, on 27 April 18:^3. 
Chatham. In September 1793 he was ajn [Fi»rth«Mlatt's of (Jnu'ml Bn^wnri^'fr's promo- 
pointed lieutenant-colonel of the 88th regi- ti<ms soo the Army Lists; for a sliortand incom- 
ment, and joined the army in the Netherlands plet*.? sketch of his life .mm; th«? Annual Obitu:iry 
as deputy quartermaster-general. He ser\'ed an«l Ilej^ister for 1833, whieli is not at all full on 
throughout the campaign of 1794, and in the ' |bv Ceylon war, of which thelvst accr)unt extant 
disastrous retreat to Bremen, and became the i'' '" *i rare contuiniK)r!iry tnict (numl^oml in the 
Duke of York's special prot6g6 and friend, i BritishMuMumLibmry o8.3.f.U); A Narrative 
He was miUtary secretary to the duke, when ''\ >^vent8 which have rej-ently occurred in tho 
be was made commander-inMihief in February ■ l^i«'»l of Ce^-^on wntten by a Gentleman on tho 
1795, received a company in the Coldstream ^^'^'^' "^ P^'* ^"^^J ^^' ■^^' ^' 

guards in June 1795, and was promoted BROWNRIGG, WILLIAM (1 71 1-18(X)), 
colonel in May 1796. He accompanied the physician and chemist, wa8 l^om at ni)L''ii 
Duke of York as military secretary on the Close Hall, CumU'rlaud, 24 March 1711. 
expedition to theHelder in 1799, and in the Aft»'r studying mwlieine in l^jndon for two 
same year was made colonel-commandant of years, he cr>mplet(»d his me<lical education at 
the 60th regiment. He was promoted major- J^yden, graduating M.D. in 17.'i7, and puln 
general in 1802, and in 1803 exchanged his lishing an elal^onitf thesis,* I)e Praxi M»'dicii 
appointment of military secretary at the iurunda.* Entering u]K)n practice in AVliitf?- 
Ilorse Guards for that of quartermaster- luiven, li«» commenced to invest ipite the 
general. His conduct in this office received guseous (exhalations from the nri^dibouring 
the approbation of the Duke of Wellington, i-oal-mines. In 1741 he communicated s**- 
Brownrigg was made colonel of the 9th v»Tal pa])ers on tlu» subject to the Koyal 
regiment in 1805, promoted lieutenant-general iSo<*iety, and was elect«'d t\K.S. ; but his pa- 
in 1808, served as quartermaster-general in pers were not published, at his own request, 
the Waicheren expedition in 1809, and in as he intended to ])re])are a comph'te work 
October 1811 was appointed governor and lie had a lain mitorv enacted in Whitehaven 
commander-in-chief of the island of Ceylon, imd supplied with a c<)nstant stream of iin*- 
When he took up his command, the English damp from the mines, and he constructed 
occupied only certain towns on the coast. The furiuices by which gr»'at variations of heat 
interior of tne island was niled by the kinj^ <*oul(l b«» obtained. His jmjHTs brought him 
of Kandy, who thoroughly despised the fiUg- into communication with Sir Hans Sloan**, 
lish eyer since his capture and massiicre of Dr. Hales, and otht*remini'nt men; and with 
Major Dayie's detachment in 1803. Matters th»'ir advice and aid he undt?rtook to prepan* 
came to a crisis during Brownriffg's tenure ' a general history of (lam])s, the outlines of 
of office. A chief named Eheilapola was which Hales read and submitte<l to the Koyal 
ordexed up to Elandy to be killed; he re- Society in 1741. J5ut Hn)wnrigjur, strangely 
Yoltedandofferedhifl province to the English, enough, could never be induced to publish 
whereuponthewholeof his family were mas- this research, and thus his fame has been 




much obscured. He learnt to foretell ex- | 
plosions in the mines by the rapidity of fall 
of the barometer, and was often consulted 
by proprietors of collieries. An extract from 
tne essay read before the Royal Society in 
1741, *0n the Uses of a Knowledge of 
Mineral Exhalations when applied to discover 
the Principles and Pronerties of Mineral 
Waters, the Nature of Burning Fountains, 
and those Poisonous Lakes called Avemi,' 
was published in 'Philosophical Transac- 
tions, Iv. 236, as an appendix to his paper on 
' Spa Water.* In it ne endeavours to prove 
that the distinguishing qualities of most 
mineral waters depend on a particular kind 
of air, which forms a considerable part of 
their composition ; and that this air diifers in 
no respect from choke-damp. Sulphureous 
waters he also shows to depend for their 
special qualities on a kind of nre-damp. He 
had a remarkable prescience of the import of 
these gases, and came very near to liing a 
chemical discoverer of the first rank. He 
was probably the first person acquainted 
with the acid nature of fixed air, or carbonic 
acid gas. A visit to Spa was subsequently 
made the occasion of some experiments on 
the air given oflf by Spa water. These are 
recoimted in * Philosophical Transactions,' Iv. 
218, and for them Brownrigg received the 
Copley medal of the Royal Society. He 
here showed conclusively that this gas is 
destructive to animal life. He also proved 
that the same gas is the solvent of various 
earths in the water, and that when these 
have been precipitated from it, they can be 
redissolved after again dissolving the gas in 
the water. In several particulars his re- 
searches were paraUel with those of Priestley, 
Black, and Cavendish. His later observa- 
tions are given in * Philosophical Transac- 
tions,* Ixiv. 357-71. 

In 1748 Brownrigg published a valuable 
book * On the Art of making Common Salt.* 
An abridgment of the work by W. Watson, 
F.R.S., was inserted in * Philosophical Trans- 
actions,' xlv. 351-72. Brownrigg was also 
the first to give any detailed accounts of 
platina, as brought by his relative, Charles 
Wood, from the West Indies in 1741. These 
are published, with experiments by Brown- 
rigg, in * Philosophical Transactions,* xlvi. 
584-96. Brownrigg showed that no known 
body approached nearer to gold. Another 
valuable paper of Brownrigg s was one criti- 
cising Br. Itales's method of distillation by 
the united force of air and fire (Phil. Trans, 
xlix. 334). In it he makes most original sug- 
gestions for increasing the expansion of steam 
by mechanical agitation, and by the passing 
of steam into water in the steam-engine. 

In 1771, when great alarm was excited by 
outbreaks of the plague on the continent, 
Brownrigg published ' Considerations on the 
Means of preventing the Communication of 
Pestilential Contagion, and the Methods by 
which it is conveyed from Place to Place and 
frY)m one Person to another ; ' but this, though 
characterised both by research and good ju^- 
ment, met with no great success, inasmuch as 
the threatened epidemic did not reach Britain. 
The association of Brownrigg in 1772 with 
Benjamin Franklin in the experiment of 
stilling Derwentwater during a storm by 
pouring oil upon it is interesting, and it led 
to the publication of an account of Franklin's 
experiments on the subject (tb. Ixiv. 445). 
The last communication frx>m Broi^'nrigg to 
the Royal Society was a description of twenty 
specimens of Epsom salts, green vitriol, &c, 
obtained from tne coal-mines at W^hitehaven 
(ib. Ixiv. 481 ). Previous to this he had retired 
to his paternal estate at Ormathwaite, near 
KeswicK, where he spent a quiet old age, sur- 
viving till 6 Jan. 1800. His scientific as well 
as professional fame would have brought him 
into great practice if he could have been per- 
suaded to settle in London. But nothing 
could induce him to quit his native district. 
He personally knew or corresponded with 
many of the most eminent scientific men of 
his day, English and continental. He was 
undoubtedly a genuine and original experi- 
mental philosopher, simple-minded, and some- 
what too modest as to his personal claims. 
He was very conversant with classics, mathe- 
matics, and modem languages, an intelligent 
agriculturist, an active magistrate, a humane 
and benevolent man, and a firm believer in 

[Dixon's Literary Life of W. Brownrigg, 
1801.] G. T. B. 

BROWNSWERD, JOHN (1540P-1589), 
poet, was a native of Cheshire, and received 
his education partly at Oxford and partly at 
Cambridge, where it is said he graduated. 
He became master of the grammar school of 
Macclesfield, where he died on 15 April 1589. 
The inscription on a tablet erected to his 
memory in the parish church by his friend 
Thomas Newton describes him as 'Alpha 
poetarum, Coryphaeus grammaticorum, rlos 
p(edagogfian.* lie -wTote * Progymnasmata 
qusedam Poetica, sparsim coUecta et in lucem 
edita studio et industria Thonue Ne\N'ton 
Cestreshyrii,* London, 1589, 1590, 4to. 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit 181 ; Wood's Athense 
Oxon. (Bliss), i. 561 ; Brydges's Censmra Literaria 
(1806-9), iz. 43; Ormerod's Cheshiie, iii. 287, 
366, 367 ; Cooper's Athenn Cantab, ii.46 ; Ames's 
Typogr. Antiq. (Herbert), 1110, 1710.] T. 0. 



lT4S)i pbjatciuii, was, utrcordinf; to Dr. 
Sluk«l«yr snativt* of Stnmfiinl.LiiicoliiBbire, 
iif huiDDl« origin. Born in or about 1060, 
lie wu AiJiniTled on the foundation nt, West- 
mimier in 1700, utA in t7(U was elected to 

<nu noDunitted student 23 July l/OTi, aiid 
sndiMted K.A. 20 May 1709, M^A. 18 April 
1711. In the former yttar, 1T(K), he hud com- 
menced hie medical studiM. iindi'r I>r, Mead, 
Bl St. Thomas's llospilal, and in )Tln was 
elected to one of the first of the ItndcliJlb 
tnvelling fellowahips. Upon bis retiiru he 
renuired to Uitivereity CoUugc,aa n member 
of whieh be took his degroua in physic by 
accumulation, proceeding M,I>. 8 July 1723. 
BroiboLrae then be^n practice in iLondon, 
waa admitted a cauilidate of Ibc CoUegu of 
PliruciaiiM 23 Dec. 1723, a r>lIow 22 \rarch 
17^=>, was censor in 172fl, and delivered 
the HurreiaD oration in 1731. This, which 
Wat printed the same yeiir in quarts, is re- 
mftrloible for its elegant yet unafiectcd La- 
tinity. He wo^ one of the six physicians 
ufpomted to St. George's liospitul at the 
flrM geueral board held 10 <Jct. 1733, and 
ia lh« following year was mado first physician 
to the I'rince of Wales, ' with salsjy an- 
■wxed,' an office which he resigned in 1739. 
At Lord llervey's tuggeslion he was the first 
t^iyaiciin Bununoued to assist Dr. Tessier in 
QiHien Caroline's lust illness. Broxholme 
biid married 7 Mar 1730, at Knightsbridj^e 
Chspel, Amv, widow of William Dowdes- 
welf of Pull Court, Worcesl era hire, and 
daughter of Anthony Hammond, F. U.S., the 
wit ftod poet. lie died nt his country reai- 
deitce, Ilittnv'""'*^'''!'^''^''^'^'^?'''^'''^'*''^''*^? 
8 July 1748. and was burittd on the 13th at 
Hampton. By his will he bequeathed the 
sum of eOOA for tlic berieflt of the king's 
aeholars at Wostmiuster ' in such manner as 
th« two upper masters rjf the said school 
shftU Ibink til,' and a like sum to Christ 
Churcb * to ha ^plied towards liiiisliing the 
library.' Mrs. BroxholmB survived her hua- 
bind six yiiiiTS, dyine in 1764. Revert- 
ing to our former auloority. Dr. Stukeley, 
his eouulrvman and fella w-«ludcnt at St. 
Thomas's llo^ital, we learn that Broxholme 
' WM a oinii 01 wit and gnyoty, lov'd poetry, 
Kxl classic, . . . got much monev m 
^ project in Fnutce. At len^rih he 
r and practised, but never hod a 
r to it, ihu' hu had good en- 

He v 
ivpanrcd,' writes Ho 
tfood-niilurt-'l that hu 
iram mil buuig; able to 

Walnole, ' and so 
i.ift olT liis practice 
lear seeing so many 

melancholy objects. I remember bim with 
as much wit as ever I knew.' In 17&4 there 
appearcd'A Collection of Receipts in Physic, 
being the Practice of the late eminent Dr. 
Bloxam [sic] : containing a Complete Body of 
Prescriptions answering to every Disease, 

I with some in Surgery. The Second Edition.' 

I 8vo, London. 

[Family Memoirs of Iier.W.StulieiBy(.Sartee« 

' Society, Inlii.), i. 48, 81, M; Munk's Roll of 
College of Physicians, Snd editioa. ii. H9^a0 ; 
Welch's Alumni WesMooaiisteriBPSos, ni-w edi- 
tion, pp. 237, 244, 246 », 2G0, S37 : Lord Hervsy's 
Memoirs, ii. 4B3; Ltltars of Walpole, 
ed. CuuniBghnm. ii. 20, 120 : Gent. Mug. tv. fl28, 
Tii. SSe, U. 32S, xviii. 333; Onitio Uarveiuna 
anno hdcclv. habita, auct. R. Taylor, pp. 31-3 ; 
Willerog. inP.CC. 30a Strohno, 188 Piofoid; 
Hampton Rugiater ; CotlectHDes Topographiea at 
OeDealogica, ir. 163 ; Notes and Queries, Istser. 
xii, 303, 353, 3M, SndasT. ii. 249-60; Nichols's 
Literary .\nec(lotos, i. 48* ; Life of Bp. Newton 
prefixed to hia works, i. 37 ; Letters and Works 
of Ladj M. W. Montn^, ed. WhorDcIifTe and 
Thomas, ii.169-60; Lists of Boynl Coll. of Phy- 
■icinos in Brit, Mna.] G. Q. 

BRUCE, ALEXANDER, second Earl of 
KlSCABDlNB (ff. 1681), was the second son of 
Sir George Bruce of Culroes, aad succeeded 
his brother Edwsrd in the earldom in 1063. 
Hia grandfather, Sir George Bruce, settled at 
Culroas early in the century, and there esta- 
blished extensive salt and coal works, the 
latter partly under sea, which became the 
sources of ^at wealth to the family (Dou- 
6LAS, Sevtttfh P«ei-ai/e). What part he look 
in the transactions of the years preceding 
1657 is uncertain, but his attachment to 
presbyterianism is well known (though in 
1665 he thinks ' a well ordered epiacoj»cy 
the best of governments '), and his political 
principles at that time may be in part gathered 
trom a sentence in one of Rooert Moray's 
letters to him: 'By monarchy you under- 
stand tyranny, but I royal government.' He 
was obliged before 1057 to leave Scotland, 
and be settled at the White Swan inn at 
Bremen in that year. A remarkable corre- 
spondence, extant in manuscript, which was 
begun in that year between him and Moray, 
who, under similar circumstnnces, had settled 
at Maestricht, and which was carried on until 
the death of Moray in 1672, was left in the 
hands of Mr. David Douglas of Edinburgh in 
18(U by Professor Cosmo Inues, and in 1679 
bunded by Mr. DougUa to the Earl o£ Elgin. 
It proves Bmce to have been a man of deep 
personal religion, of highly refined tastes, and 
of very wide attainments : medicine, chemis- 
try, chissics, matliematica, mechanical appli- 
ances of every kind, especially as adapted to 





his mining enterprises, divinity, heraldry, hor- 
ticulture, forestry, pisciculture, mining, and 
the management of estates — these and other 
subjects of acquired knowledge are discussed 
witn evident Knowledge. lie was engaged 
in the Greenland whale fishery, and he pos- 
sessed quarries of superior stone and of marble, 
part of which was used at Greenwich, and part 
m the rebuilding of St. Paul's. After the 
Restoration he became, upon the introduction 
of Moray, its first president, one of the lead- 
ing members of the Royal Society. During 
1057 and 1658 Bruce was extremely ill with 
ague. In the latter year he left Bremen for 
Ilamburg, where he stayed at the house of 
his countryman, William Grison. At this 
time, and lor some years afterwards, he was 
engaged, in conjunction with the Dutch ma- 
thematician, Hugens de Zulichem, in per- 
fecting and in pushing a new invention for 
making pendulum cIocks more serviceable at 
sea (fiorrespondence with Moray). A little 
later he took up his residence at the Hague, 
where on 16 June 1059 he married the daugh- 
ter of M. Somerdyck, who brought him a 
large fortune {ibid, and Douglas, Scottish 
Peerage). In January 1660 he was in Lon- 
don, *at the stone-cutter's house next to 
Wallingford House, Charing Cross,' but im- 
mediately returned to the Ilf^e, where he 
remained with his father-in-law until the 
Restoration. In June he was again in London 
at Devonshire House {Correspondence with 
Moray). All being now safe in Scotland he 
returned to Culross, and busied himself with 
his coal, salt, stone, and marble works. At 
the same time Burnet's statement that he 
neglected his private affairs for public work 
seems to be borne out by one of Robert 
Moray's letters, dated 22 Aug. 1668. Ac- 
cording to Burnet, Bruce had been of great 
service to Charles while abroad by advancing 
money. It was only natural, therefore, that 
he should profit by the Restoration. He was 
at once admitted to the privy council, where 
he appears to have stood alone in his oppo- 
sition to Glencaini and the dominant faction 
by urging delay, when in 1661 the king 
sent a letter to the Scotch privy council 
intimating his intention of reintroducing 
episcopacy (Douglas, Peerage). The cor- 
respondence with Moray continues, but is 
chiefly confined to purely private matters 
until August 1665, when James Sharp, who 
at that time was in opposition to Lauaerdale 
(with whom, througli Moray, Kincardine 
was closely connected), and who was doing 
his best to slander all connected with his 
party, informed the king that Kincardine 
had been present at an unauthorised com- 
munion at Tollialoun. Kincardine's pointed 

letters of remonstrance and Sharp's evasive 
replies are contained in the Lauderaale MSS. 
The report at first appears to have lost Kin- 
cardine favour at court, but so strongly did 
Lauderdale and Moray bestir themselves in 
his interest, that Sharp himself gained great 
disadvantage from the attempt, and in July 
1666, by way of making peace, begged the 
king to grant Kincardine a large share of the 
^nes {Qtrrespondence mth Moray). During 
the Pentland rebellion, ^November 1066, he 
had command of a troop of horse. In 1667, 
when the treasurership was taken from Rothes 
and put in commission, Kincardine was one 
of thd commissioners, and was also appointed 
extraordinary lord of session. His business 
knowledge and acquaintance with home and 
foreign trade were of great advantage to his 
colleagues. Always anxious for good go- 
vernment, he actively assisted in the con- 
ciliatory measures upon which Lauderdale 
was at that time engaged with regard to 
the covenanters, though he often strongly 
urged that toleration should be ' given, not 
taken ' (Lauderdale MSS.) In 1672, when 
Lauderdale began his career of persecution, 
Kincardine was almost the onlv one of his 
former adherents who stayed by him, reiving 
upon his engagement to return to milder 
measures. One of the chief grievances brought 
against Ijauderdale was that the right of 
pre-emption of various articles had been be- 
stowed upon his friends to the public loss, 
and Kincardine helped his cause by aban- 
doning that of salt, which he had held for 
a considerable time {Lauderdale MSS.) In 
Januarv 1674 he was for a short while Lau- 
derdale's deputy at "Whitehall, during the 
absence of Lord Halton. During this year, 
however, he found it impossible to continue 
to support the duke ; his last letter to him 
is dated 4 July. In compliance with Lau- 
derdale's urgent request, Charles now ordered 
Kincardine to retire to Scotland. In 1675, 
according to Mackenzie, who, however, is the 
only evidence for this, he was expected to 
succeed Lauderdale as secretary, and came 
up to Ijondon ; but through the intrigues of 
the duchess, who induced Lauderdale to be- 
lieve that he was coming only to support 
the threatened im])eachment by the liouse 
of Commons, and on account of his intimacy 
with Gilbert Burnet, then in disfavour, he 
was once more obliged to return to Scot- 
land, where he exerted himself on behalf of 
the covenanters. For example, he did his 
best to obtain a just trial for Kirkton, one of 
the hill preachers, and, in consequence of a 
letter of complaint from Lauderdale's party, 
was, bv an autograph letter of the king, dated 
12 July 1676, dismissed from the Scotch 




privy council. He appears after this to have 
taken no further part in politics. In 1678, 
hoiT^ever, he exerted himself to save the life 
of Mitchell, who some years previously had 
made an attempt upon James Sharp, and 
who was now murdered through the pexjury 
of Kothes, Sharp, and others, and ne en- 
deavoured in vain to save Lauderdale from 
sharing in the guilt of this crime, which was 
afterwards the chief cause of the duke's fall 

Subket). In May of that year, when in 
ndon, he was * scrapt out of the English 
council' (Lauderdale MSS.) In February 
1680 he is spoken of as being^ ^ desperately 
sick,' and according to Burnet (1. 514) appears 
to have died in 1681. 

[Burnet ; Lauderdale MSS. in British Museum ; 
Mackenzie's Memoirs ; Wodrow's Chorcb Hist.] 

O. A. 

BRUCE, ARCniBALD (1746-1816), 
theological writer, was bom at Broomhall, 
Stirlingshire, and, after studying at the uni- 
versity of Glasgow, was ordained, in 1768, 
minister of the Associate (Anti-burgher) con- 
gregation of Whitburn. In 1780 he was 
appointed professor of divinity by the General 
Associate Svnod, and continued to hold that 
office till 1806. Being dissatisfied with the 
action of his synod, he left it and formed, 
along with three others, the * Constitutional 
Associate Presbytery ; ' this led to a sentence 
of deposition being passed on him by the 
former body. He died 28 Feb. 1816. He 
was a man of great theological learning, of 
earnest piety, and at the same time of a lively 
imagination, as his writings showed. The 
chief of these were — 1. * The Kirkiad, or the 
Golden Age of the Church of Scotland,' a 
satirical poem, 1774. 2. ' Free Thoughts on 
the Toleration of Popery,' 1780. 3. * Annus 
Secularis,' the centenary of the revolution 
1788, a long dissertation on religious festi- 
vals. 4. 'Queries,' on the commemoration 
of the revolution, 1797. 5. * The Catechism 
modernized,' 1791, a cutting satire on lay 
patronage, and its effects, m the form of 
a paro<fy on the Westminster Assembly's 
Shorter Catechism. 6. 'Reflexions on the 
Freedom of Writing,' 1794, a propos of a pro- 
clamation against seditious publications, bear- 
ing the motto * What Britons dare to think, 
he dares to tell.' 7. A poem ridiculing 
the pretensions of the pope, 1797. 8. * Lec- 
tures to Students,' 179/. 9. ' Life of James 
Hog of Camock,' 1798. 10. * Dissertation 
on the Supremacy of the Civil Power in 
Matters of Reli^on,' 1798. 11. * Poems, 
serious and amusing, by a reverend divine,' 
1812. 12. ' Life of Alex. Moms, a cele- 
brated divine in QensYA and Holland,' 1813. 

13. 'A Treatise on Earthquakes' (posthu- 

[McKerrow's History of the Secession Church ; 
notice of Mr. Bruce by Rev. Thos. McCrie, D.D., 
in Scots Magazine, April 1816; collected edition 
of Bruce's works in Library of New College, 
Edinburgh.] W. G. B. 

BRUCE, DAVID (1324-1371), David U, 
king of Scotland, the only son of Robert the 
Bruce, by his second wife, Elizabeth deBurffh, 
bom at Dunfermline on 5 March 1324, amidst 
the rejoicing natural to the long-wished-for 
birth of a male heir, came too late to receive 
his mother's or his father's care, and disap- 

Eointed the expectations of the nation. Eliza- 
eth died in November 1327, having borne a 
second son, John, who died in infancy. One 
of the last acts of his father was the treaty 
of Northampton in 1328 with Edward HI, by 
which it was agreed that a marriage should as 
soon as possible be celebrated fctween the 
infant David and Joanna, the sister of the 
king of England, a child scarcely older than 
himself. Her dowry was to be 2,000/. a 
year from lands in Scotland, and she was to 
DC delivered to the King of Scots or his com- 
missioners at Berwick on 15 Jan. 1328. The 
marriage was solemnised on 12 July of that 
year in presence of the Earl of Moray and Sir 
James Douglas, as Bruce himself was too ill to 
attend. TV^thin less than a year he died, on 
9 June 1329, and David peacefully succeeded 
to his father's throne. His coronation was 
delayed till 24 Nov. 1331, when he was 
crowned, and first of the Scottish kings an- 
nointed by the bishop of St. Andrews, in 
accordance with the provisions of a bull 
Bruce had procured from Pope John XXII, 
too late for his own use (13 June 1329). 
According to the customs of chivalry he was 
knighted bv Randolph, the regent, and then 
knighted tne regent s son, the Earl of Angus, 
and others. Details of his marriage and 
coronation preserved in the Exchequer re- 
cords show that no exjjense was spared to 
give the ceremonies the importance desirable 
at the commencement of a new race of in- 
dependent kings. His reig^ nearly coincides 
with that of Edward III, who succeeded to 
the English throne two years before, and out- 
lived David by seven years. The personal 
character of the two sovereigns reversed that 
of their fathers. David was a weak suc- 
cessor of the Bruce ; Edward inherited the 
martial and administrative talents of his 
grandfather, instead of the feeble nature of 
Edward H. 

The life of David naturally divides itself 
iuto five parts of unequal len^h, and as 
to two of which our mformation is very 
limited: — 




I. From his coronation in 1831 to the 
Tictory of Edward Baliol at Halidon Hill 
in 1333. 

n. His residence in France from 1334 to 
his return to Scotland in 1341. 

III. His personal reign in Scotland from 
1341 to his capture at Neville's Cross in 1340. 

IV. His captivity in England from 1346 
till his release by the treaty of Berwick in 

V. The second period of his personal reign 
from 1357 to his aeath in 1371. 

After the death of Robert the Bruce, Thomas 
Randolph, earl of Moray, governed the king- 
dom with vigour for three years; but his 
death, not free from suspicion of poison, in 
July 1332, exposed Scotland to the peril of a 
disputed regency. The estates met at Perth, 
ana after long discussion chose, on 2 Aug., 
Donald, earl of Mar, the nephew of Bruce. 

The choice was unfortunate, and there is 
reason to suppose the prudence of Bruce had 
foreseen the incapacity of Mar when he pre- 
ferred Douglas in the succession to the re- 
gency, which the youth of David made 
inevitably long. But Douglas had by this 
time fallen in the Moorish war in Spain. En- 
couraged by the divisions amongst the Scot- 
tish nobles, and secretly aided by Edward III, 
Edward the son of John Baliol, with many 
barons who had lost their Scotch estates 
by espousing the English side, mad6 a descent 
on the coast of Fife. Tlie non-fulfilment 
of one of the conditions of the treaty of 
Northampton, by which these estates were 
to be restored, gave a pretext for renewing 
the war. News of Baliol's landing at King- 
horn was brought to the parliament at Perth 
the day of the regent's election, and Baliol, 
losing no time, met the regent and barons at 
the Muir of Dupplin, near Perth, on 11 Aug., 
nine days after he landed. Though greatly 
superior in numbers, the regent was totally 
routed. He himself, along with Thomas, 
earl of Moray, the son 01 Randolph, the 
earl of Monteith, and many other nobles, 
were slain. In September Baliol was crowned 
at Scone. His captive, the Earl of Fife, placed 
the crown on his head ; but he had not yet 
conquered the country. Perth was almost im- 
mediately retaken by David's adherents, and 
Baliol was defeated at Annan in Dumfries by 
John Randolph, now Earl of Moray, and forced 
to leave Scotland. In 1333 Edward III came 
with a great force to assist Baliol, and routed 
at Halidon Hill, on 20 July, the Scotch army 
led by Archibald Douglas, lord of Galloway, 
who succeeded to the regency aft^r the death 
of Mar. Berwick capitulated, and Edward 
beoune matter of SooUand south of the 
IVfftibu On 10 Feb. 1884 Beliol, at an as- 

sembly held at Edinbui^gh, surrendered Ber- 
wick absolutely to the English king, and, as 
security for an annual payment of 2,000/., 
promised to put into nis hands all the 
castles of south-eastern Scotland — Jedburgh, 
Selkirk, Peebles, Dumfries, Haddington, 
Edinburgh, and Linlithgow. Edward, like 
his grandfather, made a new ordinance for the 
Scottish government, but his officers never 
obtained complete possession of their posts. 
Meantime David and the queen had taken 
refuge at Dumbarton, one of the fortresses 
which held out under its brave governor Mal- 
colm Fleming; but, Scotland being deemed 
an unsafe residence, he took advantage of a 
ship which Philip VI, the French king, sent 
for him, and along with Joanna and his 
sisters landed at Boulogne on 14 May 1334. 

The royal exiles were splendidly received 
at Paris. Chiteau Gaillara, the castle built 
by Coeur de Lion on the Seine close to the 
town of Andelys, was assigned for their 
residence, where they were maintained by 
Philip, though Froissart's statement that 
little came from Scotland to support them 
is disproved by the exchequer records, which, 
show that besides provisions 4,333/. 18^. 7d, 
was remitted between May 1334 and January 

The course of events in Scotland during 
the next seven years is outside the life of 
David. A new race of patriotic leaders — 
Murray of Both well, Rooert the Steward, 
Douglas the Knight of Liddesdale — worthily 
sustained the fame of Robert Bruce, Douglas, 
and Randolph. At first they carried on the 
war with varying success, but ultimately 
they freed the country and retook all the 
castles. The greater attraction of a French 
campaign prevented Edward from ever using 
his whole strength against the northern king- 
dom. Not much is known of David's resi- 
dence in France. He was of an age too 
young to take an active part in affairs, but 
not too young to learn the lessons of the 
extravagant and vain though splendid pomp 
of chivalry which distinguished the court of 
Philip VI. One characteristic scene at which 
he was present is described by Froissart — 
the meeting of the armies of the French 
and English kings about the end of October 
1339. Three years previously a fleet, fitted 
out by David Bruce with the aid of the 
Frencn king, made a diversion in favour of 
the Scotch, plundered the Channel islands, 
and seized many ships near the Isle of "Wight. 
Edward retaliated oy claiming the crown of 
France in October 1337, and, after two years 
of preparation, in September 1339 he crossed 
the Flemish border. At Vironfosse the two 
hosts came fieu^ to face. The English under 

Edwvd WFTiv amjed in three divisions, in 
all kbaut 44,U00. The French hnil the suue 
Dumbei' of divivitiiia,Init in each 15,000 men- 
at-uma and L'0,000 foot. Though Edward 
was supported bj the nobles of Oermany, 
Brabant, and Ftanders, besides lus English 
vass^B, Philip eurpRMed him in the ranJt oa 
well a« niunbera of his foUowera ; for besides 
the full tkiraj- of France, dukes, earls, and 
viscounts, too long a list for even Froissart 
(o reheane, he was supported bf tliree kings 
— John of Bohemio, lie king of Navarre, 
and Dnvid king of Scotland. ' It was a 
gnat beauljf lo behold the banners and 
standards waving in the wjnde, and horses 
bvdiid, atid kmdites and squ^rea richly 
armed.' But no blood was shed in tliia first 
act of the wnr of a hundred yeuta, which ■ 
was to moke the French and bofflish, as it 
qrpeared, etemnl enemiee, and tne French 
utd Scots perpetual ikllies. Philip's caun~ 
sellora wens dividtid, but the view prevailed 
that it was better to allow the En^ish king 
t« waste his 1 ■ ' 

gnat an artav in a foreini country. The 
advice of Robert of Sicuy, derived from 
•atrology, that the French would be beaten ' 
in any engngetnent if Edward was present, , 
also operated ou the superstitious monarch. 
A feint of ap attack caused by the starting ■ 
of a hare between the camps, which led the 
Earl of Haynatilt to make fourteen knichts, 
called in ridicule the Knights of the llare, ' 
was an incident whose memory was per- 
petuated by those who thought it cowardly \ 
on the part of Philip with superior forces to ' 
decline battle on Lis own soil. The recol- | 
leotion of this scene and the victories of Crecy 
rad Poietiera were inducements to Uavid in 
iatw years to csst in his lot with the Eng- ' 
lish king instead of with lus national and 
natuial allies. ! 

In 1341 the brilliant successes in Scot- 
land of Sir Andrew Murray of Bothwell, 
Robert the Stewnrd of Scotland, and Sir 
William Ikiuglas the Knight of Liddesdale, | 
who in llie preceding year had recovered one | 
br one tlie castles north of and including 
KliaburKli. made it safe forDuvid to return, 
and on 4 May he landed with his wife at 
Inverbervie near Montrose. Charters were 
iasned under his name and seal at a council 
held at Aberdeen in February 1342, and 
tliuugli only thirteen, he assumed the per- 
aonalgutenunent, which he retained until his 
O^tiuv at Neville's Cross in I'UG. During 
the fitst two years aft«r bis return David was 
much ut Ali«rdeen and Kildrummy, where his 
«ant, sister of Robert Bruce, who had married 
sncowsively Gtntney, earl of Mnr, Sir Chris- ! 
■-' - Seton, and Sir Andrew Murray, lived, j 

In the course of 1343 he passed through Fife, 
; attending thejustice-eyresatCuparandEdin- 
! burgh, to the Marches, and joined the Gorlof 
' Moray in a descent on the English border, 
j during which Penrith was burnt, out nothing 
of conaequence was accomplished. Oniiis re- 
turn north he visited Haddington, Ayr, and 
Kilwinning, Kirkintilloch.Inverkei thing, and 
Scone, andstopped at Banff before his return 
to Kildrummy in AugMSt. It was important 
that be should ahow himself in different 
parts of the kingdom. Hawkingand hunting 
and the jousts or tournaments, the favourite 
amuaementa of the age, were fidly shared 
in by the young king, but he did not prove 
himself an adept in the art of war, for which 
these were the appropriate training. 

Two deaths, for one of which he was in- 
directly, and for the other directly, respon- 
sible, snowed that he could not attruct to his 
throne, as his father had done, the leading men 
of the country. 

Sir James Ramsay of Dalwolsie, having 
taken the castle of Roxburgh, was impru- 
dently rewarded by the gift of the shwiff- 
dom of Teviotdale, then held by Douglas the 
Knight of Liddesdale, and Douglas having 
treacherously got Ramsay into his power 
starved him to death in the castle of the 
Hermitage. The other victim was William 
Bullock, an ecclesiastic who had distin- 
guished liimself in the service of Bnliul, but 
changing sides received the office of cUambi'r- 
lain from David. Suspected of treason he 
was by the king's order sent prisoner to the 
castle of Lochiudorb in Moray, where he also 
was starved to death. Uther acts of law- 
lessness, as the rape of a lady of the Seton 
family by Alan of Seton, the execution with- 
out trial of an Impostorcalliug himself Alex- 
ander Bruce, the son of Edward Bruce, and 
the state of the ordinary royal revenue, which 
feU from 3,774/. in 1331 to 1,196/. in 1*42, 
and had to be increased by special parlia- 
mentary grants distributed with too lavish 
u hand, were signs of his incapacity as an 
administrator. ' Tristia feUcibua succedunt * 
is the brief comment of Fordun. The re- 
storation of the king had not benefited the 
kingdom. A murrain which specially at- 
tacked the fowls, a forerunner of the block 
death, Eulded to the general distress and 
feelingof impendiiigcalamity. Atrucewilh 
England, which followed one between Ed- 
ward and Philip of France in 1343, saved 
Scotland for a short time from war, but the 
treasonable correspondence of the Knight 
of Liddesdale witli the English king was 
a bad omen for its continuance. It. was 
terminated early in 13411, when Philip, hia 
own truce having closed, exhorted David to 




inyade England. Seizing the opportunity of 
Edward's absence at Cauiis, David mustered j 
his forces at Perth, where the defection of 
the Earl of Ross, who slew Ronald of the i 
Isles at the monastery of Elcho, showed how • 
little he was able to command his vassals. | 
Advancing to the borders, he took the castle 
of Liddel, put to death Selby, its governor, 
and, in spite of the counsels of the Knieht 
of Liddesdale not to proceed further with a 
force consisting of only 2,000 men-at-arms 
and some 13,0(X) light-armed troops, crossed 
the Tyne above Newcastle, and ravaged the 
bishopric of Durham. He was met near that 
town on 17 Oct. at Neville's Cross by the 
Archbishop of York and the northern barons, 
and totally routed. David himself was taken 

Erisoner by a squire, John Copland, after a 
rave resistance, in which it is recorded he 
struck out two of his captor's teeth. The 
earls of Fife, Menteith, and Wigtown, the ! 
•Knight of Liddesdale, and many barons 
shared his fate. The earls of Moray and 
Stratheam, the chancellor, chamberlain, and 
marshal of Scotland were slain ; the Earl of 
March and Robert the Steward alone of the 
principal nobles effected their escape. So 
great was the disaster, that * the time of the 
battle of Durham' is used in the accounts 
and chronicles as a point of time. 

David, with the other captives, was led in 
triumph through tlie streets of London to 
the Tower, placed on a tall black charger 
to make him conspicuous, as John of France 
was after Poictiers on a white charger. The 
next eleven years of his life were spent in Eng- 
land, chiefly in or near London, and at Old- 
ham in llampsliire, varied with visits to the 
border or to Scotland. He was forced to 
bear his own charges, but the rigour of his | 
imprisonment was soon relaxed in the hope 
that he would neffotiate his ransom and even 
ally himself to England. Of David's cap- 
tivity the records are almost as scanty as of 
his exile in France. In 1347, after taking 
Calais, Edward concluded a truce with 
France, which continued by various proroga- 
tions till 1 April 1354. Scotland was to be 
admitted to tlie truce, and in the next year 
the negotiations for David's ransom com- 
menced. In October Joanna joined her hus- 
band in England. It was, however, Ed- 
ward's policy to have two strings to his bow, 
and Baliol, whom he addressed as * our dear 
cousin Edward,' while his brother-in-law 
was only styled Lord David de Bruce, re- 
mained nominal ruler of Scotland. In spite 
of his protest in March 1357 a treaty was 
concluded with the Scots commissioners for 
the ransom of David, and he was permitted 
on 4 Sept. to return to Scotland to procure 

the sanction of the estates. Secret compacts 
were entered into in 1362 between Edward, 
David, and Lord Douglas, and between Ed- 
ward and the Knight of Liddesdale. The 
terms of the former were purposelv obscure, 
but indicate that in the event of ]6avid fail- 
ing to persuade the estates to make peace, 
he engaged to act on his own account so that 
' the work might be accomplished in another 
way.' The English commissioners were em- 
powered to allow him to remain at Newcastle 
or Berwick, or even to set him at large if it 
would * promote the business.' Knyghton, 
the English chronicler, reports that David 
had consented to acknowledge Edward as his 
feudal superior. There was no ambiguity in 
the agreement with the Knight of Liddes- 
dale, who entered into a dose alliance as a 
condition of his own release. In 1353 David 
had returned to England, having failed to 
obtain the consent of the Scotch estates to 
Edward's conditions, and at Newcastle con- 
ferences were renewed between the com- 
missioners of the two countries, which re- 
sulted in a treaty on 13 July 1364, by which 
the ransom was fixed at 90,000 merks, pay- 
able in nine yearly instalments. Twenty 
hostages of noble birth were to be given for 
the fulfilment of the treaty, and the king 
himself, the nobles and bishops, as well as 
the principal towns, were to undertake per- 
sonal obligations for its payment. 

In 1355 the French king, alarmed at the 

Eroject of a nine years' truce between Eng- 
ind and Scotland, sent Eugene de Garan- 
cieres with men and money to revive the war, 
and several border engagements followed ; 
but early in 1356 Edward took Berwick, and 
obtainea an absolute renunciation of the 
Scotch crown and kingdom from his puppet, 
Edward Baliol, on 21 Jan. Though he de- 
vastated the Lothians in the raid which re- 
ceived the name of the Burnt Candlemas, 
and issued a proclamation with regard to the 
government of Scotland, he failed to reduce 
even the southern district to subjection. In 
the north Robert the Steward maintained 
an independent power as regent, even during 
the period of the nominal reign of Baliol. 
At last the tedious negotiations for David's 
release drew near their close. At a parlia- 
ment at Perth on 17 Jan. 1356-7 commis- 
sioners were appointed, and having settled 
the preliminaries at Berwick in August, a 
parliament at Edinburgh on 26 Sept. agreed 
to Edward's terms. The ransom was raised 
to 100,000 merks in ten instalments, for 
which the nobles, clergy, and burghs bound 
themselves, and commissioners from the three 
estates concluded the treaty at Berwick on 
3 Oct. 1367. 




The condition as to hostages was also made ! 
more severe. Three great lords were to be ; 
added to the twenty youths of noble birth i 
formerly stipulated for. The truce between ■ 
the two countries was to continue until the 
ransom was paid. It was ratified by the 
kinff and commissioners on 5 and 6 Oct., and 
agam on 6 Nov. by a parliament at Scone, 
where David was present. On 25 Dec. Queen 
Joanna, along with the Bishop of St. An- 
drews and the Earl of March, received a safe- 
conduct to England, from which the queen 
never returned, dying near London on 14 Aug. 
1362. David himself almost every year re- 
visited England during the remainder of his 
reign, and nis personal sympathies were so 
thoroughly English, that it required all the 
strength of the estates, and the desire of 
Edward for the stipulated ransom, to pre- 
vent a surrender of his own kingdom more 
ignominious than that of Baliol. Though his 
personal rei^ lasted for fourteen years after 
his return, it was entirely destitute of im- 
portant events. Great difficulty was felt in 
raising from so poor a country the enormous 
ransom. It was not found enough that the 
whole wool of the kingdom should be granted 
at a low price to the king that he might 
resell it at a profit, and other severe taxes 
were imposed on the commons. The clergy 
had to contribute, and with some difficulty 
the pope was induced to allow a tenth of the 
ecclesiastical revenues for three years, on con- 
dition that they were thereafter to be ex- 
empted. But not all these resources together 
sufnced to meet the debt which the creditor 
was determined to exact to the uttermost, 
and from time to time David, like a needy 
debtor, made terms for the postponement 
of payment. There were negotiations for 
this purpose in 1363-5 and 1369, when an 
obligation was undertaken to pay off the 
balance due at the rate of 4,000 merks annu- 
ally, under a large additional penalty in case 
of failure. Edward and David had latterly 
devised several schemes for the extinction of 
the debt bv another process than payment. 
This was tne transfer at David's death of the 
Scottish crown to an English prince. At 
the parliament of Scone in 1863, David ven- 
tured to propose openlvthat it should recog- 
nise Lionel, duke of Clarence, Edwaras 
second son, as his heir. An indignant re- 
fusal was accompanied with a renewed decla- 
ration of the settlement of the succession on 
I^bert the Steward by Robert the Bruce. 
Throughout this part of David^s reign the 
barons of Scotland were animated by the 
same spirit as that which the Englisn had 
shown at Kunnvmede. Hatred of foreini 
aggressiooy and the weakness of the king, wno 

was willing to yield to it, enabled them to 
use the opportunity to obtain guarantees for 
the law and constitution which, though not 
in precisely the same form, had a similar in- 
tention and a similar, though less complete, 
result to Magna Chart a. Such was the real 
meaning of the origin of those permanent 
committees of parliament for judicial busi- 
ness called the lords auditors, and for legis- 
lation called the lords of the articles, which 
first appear in 1367; the provision for the 
more regular administration of justice and 
coinage of money; the revocation of the 
grants of the royal revenues ; the rule laid 
down that no attention was to be paid to the 
king^s mandates contrary to the statutes and 
the common law. Foiled in their attempt to 
divert the order of succession, Edward and 
David had rt»sort to secret intrigue. David, 
in November l.*W3, went to London and un- 
dertook a personal obligation to Edward to 
settle the Kingdom of Scotland wnon him- 
and his issue male, failing issue mule of his 
own body. On this condition the whole of 
the ransom still unpaid was released. Nomi- 
nal provisions were made in the event of an 
English heir succeeding to the Scottish throne 
for the preservation or the independence of 
Scotland similar to those of Edward I. This 
agreement was carefully concealed from the 
Scottish people, and the public negotiations 
for the payment of the ransom were still 
continued. It was in this year, and before he 
went to England, that David married his 
second wife, Margaret, widow of Sir John 
Logie. It is usually said that this was an un- 
equal marriage, into which passion rather than 
reason led the king; but Margaret is described 
by Fordun as a lady of noble birth, and she 
was honourably received at the court of Ed- 
ward. She was a daughter of Drummond, 
one of the lesser barons. No such rigid bar 
then restricted the marriage of the royal race 
as in later times. A sister of David, Matilda, 
daughter of Robert, had married a simple 
esquire. Still, it was a match which could 
bring no political strength to David, and 
alienated many of the Scottish nobility. A 
revolt of some of these was one of its con- 
sequences. David succeeded in quelling it, 
and threw the Steward and his three sons 
into prison at the instance of Margaret Logie, 
to wliom and her relations ho made larger 
grants of land and money. Her influence 
aid not last long, and after her divorce in 
1369 by the Scottish bishops, the exact 
ground of which has not been discovered, the 
Stewards were released. She was succeeded 
in the king's favour by Agnes of Dunbar. 
The year after this divorce, on 22 Feb. 1370, 
David died in Edinburgh Castle childless, 

Bruce 9 

And WHS succeeded by Robart the Steward. 
Datid was onlv in his foity-Beventh year, but 
he had reigned forty-one jears, reckoning 
from hiB accegsion. 

Fofdun and Wvntomi, the wTitere nearest 
the time of David, who did not know the ex- 
tent of his treason to Scotland, treat his 
chBDLCter more favourably than modem his- 
torians. They commend his administrntioo 
of justice, hig bravery, even his resolute as- 
iertion of the royal authority. Wynloun, 
in a curious passagi; which evidently relates 
an authentic anecdote, tells how on his re- 
turn to Scotland, when he was going to his 
privy council, 

The folk, as thay wore wont to do, 

Preaajt rjcht rudly in thare to, 

Bot ha lycht Bnddenly gan arraoe 

Out of a maeor's hand a maco. 

And said rudly bow do wo now ? 

Stand still, or the proudest of yoa 

&I1 on his hevyd have amyto this maee. 
This apparently trivial incident gives occa-' 
sioD to a general reflection by the historian, 
eipresaing his view of David ; 

Raduro in crynce ia a gnd thyng, 

For but radure all govemyng 

Sail a[l tymo hut despiyBed he. 

In the same passage he mentions that David 
only brought with him from England a 
single page, not what we should expect if he 
then had the idea of bringing Scotland under 
Engliiih influence. Both Wyntoun and For- 
dun, who, it must he remembered, were 
Scottish churchmen (the English ' Clironicles 
of Lanercost,' whose monastery he plun- 
dered, take a very different view of David), 
incline to the side of the kingas against the 
nobles, whose oppression he is represented 
as putting down. Later writers, on the other 
hand, note his undoubted weokness, his love 
of pleasure, his passion for an English mis- 
tress— Katherine Mortimer, who died during 
the life of Joanna, and was buried with 
pomp at Newhattle — his impolitic marring 
with Margaret Logie, his extravagance, hia 
jealousy, and ill-treatment of llobert the 
StewanI, above all hia sacrifice of the inde- 
pendence his father had established. These 
inconsistent views, both of which have some 
foundation in fact, point to a character itself 
inconsistent, passionate, and headstrong, ca- 
pable at times of showing strength, at bottom 
weak, liable to be led by various influences, 
in the end yielding to the persistent policy 
and will of the English king. 

[WyntouD, Fordun. and tho IJbar Plyscai^ 
denris are the Scotch origionl anthoritiia, hut, 
KniRbton and Fmisanrt supply several details. 
The Euheqoer Rolls of Scotland, toIs. i. and ti., 


BRUCE, DAVED (A. 16fl0), phyaiciau, 
was the son of Andrew Bruce, D.D., principal 
(from laiO to 1017) of St. Leonard's College 
in St. Andrews University. He was first 
educated at St. Andrews, and proceeded M.A. 
there. Later ho went to France, and studied 
physic at Paris and Montpellier. He in- 
tended taking a medicnl degree at Padua; 
but the plague kept him £om Italy, and 
he finally graduated M.D. at Valence in 
Dauphiny on 7 May l(t57. On 'U March 
1660 Bruce was incorporated doctor of physic 
at Oxford. lie was associated with his 
great-uncle, Sir John 'VS'edderbume, in the 
oflice of physician to the Duke and Duchess 
of York. But after fulfilling, in consequence 
of Wedderbume's infirmities, all the duties 
of the post for many years, he resigned the 
office and travelled abroad. Subsequently he 
settled at Edinburgh, and was there ' in 
good repute for hia practice,' Wood speaks 
of him as still living in Edinburgh in 1690. 
Bruce was admitted candidate of the College 
of Physicians on 24 Dec. IGfiO, and was an 
original member of tho Royal Society. 

[Wood's Fasti Oioo. ii. 226 ; Monk's Coll. of 
Pbys. i, 297.] S. L. L. 

BRUCE, EDWARD {d. 1318), king of 
Ireland, was younger brotherof Robert Bruce 
[q. v.], king of Scotland. In 1308 Edward 
Brace took part in the incursion upon the 
district of Oallowav by King Robert, and, 
during the indisposition of the latter, acted 
as a commander of his forces in their retreat 
from t hose of the Earl of Richmond, governor 
in Scotland for Edward K. Edward Bruce 
was subsequently despatched by his brother 
against Galloway, which resisted hia autho- 
ritT- He routed the English commander and 
his' Scottish allies there, and compelled the 
inhabitants to swear allegiance and to furnish 
contributions. In this contest he succeeded 
by a stratagem in putting to flight the Eng- 
lish troops. The details of this enterprise 
were chronicled by the poet Barbour, from 
the narration of one of Bnice's associates. 
On the banks of the Dee, Edward Bruce 
defeated the forces brought against him by 
the chiefs of Oallowav, and made a prisoner 
of Donall, prince of the Isles. He reduced 
a largu number of castles and strongholds 
in Oalloway, and brought that district under 
the dominion of King Robert. I'Mward 
Bruce 's success in Gallowar was celebrated 
inacontismporarypoem. ^\hile King Robert 
was engaged on an expedition against the 
Isle of Man, Edward Brace gained possession 
of the town of Dundee. Before the end of 

1313, he besie^dStirliiigCutle.thenaimoEt 
lie last fortwas beW in Scotland for the 
king of England. Philip de Mowbray, go- 
venuir of the castle, after a vigorous defence, 
mtared into a treatv to surrender it to Ed- i 
imrd Bruce in the following midsummer, if J 
not relieved. The tenns of this treaty were 
disapproved of by King- Robert, who, bow- ' 
ever, adhered to tbetn. The attempt of tha . 
Enslieh anny to reliei-e Stirling Castle led, i 
in 1S14, to 'the battle of Bannochburn, at [ 
which Edward Bruce was one of the chief [ 
comnuuidiMB, and led the right column of ' 
the Scottish army. In the following year j 
Bdword Bruce, in conjunction with Douglas, | 
devastated NorCbumbertand and Yorkshire, 
levied htrge contributions, and returned to 
Sootliutd with great spoil. In 1315, in a 
conventioa of the prelates, nobles, and com- | 
mons of Scotland, held at Aye, an ordinance | 
was enacted that Edward Bruce should be I 
rtwo^isod as king, in the event of the death I 
of his brother Robert without male heirs. I 
Edward Bruce is described as a valiant and , 
experienced soldier, but rashly impetuous. ! 
He is said to have aroiied to share the kingship 
of Scotland with his brother. This circum- , 
stance is supposed to have induced King | 
Robert to favour an expedition against the 
English in Ireland, which Edward Bruce 
waa invited to undertake by some of the 
~ native chiefs tbero who regarded him at 
descended from the same ancestorB as them- 
selTies. Edward Bruce landed in Ulster in 
May 1S15, with about, six thousand men. 
Kccomponied by the Earl of Moray and other 
Scottish commanders. The Scots, with tbeir 
Intb aUSes, took possession of the town of 
Oamckfeifus, laid siege to its strong citadel, 
and Bruce ws.s crowned as king of Ireland. 
Edward Bruce encountered and defeated on 
sevsriJ occasions the forces of the English 
government in Ireland, liobert Bruce hav- 
ii^ arrived with reinforcements from Scot- 
load, he and his brother, early in 1317, 
morobod from Ulster to the south of Ire- 
land. After the return of King liobert to 
Scotland, Edward Bruce continued at Car- 
ticlcfeiviis as king of Ireland. Bulla were 
issued by Pope John XXII for the purpose 
of detacjung the Irish clergv from the cause 
of Edward Bnice. The arohbisbopsof Dub- 
lin and Oaahel and other dignitaries were 
Mijained by the pope to warn ecclesiastics 
to desiit from inciting the Irish people 
agsinat tha king of England, and public 
esccommiini cations were denounced against 
lho«a who persisted in that course. A re- 
production of one of those papal instrumEnts 
appvon in the third part of ' Facaimiles of 
N|ti9n«l Manuscripts of Ireland.' Barbour 


alleged that Edward Bruce defeated the 
troops of the English in Ireland in nineteen 
engagements, in which he had not more than 
one man against five, and that he was in a 
' good way to conquer the entire land, as he 
had the Irish on his side, und held possession 
of lister. The poi-t adds, however, that 
Jtruce'g fortunes were marred by his ' out- 
rageous' pride. In the aut\imn o'f 1318, Ed- 
ward Bruce projected another descent upon 
Leinster. To prevent this movement, a 
large army was mustered by the colonists. 
Bnice's chief advisers counselled him against 
coming to an engagement with forces nume- 
rically superior to those und«r his command. 
lie, however, declined to take their advice, 
and would not wait for reinforcements. In 
October a conflict took place near Dundalk, 
in which Bruce was slain and his forces put 
to flight. Bruce's corpse was found on the 
field, with that of John deMaiipoa stretched 
upon it. The quarters of Edward Bruce's 
body were set up as trophies in the chief 
towns of the English colony in Ireland, and 
his head was presented to Edward II in 
England. Barbour averred that the bead 
was not Bruce's, but that of his devol«d 
follower, Gilbert Harper, who wore his ar- 
mour on the day of battle. Owing to the 
death of Edward Bruce new legislative ar- 
rangements were made relative to the royal 
succession in Scotland. An instrument is 
eitant by which Robert Bruce confirmed a 
grant of land which had been made by his 
brother Edward as king of Ireland. The 
most detailed account of Edward Bruce's 
proceedings in Ireland is contaiiie<! in Latin 
uinals of thai 
:o bis ' Britannia ' i 

of these annsls, in which the oversights of 
Camden have been corrected by collation 
with the manuscript, was printed in the 
London Rolls Series in 1833. John Darhour, 
archdeacon of Aberdeen, in his poem, com- 
posed aboutlSTo.tells little of Edward Bruce 
except in connection with his transactions in 
Ireland and death there. Many records illus- 
trative of affairs in Ireland during the pre- 
sence of theBruces there are included among 
' Historical and Municipal Documents of Ire- 
land,' published in the London Rolls Series 
in 1870. 

[Jobannis de Fo^lun Chronim guntis Scoto- 
ruin, ed. T. Heamp 1722, W. Qoodall 1775, 
and W. F. Skene IHTl ; Aels of PArlinmeat of 
Hcotlsnd, 1814; Autials of 8cotIaiid, hv Lord 
HniloB, 1810; Annala of Kingdom of bobind, 
184B;Hiit.of Viceroys of Inland, ISSfi; Hist, 
of Scotland, by P. F. Tjllor 1864, mid J. H. 
Burton 1887: FaoiiniileB of Katvonal Mnnn- 
H-riiiU of Srothind. port ii. 1870 ; The Bruce, 





ed. W. Skeat, 1870; Chronicles of Edward I 
and Edward II, ed. Stubbs, 1882^ ; Chartu- 
laries of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin, 1884-6.1 

J. T. G. 

BRUCE, EDWARD, Lobd Kiwloss 
(1549 ?-l 611), judge, was the second son of 
Sir Edward Bruce of Blairhall in the county 
of Clackmannan, by Alison, daughter of Wil- 
liam Reid of Aikenhead in the same county, 
sister of Robert Reid, bishop of Orkney, and 
descended from Robert de Brus, chief justice 
of the king's bench in 1208. He appears to 
have been born about the year 1649. His 
early history is from the loss of the records 1 
obscure, and the dat« at which he became , 
an advocate is not known, nor when he was 
appointed to the office of judge of the com- , 
missary court of Edinburgh, though it is 
clear from the Pitmedden manuscript pre- , 
served in the Advocates* Library that he 
succeeded Robert Maitland, dean of Aber- ' 
deen, who had been superseded in the office 
of lord of session in 1576. It does not, how- 
ever, appear whether the dean lost his posi- 1 
tion as commissary at that or at a subsequent ! 
date, but it is certain that Bruce was one of | 
the commissaries in 1583. In this year he 
received a grant of the abbey of Kinloss in 
Ayrshire, to hold in commendam for his life, 
subject to an annuity payable to the abbot, 
and a rent of 500 merks payable to the 
crown. About the same date he was ap- 
pointed one of the deputes of the lord-justice- 
general of Scotland. Four years later we 
find him energetically defending the right of 
the lords spiritual to sit in parliament, on 
the occasion of a petition presented by the 
general assembly 01 the Scottish church pray- 
ing that they might be expelled, and in the 
result tlie petition was dismissed. The popish ' 
conspiracy of 1594 brought Bruce into con- i 
siderable prominence. In 1594 Bruce was ' 
despatched, with James Colvill, laird of Ester , 
or Easter Wemyss, to the English court to 
remonstrate with the queen upon the coun- 
tenance which she afforded to the popish 
conspiracy by harbouring Bothwell, to com- 
plain of the conduct of her ambassador, Lord 
Zouche, in carrying on secret negotiations 
with him, and to ask for a subsidy to help 
in crushing the conspiracy. His mission was 
partially successful. In 1597 Bruce was ap- 
pointed one of the commissioners for the 
levying of an aid granted by parliament to 
provide funds for the diplomatic service and 
other purposes. The same year (2 Dec.) he 
was made a lord of session. On 15 March 
1598 Bruce was again sent to the English 
court to make the king's apologies for cer- 
tain offences of which Elizabeth complained, 
' and to prepare some other particulars con- 

cerning the estate of the two borders and 
two realms.' Probably he was secretly in- 
structed to sound the queen and council as 
to the real position of nis master^s chances 
of obtaining the succession, but if so the 
mission appears in that respect to have been 
a wholly fruitless one. Early in 1601, on 
the eve of the discovery of the Essex plot, 
James, who had for some time been in secret 
correspondence with the conspirators, deter- 
mined to send the Earl of Mar and Edward 
Bruce to London, ostensibly upon a mission 
of no special importance, but really for the 
purpose of ascertaining the precise posture 
of affiiirs in the country and the prospects 
of the plot, with a view to possible co-opera- 
tion. The envoys, however, did not start 
until February, and consequently did not 
arrive until after the execution of Essex. 
Accordingly the king now instructed them 
to obtain, if possible, a formal declaration 
from the queen and council that he was 
free of all complicity in any intrigues that 
had ever been set on foot against her, and 
particularly in the late conspiracy, and an 
assurance of his succession to the throne on 
her decease. They obtained an early audi- 
ence of Sir Robert Cecil, who exacted from 
them a pledge (1) that the king should aban- 
don all attempts to obtain parliamentary or 
other recognition of liis title to the succession 
as the condition of holding communication 
with them, and (2) that all such communi- 
cations should be kept perfectly secret. The 
result was the celebrated correspondence be- 
tween James and Cecil, part of which was 
published by Lord Hailes in 1766, and of 
which another portion has since been edited 
for the Camden Society. Bruce accompanied 
James to England on his accession, was na- 
turalised by act of parliament, and made a 
member of the privy council in both kingdoms. 
He was also (22 Feb. 1603) raised to the peer- 
age by the title of Baron Bruce of Einloss, 
and on 18 May following was appointed to the 
mastership of the rolls in succession to Sir 
Thomas Egerton. In 1605 the university of 
Oxford conferred upon him the degree of 
M.A. In 1608-9 his daughter Christiana 
married William Cavendish, afterwards the 
second earl of Devonshire, the king himself 
giving the bride away and making her for- 
tune up to 10,000/. He died very suddenly 
on 14 Jan. 1610-11, in his sixty-second year, 
and was buried in the Rolls Chapel in 
Chancery Lane. His eldest son. Lord Ed- 
ward Bruce, was killed in a duel with Sir 
Edward Sackville, afterwards earl of Dorset, 
near Bergen-op-Zoom in 1613. His heart 
was discovered embalmed in a silver case, 
bearing his name and arms, in the abbey 

Bruce 97 Bruce 

/church of Culross in Perthshire in 1808. 
HiB younffer brother Thomas was created 
Earl of EW on 21 June 1033, and Buron 
Bruce of Whorlton in Yorkshire on 1 Aug. 
1641. The third son, Robert, was created 
Baron Bruce of Skelton in Yorkshire, Vis- 
^count Bruce of Ampthill in Bedfordshire, 
and Earl of Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire 
on 18 March 1603-4 [see Bbfce, Robert, 
Earl of Aylesbury]. 

signed at Tientsin on 26 June 1858, and was 
made a C.B. on 28 Sept. His diplomatic tact 
was thoroughly appreciated by the home go- 
vernment, for he was appointed on 2 Dec. 
1858 envoy extraordinary and minister pleni- 
potentiary to the emperor of China, and on 
1 March following ciiief superintendent of 
British trade in that country. His mission 
was prevented from proceeding to Pekin by 
the opposition made by the Chinese. The 

FA^- Tx., 1 r.^ a.w.*i«^i ;•: aqa • 1.10 mission therefore returned toShanghae, where 
[Acts farl. of ScotlAnd, in. 484, iv. 143; •. j a-i*i ^-/s *• i»^i \. 

Letters of John Colville (Bannatyne Club), 298 ; 
Pit«aim*s Trials, i. 1 33 ; Spottiswoode's Hist, of 
the Church of ScotlaDd (Bannatyne Club), ii. 322, 

it remained until the ratification of the treaty 
of 26 June 1858 at Pekin on 24 Oct. 1860. 
He proceeded to Pekin on 7 Nov. 1860, but 

329; Moysie's Memoirs (Bannatyne Club), 117, withdrew to Tientsin for the winter, while 

137. 189 ; Wood's Fasti Oxen. (Bliss), i. 311-12, arrangements were made for putting a resi- 

491 ; Cal. State Papers (Scotland 1609-1603), ii. dence in order for his reception. The mission 

649, 650, 652, 708, 746, 748 ; Birch's Memoirs, i. was established at Pekin on 26 March 1861, 

175, ii. 609, ad fin. ; Haydn s Book of Dignities, but it was not until 2 April that Sir Frede- 

413, 414 ; Letters of Sir Robert Cecil (Camden rick Bruce paid a visit to Prince Kung. On 

Society), 76; Dugdale's Chron. Ser. 100, 101 ; the removal of Lord Lyons from Washington 

Dugdale'sOrig.335; Correspondence of James VI to Constantinople, he was selected to fill the 

;with Sir Robert Cecil, xxv. 38, 46-9, 61, 78; important oftico of British representative at 

■Gardiner's Hist, of England (1603-42), i. 62; and received the grand cross of the order on 

CoUins's Peerage (Brycftes). v. 323-4 ; Burnet's ^l ^^^^^^^^ }^'- "« ^5^ appointed umpire by 

Own Time (Oxford edition), i. 14; Court and the commission named under the convention 

Timesof James I,i. 7. 104 ; Statut^sof the Realm, 0^ l^^; concluded between the United States 

iv. 1016 ; Archseologia, xx. 616 ; Foss's Lives of of America and the Umted States of Colom- 

the Judges; Bronton and Haig's Senators of bia, for the adjustment of claims of American 

the College of Justice.] J. M. R. citizens against the Colombian government. 

lie died at Boston in the United States on 
BRUCE, SiE FREDERICK WILLIAM 19 Sept. 1807, when his remains were em- 
ADOLPnUS (1814-1867), diplomatist, was balmed, and, being conveyed to Scotland, 
the youngest of the three sons of Thomas were interred at Dunfermline Abbey on 8 Oct. 
Bruce, seventh earl of Elgin [q. v.], and his The American press spoke in eulogistic terms 
second wife Elizabeth, youngest daughter of of his amiable personal qualities and of the 
James Townshend Oswald of Dunnikier, Fife- able manner in which he exercised his minis- 
shire. He was bom at Broomhall, Fifeshire, t^rial functions. lie died unmarried. 

ship in September of that year. On 9 Feb. G. C. B. 
1844 he was appointed colonial secret arv at 

Hongkonj^ which place he held untQ 1846, BRUCE, JAMES (1660 i^-1730), Irish 

when on 27 June he became lieutenant-govep- presbvterian minister, was the eldest son 

nor of Newfoundland. His next change was of Michael Bruce (1635-1693) [q. v.] He 

to Sucre, with the appointment of consul- was called to Carnmoney, county Antrim, 

feneral in the republic of Bolivia on 23 July but preferred a settlement at Killeleagh, 

847, and on 14 April 1848 he was accredited county Down (near Killinchy, his father's 

as charg^ d'affaires. He was named charg6 place), where he was ordained after 6 Nov. 

d'affaires to the Oriental republic of the Urn- 1684. In April 1689 occurred * the break of 

guay on 29 Aug. 1861, and on 3 Aug. 18o3 Killeleagh,' when the protestants were routed 

became agent and consul-general in Egypt in and Killeleagh castle deserted by its garrison, 

the place of the Hon. 0. A. Murray. On his Bruce fled to Scotland, but returned in 1691 

brotner, James Bruce, the eighth earl of or 1692, when Ulster was at peace. In 1096 

Elgin, being appointed ambassador extraor- he secured, from the presbyterian proprietors 

dinary to Uhina, he accompanied him as prin- of the Killeleagh estate endowments for the 

cipal tecretaiy in April 1857. He brought presbyterian mmisteratElilleleagh (and three 

home (18 Sept. 1867) the treaty with China others)' in the shape of a lease of lands at a 

YOL. Til. 11 

Bruce 98 Bruce 

nominal rent. More important was his sue- | Kinnaird, Stirlinprsliire, on 14 Dec. 1730. He 
cess in establishing at Killeleagh in 1697 a was educated at Harrow, and 'inclined to the 
* philosophical school * for the training of the ' profession of a clergyman/ * for which/ his 
presbyterian ministry and gentiT, which master assured his father, ' he has sufficient 
proved obnoxious to the episcopalians, and gravity.' He nevertheless complied with 
was closed in 1714. In 1699 Bruce was his father's wish that he should study law, 
appointed one of the synod's trustees for the until it became evident that a pursuit involv- 
management of the regium donnm^ and con- ingan intimate knowledge of Roman as well 
tinned in this office till his death. His con- as Scotch jurisprudence was too distasteful 
gregation was large; at his communion on to him to be prosecuted to any good purpose. 
§JiUy 1704 there were seven successive tables, ' He had in the meantime in vigoratea his ori- 
and tlie ser>'ices began at 7 a.m. and lasted ginally delicate constitution by exercise and 
till evening. A new meeting-house was built sport ; and now, athletic, daring, and six feet 
for him, probably in 1692. In the nonsub- ' four, seemed made for a life of travel and 
scription controversy (1720-6) liruce sided adventure. While soliciting permission to 
with the subscribers (himself signing the settle as a trader in India, his ideas received 
Westminster Confession in 1721), but was i a new direction from his marriage with 
unwilling to cut off tlie nonsubscribers from Adriana Allan, the orphan daughter of a 
fellowship. His presbytery (Down) was in wine merchant in Portugal. To gratify her 
1725 divided into Down and Killelengh, mother he took a share in the business ; but 
those (including Bruce) who were against his wife's death in 1764, after a union of only 
disowning the nonsubscribers being placed nine months, destroyed his interest in this 
in the latter. Bruce died on 17 Feb. 1730. calling, and to detach himself gradually from 
His will (dated in February 1725) directs | it he visited Spain and Portugal under pre- 
his burial at Killcleagh, where he was in- text of inspecting the vintage. Two incidents 
t erred on 24 Feb. Tradition places the spot ' arising out of this excursion aided to deter- 
eastward of the episcopal church. He mar- mine his subsequent career. Having formed 
ried, 25 Sept. 1685, iVIargaret (died May ' the project of examining the manuscripts in 
1706), daughter of Lieut enant-colonelJames , the Escurial, he was led to study Arabic, 
Trail of Tullycliin, near Killeleagh, by Mary, which incidentally directed his attention to 
daughter of John Hamilton, brother of tlie the ancient clavSsical language of Abyssinia ; 
first Lord Clundeboye. He had ten children, and, having observed the unprotected condi- 
of whom three sons and three daughters tioii of Ferrol, he submittea, upon the out- 
survived him. His sons ^lichael [q.v.l and break of hostilities with Spain, a proposition 
Patrick were presbvterian ministers ; Wil- to the English government for an attack upon 
liam [q.v.] was a publisher. From his son ^ the place. The scheme, though not carrie<l 
Patrick (1692-1732), minister successively into effect, gained him the notice of Lonl 
of Drumbo, co. Down, Killallan, Renfrew- Halifax, and the offer of the consulate at 
shire, and Killeleagh, are lineally descended Algiers, with a commission to examine the 
the Hervey Bruces of Downhill, baronets , remains of ancient architecture described but 
since 1804. Bruce published nothing. In not delineated by Dr. Shaw. According to 
Daniel Mussenden's manuscript volume of his own statement, this proposal was accom- 
sermon notes is an abstract of Brace's ' panied by the promise of a baronetcy when 
sermon (Prov. viii. 17) at a communion , nis mission should be completed, and the 
in Belfast, 20 Aug. 1704, which is strongly pledge that he should be assisted by a deputy 
Calvinistic. to attend to consular business while he was 

[McCreerj-'s Presh. Ministers of Killoleugh, engaged in archneological research. Some 
1875, pp. 90 sq. ; Porter's Seven Bnices, in N. hints as to the possibility of his extending 
Whig, 16 April 188o; Reid's Hist. Presb. Ch. in ' his explorationstotheNiletook the strongest 
lreland(Killen),1867,ii.477.ol9;[Kirkpatriok's] hold upon his imagination, and to reach its 
Historical Kssuy upon the Loyalty of Presby- source now became the main purpose of his 
terians, 1713, p. 506 ; Bruce's appen.Iix tr) Tow- life. To qualify himself yet further for his 

?^??r'!PN'^A.!^M"^'Jfi^T\^ni^'&?r^: l^'^L^T^?' ""<lert.aking, he spent six months in Italy 

the ser- 

draughtsman, a 


1 4" r^ j-»ciu«; uii||^iijL^iii^ iiiui UK uiiu viJSitcd PflPStum, 

and made the first accurate drawings ever 

BRUCE, JAMES (1730-1794), African , taken of the ruins, a fortunate st^p for his 

traveller, son of David Bruce of Kinnaird i own reputation, as it refuted the charge 

and Marion Graham of Airth, was bom at subsequently brought against him of entire 

Bruce 99 Bruce 

dependence upon Balugani and appropriation 
of the latter^s work. He arrived at Algiers 
on 15 March 1763. 

a year's travel through Barbary, at the close 
of which ho underwent great danger from 
famine and pestilence at Bengazi, Bruce em- 

The Algerine consulate was a post of , barked at i*tolemeta for Candia, was ship- 
danger and difficulty at all times, and Baba wrecked, cast helpless on the African coast, 
Ali, the dey to whom Bruce was accredited, beaten and plundered by the Arabs, and con- 
though not devoid of a certain barbaric magna- \ tracted an ague from his immersion, which he 
nimity, was even more ferocious and imprac- could never entirely shake off. His drawings 
ticable than the generality. The injudicious had fortunately been placed in safety at 
recall of Bnice's predecessor at the dey's de- , Smyrna. Having, after a considerable delay 
mand had greatly encouraged the latter's in- ! at Bengazi, made his way to Crete, and par- 
solence. Bruce's presents were j udged insuffi- ; tially ffot rid of his ague and fever, he 
cienty and with great public spirit he advanced proceeded with indomitable spirit to Syria, 
more than 200/. from his own pocket, * rather sketched the ruins of Palmyra and Baalbec, 
than, in my time, his majesty should lose the ' and, after hesitating whether he should not 
affections of this people.* These affectionate go to Tartary to observe the transit of Venus, 
corsairs, in fact, were not without grounds of arrived in Egypt in July 1768. Having con- 

complaint. Blank passports, intended, when 
duly filled up, to exempt English ships from 
capture as belonging to a friendly power, had 
fallen into the hands of the French, who, to 
damage their enemy's credit, hud sold them 

ciliated Ali Bey, the chief of the Mameluke 
rulers of Egypt, by his real skill in medicine 
and supposed knowledge of astrology, and 
thus obtained recommendatory letters to the 
sheriff of Mecca, the naib of Masuah, lias 

to nations at war with Algiers. The English, ' Michael the Abyssinian prime minister, and 
finding their passes thus invalidated, had other chieflains and potentates, and being 
issued written papers, which the Algerines also provided with a monition to the Greeks 
could not read, and of course disregarded, in Abyssinia from their patriarch in Egypt, 
Bruce had need of all his courage and address. Bruce sailed up the Nile to Assouan, visited 
The two years and a quarter during which ho the ruins of Kamak and Luxor, and embarked 
held office passed in a series of disputes with ' at Cosseir for a voyage on the Red Sea. He 
the Algerine ruler, which frequently involved , proceeded to the Straits of Babelmaudeb, re- 
him in great danger, but in which he usually traced his course to Jidda, and crossed from 
triumphed by his undeviatiug firmness. At thence to Masuah, the port of Abyssinia, 
length, in August 1765, finding tliat no as- , where he landed on 19 Sept. 1769. The place. 

sistant was likely to be given him, he re- 
signed his appointment, and departed on an 
archieolog^cal tour through Barbary, fortified 

inhabited by a mongrel breed of African 
savages and Turkish janissaries, was little 
better than a den of assassins. It had, how- 

by the protection of the old dey, who secretly , ever one honest inhabitant, Achmet, the 
admired his spirit. With the aid of his ' nephew of the naib or governor, who took 
draughtsman and a camera obscura, he made ' Bruce's part- and saved his life, powerfully 
a great number of most elaborate and beau- aided by the fame of a salute which his 
timl drawings of the remains of Roman countrymen had fired in his honour when he 
magnificence extant in the now uninhabited quitted Jidda, and by his credentials to the 
desert. These drawing^s, which were exhibited Abyssinian ras, whose wrath the naib had 
at the Institute of British Architects in 1837, already provoked, and whom he feared to 
are partly in the possession of his descendants, offend further. Bruce ultimately quitted the 
and partly in the royal collection at Windsor. Red Sea coast on 15 Nov., bound for Gondar, 
Colonel Playfair finds them to be for the most the capital of Abvssinia. lie reached his 
part virtually in duplicate, but taken from destination on 14 f eb. 1770, after a toilsome 
slightly different points of view ; one copy march, in which he experienced great diffi- 
probably by Bnice, the other, distinguished by culties from scantiness of provisions, from 
the introduction of conventional ornaments, , the transport of his heavy instruments, and 
probably by Balugani. Colonel Playfair's , from altercations with petty chiefs on the 
own elaborate work has superseded the im- road. In his march he witnessed the bar- 
perfect account published by Bruce himself, barous Abyssinian custom of eating raw meat 
out hie researches have impressed him witli cut from tlie living animal, which he brought 
the fullest conviction of the accuracy and such undeserved discredit upon himself by 
conscientiousness of his predecessor, in whose relating; and visited the ruins of Axum, his 
delineations he has discovered only one error. | imperfect description of which is more justly 

The most important ruins visited and sketched 
by Brace were those at Tebessa, Spaitla, Ta- 
mugas, Tifldrus, and Cirta. After more than 

open to criticism. It was nearly 150 years 
since any European had visited Abyssinia, 
except Poncet, the French surgeon, towards 





the end of the seventeenth century, and three 
Franciscan monks who had found their way 
about 1750y but had published no account of 
their travels, and probably never returned. 

The name Abyssinia is derived from an 
Arabic word signifjring confusion ; and the 
term — intended to aenotethe mixture of races 
in the population of the country — was, in 
Bruce*8 time as now, accurately descriptive of 
its political condition. Although the throne 
was still filled by a reputed descendant of 
Solomon, the prestige of royalty had well- 
nigh disappeared, and the country was vir- 
tually divided among a number of provincial 
gfovemors, whose revolts against the nominal 
sovereign and contentions among themselves 
kept it in a state of utter anarcny. At the 
time of Bruce*s arrival the post of ras or 
vizier was filled by the aged Michael, ^vemor 
of Tigr6, the Warwick of Abyssinia, who, 
having assassinated one king and poisoned 
another, was at the age of seventy-two rul- 
ing in the name of a third. It was Bruce's 
business to conciliate this cruel but straight- 
forward and highly intelligent personage, as 
well as the titular king and royal family, 
and Fasil, the chieftain m whose jurisdiction 
lay the springs of the Blue Nile, which Bruce, 
mistaking for the actual source of the river, 
had made the goal of his efforts. This indi- 
vidual happened to be in rebellion at the 
time, which increased tlie difficulties of the 
situation. But Bruce, by physical strength 
and adroitness in manly exercises, by presence 
of mind, by long experience of the East, by 
his very foibles of excessive self-assertion and 
warmth of temper, was fitted beyond most 
men to overawe a barbarous people. When 
he arrived at Gondar, King Tecla Haimanout 
and lias Michael were engaged in a military 
expedition, and the Greeksand Moors to whom 
he had letters of introduction were likewise 
absent. Fortunat^ily for him several persons 
of distinction were sick of small-pox, which 
procured him access to the queen mother ; 
and perhaps still more fortunately he was not 
at first allowed to prescribe for them, greater 
confidence being reposed in a cross and a 
picture of the Virgin Mary. The speedy death 
of two of the patients insured him his own 
way with the remainder, and their recovery 
won him the gratitude of the queen mother 
and of Michael's wife, the young and beauti- 
ful Ozoro Esther. The favour thus gained 
was confirmed by his feat of firing a tallow 
candle through a table, which Salt found 
talked of forty years afterwards. Bruce re- 
ceived an office about the king's person, and, 
according to his own statement, was made 
governor of the district of Kas-el-Feel. This 
circumstance was contradicted by Dofter 

Esther, a priest, from whom Salt subsequently 
obtained mformation, and who cannot have 
been actuated by any animosity to Bruce, as 
the general tenor of his communications was 
highly favourable to him. The appointment, 
however, may not have been generally known 
in Abyssinia, or Bruce himself, who at the 
time could not speak Amharic, may have been 
under a misapprehension as to the extent of 
his authority. In the spring of 1770 he accom- 
panied the king and Michael on an expedition 
mto Maitsha, which gave him an opportimity 
of obtaining from the king the investiture of 
the district of Geesh, where the fountains of 
the Blue Nile are situated, and of propitiat- 
ing the rebel chief, Fasil, by sending medicine 
to one of his generals. The expedition was 
unsuccessful ; the king and ras sought refuge 
in the latter's government of Tigr6, and Bruce 
returned to Gondar, where he spent several 
months, living in the queen mother's palace 
under her protection, but exposed to consider^ 
able danger from the hostility of a usurper 
who had been elevated to the nominal throne. 
On 28 Oct. 1770 Bruce left Gondar to take 
possession of his fief, and aft^r two days' 
march fell in with the army of Fasil, wno 
had returned to his allegiance, and was 
favouring the king's return to Gondar. Fasil 
gave Bruce at first a very ambiguous recep- 
tion ; but, overcome by his intrepid bearing, 
and captivated by his feats in subouing savage 
horses and shooting kites upon the wing, al- 
tered his demeanour entirely, accepted Bruce 
as his feudatory, naturalised him among his 
Galla followers, and dismissed him with a 
favourite horse of his own, and instructions 
to drive the animal before him ready saddled 
and bridled wherever he went. The steed 
certainly brought the party security, for every 
one fled at the sight of him, and Bruce was 
finally obliged to mount. Thus sped, he ar- 
rived at the village of Geesh, and struck upon 
the mighty Nile, * not four yards over, and 
not above four inches deep,' and here his guide 
pointed out to him * the hillock of green sod ' 
which he has made so famous. Trampling 
down the flowers which mantled the hillside, 
and receiving two severe falls in his eager 
haste, Bruce * stood in rapture over the prm- 
cipal fountain.' * It is easier to guess than to 
describe the situation of my mind at that 
moment — standing on that s]X)t which had 
baffied the genius, industry, and inquiry of 
both ancients and modems for the course of 
near three thousand years.' 

Bruce, however, was mistaken. He had 
not reached the source of the true Nile, but 
only that of it« most considerable tributary. 
With a frankness which does him honour, 
he virtually admits the fact by pointing out 

that, if the bruncli bj ivliose stiring lie stood I 
■t Qeeah did iiol encounter tlie lurger stream 
of the ^^'hite Nile, it would be lost in the 
Mnds. lie maintains, indeed, that the Blue ' 
Nile ie ihe Nile of the oni^ients, wlio be- ' 
miiMthed (he ])n>blein of its source to us; but | 
uls is inconiuBtent with the fitct that the . 
expedition went by Nero eridently ascended ! 
not the Blue Nile bat the White. He was 
also in error— less exCHsnble because in a 
certain muusure wjIFtiI — in regordiuK himself 
as the firat Eiiropeuu who had reached these 
(biuUutts. Pedro Paei the Jesuit hod un- 
doubtedly done so in 1615, and Briicc'a un- 
handsome attempt to throw doubt on the 
Ibct only proves tbut love of fnme is not 
Uterally the last infirmity of noble minds, 
butmaybringmuch more unlovely eymptonis 
in its train. There is a sense, however, in 

___i Br 

uid, absorbed by missionary zeal, thought 
little of the exploit to which Bruce had de- 
dicated his hfe. 

DnringBruce'a absence from Gondar, King 
" ' " ■ ■ ' ' d his Capitol. 


hud recovered h 

Twenty thousand of Kaa Klichael's Tigrf 
trarrioTB occupied the city, and Bruce was in 
time to witness the Tengeaoce of the victors. 
For weelis Gondar reeked with massacre, and 
swarmed with hyenas lured by the scent of 
ourion. Bruue'sremonstranceB were regarded 
as childish weakness. Uis draughtsman, , 
Bolugani, died, an event which he himself i 
misdates by a year, and he ardently longed 
to quit the country. With much difficulty 
he obtained permission, but the general anar- 
chy prevented hia departure. The queen ^ 
mother hitd always been unfriendly to Ras : 
MtchaeL Two Iraiding provincial governors, 
Ou^o and Powussen, espoused her cBuse,and ; 
ij)l«rpoeed theic troops between Michael in 
the CBpilsl and his province of Tigrfi. After 
much indecisive fighting in the spring of 
J771, the royal artuy WB8 cut off from its 
snmilies, and became completely disorganised 
in Its retreat upon Oondar. The old ras, 
victor in forty-turw battles, arrayed liimself 
in doth of gold, and sat calmly in his house 
Kwaitiug hu fate. He was carried away 
priaoner !« a remoto province, but was yet to 
Hk again and rule Tigr6 seven years until 
Lis death. The king, though not dethroned, 
remainedin virtual captivity, but was destined 
to experience many more clianges of fortune 
ero bv dii'd a mimk. Bruce spent a miserable 
atttumn, prontraled with fever, harassed with 
debt, and in constant danger of his life from 
the Willi GalU, On 26 Dec 1771 he finally 
Gondar, amid the benedictions and 

of his many friends, bearing with other 
ores the clironicles of the Abvxsinion 
kings and the apocryphal book of Enoch in 
the Ethiopic reruou, in which alone it is 
preserved. The next Etageof his journey was 
to be Sennaar, the capital of Nubia, which 
he reached after four months' march through 
a densely wooded country infested withwfid 
beasts, narrowly escaping assansination at the 
hands of the treacherous sheikh of Atbara. 
After five months' disagreeable detention at 
Sennaar among ' a horrid people, whose only 
occupations seem war and treason,' he struck 
into the desert, and after incurring dreadful 
perils, most graphically described, from hun- 
ger, thirst, robbers, the simoom, and moving 
pillars of sand, on 29 Nov. 1772 reached 
Assouan, the frontier town of Egypt. He 
had been compelled to leave his journals, 
drawings, and instruments behind him in 
the desert, but they were recovfred, and in 
March 1773 he brought the hard-won trea- 
sures safely to Marseilles. 

Bruce spent a, year and a half on the con- 
tinent, enjoying the compliments of the 
French savants, recruiting his constitution at 
the baths of Poretia, and calling to account 
on Italian marquis who had presumed during 
hia absence to marry a lady lo whom he had 
been engaged. On Ills arrival in England he 
at first received great attention, hut a re- 
action against him soon set in. People were 
scandalised by his stories, especially such as 
were really in no way improbable. As Sir 
Francis Head puts it, the devourersof putrid 
venison could not digest the devourera of 
raw beef Bruce's dictatorial manner and 
disdain of self-vindication also lold against 
him, ' Mr. Bruce's grand air, gigantic height, 
and forbidding brow awed everybody into 
silence,' says Fanny Bumey iu her lively 
sketch of him at this time in a letter to Bamuel 
Crisp, adding, ' He is the tallest man you ever 
saw gratis.' No honour was conferred upon 
him, except the personal notice of the king. 
Deeply wounded, he retired to his patrimonial 

■■■''■ ■' * '■ " ' '.lyin 

Kned the nublicaliou of his travels, and might 
ve finally abandoned it but for the depres- 
sion of ^irits caused by the death of his 
second wife iu 17S5. The need of occupation 
and the instances of his friend, Daines Bor- 
rington, incited him to composition, and five 
massive, ill-arranged, ill-digested, but most 
fascinating volumes made their appearance 
in 1790. They included a full narrative of 
bia travels from the beginning; a valuable 
history of Abyssinia, ' neglectmg,' however, 
aceorJing to Murray, ' very interesting traits 
of character and manners that appear in the 


Bruce 102 Bruce 

original chronicles ; ' and disquisitions on the and place, but under the pleasino^ and arbi- 

histoiy and religion of Egypt, Indian trade, trary change of memory melting into imagi- 

the invention of the alphabet, and other sub- nation.' inese inaccuracies of detail, how- 

jects, evincing that the great traveller was ever, relating exclusively to things personal 

not a great scholar or a judicious critic, to Bruce himself, in no way impair the truth 

With all their faults, few books of equal com- and value of his splendid picture of Abyssinia ; 

pass are equally entertaining ; and few such nor do they mar the effect of his own great 

monuments exist of the energy and enterprise figure as the representative of British frank- 

of a single traveller. Yet all their merits and ness and manliness amid the weltering chaos 

all the popularity they speedily obtained of African cruelty, treachery, and supersti- 

among general readers aid not effect the re- tion. His method of composition, moreover, 

versa! of the verdict already passed upon if unfavourable to the strictly historical, was 

Bruce by literary cot^iries. \Vitn sorrow and advantageous to the other literary qualities 

scorn he left the vindication of his name of his work. Fresh from the author's lips, 

to posterity. He shot, entertained visitors, the tale comes with more vividness than if 

played with his children, and, * having grown it had been compiled from journals ; and 

exceedingly heavy and lusty, rode slowly over scenes, characters, and situations are repre- 

his estate to his collieries, mounted on a sented with more warmth and distinctness, 

charger of great power and size.* Occasionally Bruce's character portraits are masterly ; and 

he would assume Abyssinian costume, and sit although the long conversations he records 

meditating upon the past and the departed, are e'vidently highly idealised, the essential 

especially, it is surmised, his beautiful pro- truth is probably conveyed with as much 

tectress, Ozoro Esther. At last, on 27 April precision as could have been attained by a 

1794, hastening to the head of his staircase to verbatim report. Not the least of his gifts is 

hand a lady to her carriage, he missed his an eminently robust and racy humour. He 

footing, pitched on his head, and never spoke will always remain the poet, and his work 

again. the epic, of African travel. 

Bruce's character is depicted with incom- [The principal authority for Bruce's life is his 
parable liveliness by himself. It is that of own Travels, which have appeared in three edi- 
a brave, magnanimous, and merciful man, tions, in 1790, 1805, and 1813. He left an un- 
endowed with excellent abilities, though not finished autobiography, part of which is printed 
with first-rate intellectual powers, but swayed in the later editions of the Travels. They are 
to an undue degree by self-esteem and the also accompanied by a biography by the editor, 
thirst for fame. The exaggeration of these Alexander Murray; an exceedingly well-written 
qualities, without which even his enterprise «"^J" ^^^ "^'^^n a very sat istactory book. Sonic 

would have shrunk from his perils, made him ^^'^^ • «« t"^." J"'"'*''^" ^ T'' ' '^T''''^ ""Iv ^'* 

uncandid to those whom he regarded as ri- e«Pl^^°J<l ^^y the uneasy relations between Mur- 

, , , , ^ . ^ ^. '' X 1 n ray and Bruce s son. who quarrelled with him 

vals, and brought imputations, not wholly ^^^^. ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ the work. Sir Fniucis 

undeserved, upon his veracity. As regards j^^^^.^ doli^^htful volume in the Family Library 

the bulk and general tenor of his narrative, ^^^^ ^^^0 the other extreme. It is a mere com- 

his truthfulness has been sufficiently esta- pilation from the Travels, Imt executed con a;«orc 

Wished ; but vanity and the passion for the by a kindred spirit, and highly original in manner 

picturesque led him to embellish minor par- if not in matter. Crichtcms memoir in Jardine's 

ticulars, and perhaps in some few instances 
to invent them. The circumstances under 

Naturalists' Library is an .ludacious plagiarism 
from Head. Bruce's Travels in Barlmrv have 

which his work was produced were liiglilv . hcen most fully illustrated by Colonel Playfair 
unfavourable to strict accuracy. Instead of (Travels in the Footstei)s of Bruce, 1877). See 
addressing himself to his task immediately I !jj^« ^h<? Travels of Lord Valentia and Salt, 
upon his return, with the incidents of his ' Brucesprnicipal detractors; Asiatic Res^^^ 
travels fresh in his mind and his journals ^^^^- ^: ^^"^,^T t. f ^'^^c Memoir ot-Dr Bur- 
open before him, Bruce delayed for twelve "^J' J; 298-329 ; Beh>es Sexagenarian, ii. 4o-9; 
'^ J ^, 1- X i. J X • and the chapter on Alexander Murray m Archi- 

years, and then dictated to an amanuensis i ^^jj Constable and his Literar>' Correspondents, 
indolently omitting to refer to the original ^^i j rj.^^ excellent article in the Penny Cyclo- 
iournals, and hence frequently making a pg^dia is by Andr6 Vieusseux.] K. G. 

lamentable confusion of facts and dates. 

Murray, * he seems to have viewed the nu- ; at the university of St. Andrews, he went 
merous adventures of his active life as in a thence to Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 
dream, not in their natural state as to time He graduated B.A. in 1789, and took orders 




in the English church. About 1800 he was 
a^in in Gotland, where for a short time he 
officiated as a cleigyman in the Scottish 
episcopal church. Towards the end of this 
period, in 1803, was published his only sepa- 
rate literary work, *The liegard which is 
due to the Memory of Good Men,* a sermon 
preached at Dundee on the death of George 

In 1803 he came to London to devote 
himself to literature, and was soon a prolific 
contributor to the * British Critic' and the 
'Anti-Jacobin Magazine and Review,* the 
latter a weekly journal started almost con- 
temporaneously with, and conducted on the 
same principles as, its more famous namesake 
the * Anti-Jacobin ' of Canning celebrity. A 
large proportion of the articles published in 
this review from 1803 to 1806 are from 
Bruce*8 pen. These articles, written with 
considerable ability, are chiefly on theologi- 
cal and literary subjects. The former are 
characterised by a keen spirit of part isanship, 
and are aimed especially against the Culvin- 
istic and evangelical parties in the church. 
His contempt for the whole tendency of the 
thought of revolutionarv France was most 
hearty, and helped to keep up the * Anti- 
Jacobin ' tradition. For a list of the titles 
of the most important, see Anderson's * Scot- 
tish Nation.' 

Bruce's life in London was obscure, and 
probably unfortunate. He was found dead 
m the passage of the house in which he lodged 
in Fetter Lane, 24 March 1806. 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation ; Irving's Book 
of ScotsmoD ; Annual Kegistcr, 1806, p. 524.] 

A. M-L. 

BRUCE, JAMES (1808-1861), journalist 
and author, was born at Aberdeen in 1808. 
He began his journalistic career in his native 
town, and there he published, in 1840, * The 
Black Kalendar of Aberdeen,' an account of 
the most remarkable trials before tlie criminal 
courts of that city, and of the cases sent up 
from that district to the high court of jus- 
ticiary, from 1745 to 1830, with personal 
details concerning the prisoners. In the fol- 
lowing year app(»ared his * Lives of Eminent 
Men of Aberdeen,' which contains, among 
other biographies, those of John Barbour, 
l^ishop Eilphinstone, chancellor of Scotland 
under James HI, Jamieson the painter, and 
the poet Beattie. 

"While resident in Cupar, and editor of the 
' Fifeshire Journal,' he published in 1845, 
under the name of * Table Talk,' a series of 
short papers on miscellaneous subjects, which 
show a minute acquaintance with the byways 
and obscure comers of history and literature, 

and, two years later, a descriptive * Guide to 
the Edinburgh and Northern Railway.' 

In 1847 Bruce was ap])ointed commis- 
sioner to the * Scotsman ' newspaper to make 
inquiries into the destitution in the hi^rh- 
lands. The results of his observations during 
a tliree months' tour appeared in the ' Scots- 
man ' from January to March 1847, and were 
afterwards published in the form of a pam- 
phlet, bearing the title of * Letters on the 
Present Condition of the Iliglilands and 
Islands of Scotland.' The emigration of great 
numbers seems to him an immediate neces- 
sity, in order to narrow the field of operation 
before attempting relief. He advocates also 
the establishment of a compulsory poor law, 
and the joining of potato patches into small 
farms ; and he pleads earnestly for the spread 
of education to rouse the people from their 
lethargy to a sense of new wants. On the 
wliole, though he blames the neglect and 
selfishness of the ])roprietors, and quotes the 
verdict of one of the witnesses he examined, 
that ^ the ruin of the jMior people in Skye 
is that there are whole miles of the country 
with nothing but sheep and gentlemen uj)on 
them,' yet he finds the re4il caUvSe of the dis- 
tress in the indolence and lack of energy of 
the highlanders themselves. He was after- 
wards employed by the ^ Scotsman ' on another 
commission, to report on the moral and sani- 
tary condition of Edinburgli. 

Bnice subsequently undertook in succes- 
sion the editorship of the * Madras Athe- 
nteum,' the * Newcastle Chronicle,' and, dur- 
ing the latter years of his life, the Belfast 
' Sort hem Whig.' He was an occasional 
ctmtributor to the * Athenneum,' and at the 
time of his death he was engaged on a series 
of papers for the * Cornhill Magazine.' His 
restless mind was ever finding interests too 
much out of the l>eaten track to allow him 
to be sufficiently absorbed in the events of 
the day ; and his suc^;ess as a journalist was, 
therefore, hardly proportioiuite to his abili- 

The two ]>est known of Bruce's Ixioks are 
*Cl»issic and Historic Portraits' (IH/PJ), and 
* Scenes and Sights in the East' (1856). 
The former is a series of sketches descri})tive 
of * the personal appearance, the dress, the 
private habits and tastes of some of the 
most distinguislied persons wliose names 
figure in histor}', interspersed but sparingly 
with criticism (m their moral and intellectual 
character.' * Scenes and Sights in tht» East ' 
I is not a continuous l)ook of travels, but a 
collection of picturesque views of life and 
' scenery in Southern India and EgA-pt, with 

Jiiaint observations on manners and men. 
Jruce died at Belfast, 19 Aug. 1861. 




[Scotsman, 22 Aug. 1861 ; Belfast Northern 
Whig, 21 Aug. 1861 ; Athenaeum, 24 Aug. 
1861.1 A. M-L. 

BRUCE. JAMES, eighth Earl of Elgin 
and twelfth Earl of Kincardine (1811- 
1863), governor-general of India, second son 
of the seventh earl of Elgin [q. v.], was edu- 
cated at Eton and at Christ Church, Oxford, 
where in 1832 he took a first class in classics, 
and was shortly aftenvards elected a fellow 
of Merton. It is a curious coincidence that 
one of the examiners on the latter occasion 
was Sir Edmund Head, who many years after- 
wards succeeded Elgin as governor-general 
of Canada. Among Elgin's contemporaries 
at Christ Church were Lord Dalhousie and 
Lord Canning, his two immediate predecessors 
in the office of governor-general of India, 
the fifth Duke ol Newcastle, the first Lord 
Herbert of Lea, and Mr. Gladstone. In a 
contest for the Eldon law scholarship he was 
defeated by Roundell Palmer, now Earl of Sel- 
borne. In April 1 841 he married a daughter of 
Mr. C. L. Cumming Bruce, and at the gene- 
ral election in July of the same year he was 
elected member for Southampton, his ])olitical 
views being those which were afterwards 
called liberal-conser\'ative. "When parliament 
met, he seconded the amendment to the ad- 
dress, which, being carried by a large majority, 
was followed by the resignation 01 Lora Mel- 
bourne's government. Shortly after^vards, on 
the death of his father, his elder brother 
having died in the previous year, he succeeded 
to the Scotch earldom, and ceased to be a 
member of the House of Commons. In March 
1842 he was appointed governor of Jamaica. 

Jamaica, at the time of Elgin's a])point- 
meut, was in some respects in a depressed 
condition. The landed proprietary, which 
was mainly rei)resented in the island by paid 
agents, had suffered considerablv from the 
abolition of the slave trade. Tlie finances 
required careful management, and the moral 
ana intellectual condition of the negro popu- 
lation was very low. In all these matters 
progress had been made under the adminis- 
tration of Elgin's distinguished predecessor, 
Sir Charles Metcalfe; but mucli still remained 
to be accomplished, especially in the matter 
of educating the negroes. In this, and in 
the important object of encouraging the ap- 
plication of mechanical contrivances to agri- 
culture, Elgin's efforts were very successful, 
and his administration generally was so satis- 
factory that very shortly after leaving Ja- 
maica he was offered by the whig government, 
which had acceded to office in 1846, the im- 

Srtant post of governor-general of Canada. 
is first wife had died shortly after his ar- 
rival in Jamaica, and in 1847 he married 

Lady Louisa Mary Lambton, daughter of the 
first Earl of Durham. 

In Canada, as in Jamaica, Elg^ again 
succeeded to an office which very recently 
had been filled by Metcalfe, but the diffi- 
culties of the position were far greater than 
those which had met him in the West Indian 
colony. The rebellion which had taken place 
in Lower Canada in 1837 and 1838 had left 
behind it feelings of bitter animosity between 
the British party, which was most numerous 
in the upper province, and the French Cana- 
dians, who preponderated in Lower Canada. 
Pursuant to the recommendations made in 
Lord Durham's celebrated report. Upper and 
Lower Canada had been imited under a single 

Sovemment, and under Sir Charles Bagot, 
letcalfe's predecessor as govemor-greneral, 
constitutional government had been esta- 
blished. During the earlier part of Metcalfe's 
government the French Canadians and the 
party that sympathised with them had been 
m office ; but a difference of opinion between 
Metcalfe and his council as to his power to 
make appointments, even to his personal 
staff, without the assent of the council, 
had led to the resignation of the majority of 
the council, and had been followed by the 
dissolution of the assembly and an election 
which gave a small majority to the British 
party. Elgin foimd this party in power, but 
before he had been a year in office another 
general election gave a majority to the other 
side, and during the remainder of his stay 
in Canada his ministry was composed of 
j)ersons belonging to what may be called 
the liberal party, the chief element in that 
ministry being French Canadian. From the 
first Elgin had very serious difficulties to 
contend with. The famine in Ireland, which 
commenced in the first year of his govern- 
ment, flooded Canada with diseased and 
starving emigrants, whose support had in 
the first instance to be borne by the Cana- 
dians ; the Free Trade Act of 1846 inflict^ 
heavy losses upon Canadian millowners and 
merchants ; and last, but not least, the Bri- 
tish party regarded with the keenest resent- 
ment the admission into the government of 
the country of persons some of whom they 
looked upon as rebels. This resentment, on 
the occasion of a bill being passed granting" 
compensation for losses incurred in Lower 
Canada during the rebellion, cidminated in 
riots and outrages of a grave character. The 
measure in question was the outcome of the 
report of a commission appointed by Met- 
calfe's conservative government in 1845. It 
was denounced both in Canada and in Eng- 
land, and in the latter country, among other 
persons, by Mr. Gladstone, as a measure for 

Bruce 105 Bruce 

rewarding rebels for rebellion, and on the city. Later in the year he returned to China, 

occasion of the governor-general giving his fresh troops ha\'ing been sent out to replace 

assent to it, his carriage, as he left the House those which had been diverted to India, 

of Parliament, was pelted with stones, and Canton was speedily taken, and some months 

the House of Parliament was burnt to the later a treaty was made at Tientsin, providing 

^und. A few days later, on his going into among other matters for the appointment of 

Mont real to receive an address which had been a British minister, for additional facilities 

passed by the House of Assembly condemning for British trade, for protection to protestants 

the recent outrages and expressing confidence and to Roman catholics, and for a war in- 

in his administration, he was again attacked demnity. He subsequently proceeded to 

by the mob, some of his staff were struck by I Japan, where he made a treaty witli the go- 

stones, and it was only by rapid driving that vemment of that country, under which cer- 

he escaped unhurt. The result of these dis- tain ports were opened to British trade, and 

turbances was that Montreal was abandoned foreigners were admitted into the coimtry. 
as the seat of government, and for some vears On his return to England in tlie spring of 

the sittings of the legislature were held al- 1859 Elgin was again offered office by Lord 

temately at Toronto and Quebec. Later on Palmerston, and accepted that of postmaster- 

the situation was embarrassed by a cry for general. He was elected lord rector of Glas- 

annexation to the United States, caused gow University, and received the freedom of 

mainly by the commercial depression conse- the city of I^ondon. In the following year 

quent upon free trade and the absence of a he was again sent to China, the emperor 
reciprocity treaty with the States. The latter | having failed to ratify the treaty of Tientsin, 

was at last concluded in 1854, after negotia- and committed other unfriendly nets. On the 
tions conducted by Elgin in person. Another ' voyage out tlie steamer in which Elgin was 

source of considerable anxiety at this period a passenger was wrecked in Galle harbour. 

was the practice in vogue among certain The mission was not accomplished without 
English statesmen of denouncing the colonies i fighting. Tlie military opposition was slight, 
as a needless burden upon the mother country. , but the Chinese resorted to treachery, and 
But all these difficulties were gradually over- ' after having, as was supposed, accepted the 
come, and when Elgin relinquished the govern- I terms offered by the two envoys (Baron Gros, 

ment at the end of 1854, it was generally re- on the part of the French, was again asso- 

cogrnised that his administration had been a ciated w^ith Elgin), carried off some officers 

complete success. aud soldiers wliom Elgin had sent with a 

For two years after leaving Canada Elgin letter to the Chinese plenipotentiarv*, and also 

abstained from taking any active part in the* Times 'correspondent, Mr. Bowlby[q. v. j, 

public affairs. On the breaking up of Lord who had accompanied them. The latter and 

Aberdeen's government in the spring of 1855, one or two other members of the party were 

he was offered bv Lord Palmerston the chan- murdered. In retribution for this treacherous 

cellorship of the Duchy of Lancaster with a act, the summer palace, the favourite resi- 

seat in the cabinet ; but wishing to maintain dence of the emperor at Pekin, w^as destroyed. 

an independent position in parliament, while A few days later the treaty of Tientsin was 

according a general support to the govern- formally ratified, and a convention was con- 

ment of the day, he declined the offer. 

eluded, containing certain additional stipu- 

In 1857, on differences arising with China lations favourable to the British government, 
in connection with the seizure of the lorcha Visiting Java on his voyage home, Elgin re- 

Arrow, Elgin was sent as envoy to China. 
On reaching Singapore he was met by letters 
from Lord Canning informing him of the 
spread of the Indian mutiny, and urging him 

turned to England on 11 April 1861, after an 
absence of about a year. 

Elgin had hardly been a month in England 
when lie was offered the appointment of 

to send troops to Calcutta from tlie force | viceroy and governor-general of India, which 
which was to accompany him to China. With j Lord Canning was about to vacate. It was 
this requisition he at once complied, sending : the last public situation which he was destined 
in fact the whole of the force, but he pro- to fill, and he apj)ears to have accepted it 
ceeded himself to Hongkong in the expects- with some forebodings. In a speech which 

tion that the troops would speedily follow. 
Finding that this expectation was not likely 
to be fulfilled, and tnat the French ambas- 
sador, who was to be associated with him in 
his mission, had been delayed, he re/paired to 
Calcutta in H.M.S. Shannon, which he left 
with Lord Canniiig for the protection of that 

he made to his neighbours at Dunfermline 
shortly before his departure, he observed that 
* the vast amount of labour devolving upon 
the governor-general of India, the insalu- 
brity of the climate, and the advance of 
years, all tended to render the prospect of 
their again meeting remote and uncertain.' 

Bruce io6 Bruce 

He left England at the end of January 1802, was disapproved in England. Fully recog- 
arriving at Calcutta on 12 March. During nisin^ the advantages of free trade, and the 
the twenty months which followed, he devoted ; principles upon which the free-trade policy 
himself with unremitting industry to the ' was hased, he was not prepared to admit that 
business of his high office, bringing to bear those principles, however sound in the ab- 
upon it experience acquired in other and stract, ought to be suddenly enforced in a 
widely different spheres of duty, but fully colony just emerging from grave financial 
conscious of the necessity of careful study difficulties, and by a temperate representation 
of the new set of facts with which he was he induced the government to recall an order 
brought into contact. * The first virtue,' he which would otherwise have caused serious 
said to one of his colleagues, * which you and embarrassment. A few years later, in Ca- 
I have to practise here at present is self- nada, influenced by similar considerations, 
denial. We must, for a time at least, walk he brought about, not without delay and 
in paths traced out for us by others.* The difficulty, and mainly by his own persistent 
first eleven months were spent in Calcutta, advocacy, the reciprocity treaty with the 
where, without encountering any serious ill- United States. He was charged in some 
ness, he suffered a good deal of discomfort quarters with having shown timidity indeal- 
from the heat. In February 1863 he moved ing with the disturbances at Montreal, but 
to Simla, halting at Benares, Agra, Delhi, the charge was discredited by successive go- 
and other places, and holding durbars, at vemments at home, whose confidence in his 
whicli he made tlie acquaintance of numerous judgment and firmness was to the last unim- 
native chiefs and nobles. Spending the sum- paired. The vigour and diplomatic ability 
mer at Simla, on 26 Sept. he started for displayed by him in China in getting his own 
Sealkote, en route to Pesliawur, with the in- way, both with the Chinese authorities and 
tention of then proceeding to Lahore, where, with his French colleague, were very remark- 
in ]nir8uance of the Inaian Councils Act, able. In China and in India, where he was 
pasw'd two y ears before, the legislative council brouglit into contact with Englishmen and 
was to assemble. The earlier part of the route other Europeans settled among Asiatic popu- 
lay over the Himalayas and the upper valleys lations, he seems to have formed a strong, 
of the l^*as, the liavi, and the Chenab rivers. ' and some persons thought an exaggerated. 
In the courHo of it h(» crossed the twig bridge impression of the tendency of Europeans to 
ov(^r the riv«»r Chuiulra, un atHuent of the ill-use the inferior races, his letters, both 
Chenab. Tlit* crossing of this bridge, con- public and private, containing frequent and 
structed as it was of a rude texture of birch indignant allusions to this subject, 
branches, much nait and ])attered by the wear In India his tenure of office was too short- 
and tear of the rainy season, involved very to admit of any trustworthy estimate being 
great ])hysical exertion, and brought on a formed of his capacity to administer with 
fatal attack of lu'art complaint, to which he success a system so different from those to 
succumbt'd at Dharmsiila on 20 Nov. 1863. which he had been accustomed in his previous 
Lady lOlgin and his youngest daughter were career ; but, had his life been spared, ho 
with him. A very interesting account of would probably have taken a high place on 
his last days, written by his brother-in-law, the roll of Indian administrators. In private 
A. P. Stanley, dean of Westminster, is given life he was much beloved. His letters show 
in Mr. Wulrond's memoir. that he was a man of warm affections, emi- 
()f lOlgin's character as a ])ublic man, the nently domestic, with very decided convic- 
most prominent leature»s were the thoroughly tions on the subject of religion. He was a 
practical manner in which he habitually dealt full and facile writer, and a fluent and effec- 
with public (luestions: his readiness to as- tive speaker, with a style remarkably clear, 
sume res])()nsibility, and the strong sense of abounding in illustrations from the varied 
duty which enabl(»d him to su])|)ress personal stores of a well-furnished and retentive 
considerations whenever they a])peared to con- memory. 

flict with the public interests Of the two (Letters and JournHls of James, eighth «irl of 

last-mentioned (pialiti«'s strikin^^ evidence Elgin, ed. Theodore Walrond, 1872; Kaye's Life 

was furnished by Ins promi)t resolve to send of Lord Metcjilfe, 1858 ; personal information.] 
the troo])s destined for China to the aid of A.J. A. 

the Indian government. Of the first an ex- 
amine was atlorded at an early period in his BRUCE, SiR J AMP^S LEWIS KNIGIIT- 

offit'ial life. Shortly after his arrival in Ja- (1791-180(4), judge, was the youngest son of 

maiea he came into collision with the home John Knight of Fairlinch, Devonshire, by 

government on a (juestion of taxation, regard- Margaret, daughter and afterwards heiress of 

mgwhich the legislation of the local assembly i William Bruce of Llanblethian, Glamorgan- 

Bruce 107 Bruce 

shire. He vtbs bom at Bam6ta|)le on 1 5 Feb. 
1791, and was educated at Kmp Edward's 
grammar school, Bath, and the KingV school, 
Sherborne. He left Sherborne in 1805, and, 
after spending two years with a mathematical 
tutor, was articled to a solicitor in Lincoln's 
Inn Fields. His articles having expired, he 
was, on 21 Julv 1812, admitted a student 
of Lincoln's Inn. On 21 Nov. 1817 he 
was called to the bar, and for a short time 
went the Welsh circuit. The increase of 
his chancery practice soon caused liim to 
abandon the common law bar, and he con- 
fined himself to practising in the equity 

7 Nov. 18(^, within a fortnight after his re- 
tirement from the bench, which had been 
occasioned bv the gradual failure of his sight 
and the shoc'k which he had sustained by the 
sudden death of his wife in the previous year. 
He was buried in Gheriton churchyard, near 
Folkestone, on the 14th of the same month. 
At the bar he was remarkable for the rapidity 
with which he was always able to make himself 
master of the facts of any case, and for his 
extraordinary memor}' (see report of ' Hilton 
r. I^)rd Granville,' Cr. and Ph. 284, and Law 
Mag. and HecieWf xxii. 281 ). As a judge he 
showed a wonderful aptitude for business 

courts. In Michaelmas term 1829 lie was and a profound knowledge of law, and so 
appointed a king's counsel, and on Nov. in anxious was he to shorten j)rocedure and save 
the same year was elected a bencher of Lin- • time in the discussion of technicalities, that 
coin's Inn. Upon taking silk he selected the I in some of his decisions, which were over- 
vice-chancellor's coiut, where Sir Edward ruled by Lord Cottenham, he anticij)ated re- 
Sugden, afterwards Lord St. Leonards, was | forma which were subsequently made. His 
the leader. With him Knight had daily con- language was always terse and lucid, and his 
te8ts\mtilSugden'sap])ointment aslordchan- | judgments, especially the earlier ones, were 
cellor of Ireland in 1834. In |K)litics Knight models of com]:osition (see the case of * Rev- 
was a conservative, and in April 1831 he was nell v. Sprve,' 1 l>e 6'c.r, Macna(/hten,8f Gor- 
returned for Bishop's Castle, a pocket borough ^7ow, 660-711 ; of * Thomas v. Koberts,' better 
belonging to the Karl of Powis. llisparlia- ' known as the * Aga])emone Case,' 8 De Gea- 
mentary career, however, was short, for the 8^ Smale, 758-81 ; and of* Burgess r. Burgess,' 
borough was disfranchised by t he Keform Bill, i 3 De Ge.v, Mamaffhten, Sf Gord(mj 896-905). 
In 1834 he received the honorar}- degree of He frw^uently sat on tlie judicial committee 
D.C.L. from the university of Oxford. In of the pri\T council, where his familiarity 
1835 he was one of the counsel heard at the ■ with the civil law and the foreign systems 
bar of the House of l-iords on behalf of the of jurisprudence was especially valuable, 
municipal corporations against the Municipal , In the celebrated* Gorham case' he differed 
Reform Bill, and in 1851 on behalf of the from the judgment of the majority of the 
deans and chapters against the Ecclesiastical court, which was j)ronounced by Lord Lang- 
Duties and llevenues Bill. In August 1837 dale, M.R., on 8 March 1850. * On 20 Aug. 
be unsuccessfully contested the borough of 18 12 he married Eliza, the daughter of Thomas 
Cambridge, and in September following as- Newte of Duvale, Devonshire, by whom he 
sumed the additional surname of Bruce by had several children. Two portraits were 
royal license. Up<m the abolition of the court taken of him, by George Kicliinoiid, R.A., 
of exchequer in equity and the transfer of its and Woolnoth respectively, both of which 
jurisdiction to the court of chancery, he was have been engraved. 

on 28 Oct. 1841 api>ointed by Sir Robert Peel ^y^^ ^ , gg^^ -^ j r^^_^ . j^^, ^, ,^„,i j^^,^, 
one of the two additional vice-chancellors ^^- 278-93; I^iw Journal, i. r,C4-5. 607-8; 
under 5 Vict. c. 5. He was subsequently Solicitors' Jouraal. xi. 25. 63-4, 79 ; Law Times, 
knighted, and on 15 Jan. 1842 was sworn a xlii. 21, 48. f}7, o03 ; (uiit. 3Iajr. 1866, new stT. 
member of the privv council. In Michaelmas ii. 681, 818, 833-5; Anniml Kegi!>ter (1866), 
term 1842 he undertook the further duties Chron. 218-19.] (f. F. R. li. 

of chief judge in bankruptcv, and seven vears 

later the exercise of the jurisdiction of the ' BRUCE, JOHN (1745-1826), historian, 
old coiurt of review was entrusted to him. was heir male of the ancient family of Bnice 
In 1842-3 he held the yearly office of treasurer of Earlshall, one of the oldest cadets of the 
of Lincoln's Inn, and' in virtue of that office illustrious house of Bruce ; but he did not suc- 
laid the foundation-stone of the new hall ' ceed to the estate of his ancestors, which was 
and library of the inn on 20 A])ril 184*5. transferred by marriage into another family. 
Upon the creation of the court of a])i)eal He inherited from his father only the small 
in chancery Lord John Russell appointed property of Grangehill, near Kinghoni, Fife- 
Knight^Bruce and lx)rd Cranworth the first shire, the remains of a larger estate which his 
lordsjustices on 8 Oct. 1851. In this court j family acquired by marriage with a grand- 
Knigntr-Bruce sat for nearly sixteen years. . daughter of the renownied Kirkcaldy of 
He died at Roehampton Prior\', Surrey, on ' Orange. He received his education at the 

Bruce los Bruce 

university of Edinburgh, where he was ap- | foreign possessions or European ports, by 

Eointed professor of logic. Having acquitted annoying his coasts, and by destroying hia 
imself to the satisfaction of ViscOunt Mel- equipments/ London [1801], 8vo, privately 
ville in the education of his son, that noble- printed for the government. 8. * Annals of 
man obtained for him a grant of the rever- , the East India Company from their establish- 
sion, conjointly with Sir James Hunter Blair, I ment by the Charter of Queen Elizabeth, 
of the patent of king's printer and stationer 1600, to the union of the London and Eng- 
for Scotland, an office which did not open lish East India Company, 1707-8,' 3 vols., 
to them until fifteen or sixteen years later. London, 1810, 4to. 9. * Report on the Re- 
Through the influence of Lord Melville, Bruce newal of tlie Company's Exclusive Privileffes 
was liltewise appointed keeper of the state of Trade for twenty years from March 17S4,' 
paper office, and secretary for the Latin Ian- London, 1811, 4to. 10. * Speech in the Com- 
guage and historiographer to the East India mittee of the House of Commons on India 
Company. He was M.P. for the borough of i Afiairs,' London, 1813, 8vo. 
Michael or Midshall, Cornwall, from February ' [Gent. Mag. xcTi. (ii.) 87, (new series) iv. 
1809 till July 1814, and for a short time se- 327 ; Martin's Privately Printed Books, 133, 

138, 142, 149, 156; Biog. Diet, of Living 
Authors (1816), 42; Beloe's Anecdotes, ii. 432; 
Smith's Bibl. Cantiana, 86 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; 

cretary to the board of control. He was a 
fellow of the Royal Societies of London, Edin- 
burgh, and Gottingen. His death occurred 
at his seat of Nuthill, Fifeshire, on 16 April Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), 293 ; McCnUoch'» 
2gO0 j Lit. Pol. Econ. 106 ; Lists of Members of Par- 

Bruce was an accurate historian and an ^f"f°^ (^^cial return)^ ii 243, 258; Cat of 
elegant8cholar,andproduced8everalvaluable ' ^»°^ ^^^ »° ^"^- ^^l T. C. 

works, some of which were privately printed BRUCE, JOHN (1802-1869), antiquary, 
for confidential use by members of the go- I a native of London, though of a Scotch 
'"'''' ^ .t:^- _. T»_r_..- - ., educated partly at private 

_;land, and partly at the gram- 
Aberdeen. Although brought 
Ethics, or the Principles of Natural Philo- up to the law, he did not practise after 1840, 
sophy,' London, 1786, 8vo. 3. * Historical ! and from that time gave himself wholly to 
View of Plans for the Government of British historical and antiquarian pursuits, to which 
India,' 1793, 4to. 4. * Review of the Events he had already devoted much attention. He 
and Treaties which established the Balance took a prominent part, in the foundation of the 
of Power in Europe, and the Balance of Camden Society, held office in it as treasurer 
Trade in favour of Great Britain,' London, and director, and contributed to its publica- 
1796, 8vo. 5. * Report on the Arrangements tions : *The Historic of the Arnvall of 
which were made for the internal Defence Edward IV,' 1838, the first volume of the 
of these Kingdoms when Spain by its Armada society's works; * Annals of the First Four 

projected the Invasion and Conquest of Eng- Years of Queen Elizabeth,' 1840; * Corre- 
land,' London, 1798, 8vo, privately printed spondence of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leyces- 
for tlie use of ministers at the time of Bona- ter,' 1844 ; * Vemey Papers,' 1845 ; * Letters 

parte's threatened invasion. On this report of Queen Elizabeth and James VT,' 1849 ; a 
Pitt grounded his measures of the provisional preface to * Chronicon Petroburgense/ 1849 ; 
cavalry and army of reserve. 6. * Report I * Letters and Papers of the Vemey Family,* 
on the Events and Circumstances which 1853 ; * Charles I in 1646,' 1866 ; * Liber 
produced the Union of the Kingdoms of Famelicus ' of Sir James Whitelocke, 1858 ; 
England and Scotland ; on the effects of this , * Correspondence of James VI with Cecil,' 
g^eat National Event on the reciprocal in- 1861 ; a preface to * Proceedings principally 
terests of both Kingdoms : and on the poli- in the County of Kent . . . from the collec- 
tical and commercial influence of Great ' tions of Sir E. Bering,' 1861 ; conjointly with 
Britain in the Balance of Power in Europe,' J. G. Nichols's * Wills from Doctors Com- 
2 vols., London [1799], 8vo. These papers I mons,' 1863; an * Inquiry into the Genuine- 
were collected by the desire of the fourth ! ness of a Letter dated 3 Feb. 1613,' 1864, in 
Duke of Portland, then secretary of state, the * Miscellany,' v. 7; * Accounts and Papers 
when the question of union between Great , relating to Mary Queen of Scots,' conjointly 
Britain and Ireland came under the con- | with A, J. Crosby, 1867 ; * Journal of a 

sideration of the government. 7. * Report on 
the Arrangements which have been adopted 
in former periods, when France threatened 
Invasions of Britain or Ireland, to frustrate 
the designs of the enemy by attacks on his 

Voyage . . . by Sir Kenelm Digby,' 1868 ; 
* Notes of the Treaty of Ripon,' 1869. He 
was for some time treasurer and vice-presi- 
dent of the Society of Antiquaries, and 
contributed many papers to the ' Aichm(H 

Bruce 109 Bruce 

logia,' among which his ' Inquiry into the ship of the I^rmiidas and the representation 
Authenticity of the Paston Letters/ xli. 15, of Kinross-shire in Parliament. He died at the 
may be especially mentioned. He also printed a^^e of eighty-two, and was buried at Kinross. 
twolettersrelatingtothe affairs of the society His first wife was Catherine Halket of Pit- 
in 1852. He wrote occasionally in the ferran, near Dunfermline, and it is her sister, 
'Edinbuiyb Review' and other periodicals. Lady Wardlaw, who divides with Bruce the 
and was &r some years editor of tne * Gentle- . honour of having written * Hardy knute.* It is 
man's Magazine.* For the Berkshire Ash- extremely difficult with the existing evidence 
molean Society he edited a volume of * Origi- to decide which of the two wrote the poem — 
nal Letters rating to Archbishop Laud's if indeed it was not their joint composition — 
Benefactions,' 1841, and for the Parker So- but the best critics incline to give the credit 
ciety the ' Works of R. Hutchinson,' 1842, to Bruce. Pinkertou, who wrote a sequel to 
and conjointly with the Rev. T. Perowne the vigorous fragment, is quite decided m that 
the ' Correspondence of Archbishop Parker,' view, restinghis conclusion on a letter to Lord 
1853. In 1857 he contributed an edition of l^inning, in which Bruce says he found the 
Cowper's poems to the Aldine edition of manuscript in a vault at Dunfermline. Percy 
poets. He edited the Calendars of State accepts Pinkerton's argument and inference, 
Fapers, Domestic Series, Charles I, 1625-.' and Ir\'ing, the most competent judge since 
1639, 12 vols, published under the direction , theirday, while acknowledging the difficulties 
of the master of the rolls, 1858-1871, the of the case, is clearly inclined to agree with 
Lust volume being completed by Mr. W. D. them. Unfortunately neither Ladv Wardlaw 
Hamilton, and m 1867 printed privately nor Bruce left any authentic poetical compo- 

Stpers relating to William, first earl of sition, though Pinkerton would have little 
owrie. In 1861 he was appointed by hesitation in attributing to Bruce not only 
the Society of Antiquaries a trustee of * Hardyknute ' but other members of Ram- 
Sir John wjane's Museum. He was a man say's * Evergreen' as well. There exists, how- 
of a noble simplicity of character, and was ever, testimony of various friends as to the 
much beloved by all who worked with him. exceptional accomplishments of I^dy Ward- 
He had been a widower for some years law, and as to the probability, amounting al- 
before his death, which occurred very sud- most to a certainty, that she was the sole and 
denly at London, 28 Oct. 1869. His manu- unaided author of the ballad [see Wardlaw, 
scripts deposited in the British Museum are : Lady Elizabeth]. 

Catalogue of State. Papers in the State' [Burke 8Peenige;Pinkerton'8 Ancient Scottish 

Paper Office and the British Museum, and Poems; Percy's Rcliques ; Chalmers's Life of 

class catalogues of manuscripts in the Bn- Allan Ramsay ; Chalmers's History of Dunferm- 

tish Museum, Add. MSS. 28197-28202, and line; Irvings Scottish Poets.] T. B. 
a classified list of the letters of William 

Cowper, Add. MS. 29716. BRUCE, MICHAEL (163o-1093), pres- 
[The Times, 3 and 4 Nov. 1869; J. G. , hyterian minister, was the first of a line of 
Nichols's Catalogue of the Works of the Camden seven Jiruces, preshyterian ministers in Ire- 
Society, 2nd edit. 1872; Thompson Cooper's land m six successive generations. He was 
Biog. Diet., supplement; Men of the Time, ed. i the third and youngest son of Patrick Bruce 
1868 ; Notes and Queries, 4th series, iv. 443 ; j of Newtown, Stirlingshire, by Janet, second 
Catalogue of Additional MSS. in the British daughterof John Jackson, merchant of Kdin- 
Museum.] W. H. burgh. Robert Bruce [q. v.], who anointed 

Anne of Denmark at Ilolyrood, 17 May 1590, 

BRUCE, SiB JOHN HOPE (1684?-! 766), 

was his grand-uncle. Bruce graduated at 

of Kinross, soldier and statesman, and reputed , Edinburgh in 1654. He is said to have begun 
author of the ballad * Hardyknute,' was the i to preach in 1656. In that year John Liv- 
thirdsonof Sir Thomas Hope, hart., of Craig- ' inpt one of Ancrum, formerly minister of 
IbiU, Fife. His mother was the sole heir of Sir Killinchy, co. Down, paid a visit to his old 
William Bruce, hart., of Kinross, and hence charge, with a view to settle there again, 
comes the name of the son, which in the family This he did not do, but on retuniing to Scot- 
records stands as Sir John Bruce Hope. On land he looked out for a likely man for Kil- 
the death of his elder brothers without heirs I linchy, and at length sent Bruce with a let- 
he succeeded to the estates, and came to be ter (elated 3 July 1657) to Captain James 
popularly known as Sir John Bruce of Kin- Moore of Bally bregah * to be communicated 
ross. Besides serving in the Swedish army, to the congregation.* Bruce was ordained at 
Bruce gained distinction as a soldier at home, I Killinchy by tlie Down presbytery in October 
rising to the rank of lieutenant-general. His 1657. At the Restoration Bruce's position 
public career likewise includes the govemf)r- was very precarious, but he refused a call 




to Bothkennar, Stirlingshire, in 1660, and 
though deprived for nonconformity by Bishop 
Jeremy Taylor, he continued to preach and 
admimster the sacraments * at different places 
in the parish, in kilns, bams, or woods, and 
often in the night.' Patrick Adair [q. v.], 
though he pays a high tribute to Bruce s * in- 
tegrity and good intentions,' yet intimates 
that he and other young ministers did more 
harm than good, amxing the stic^a of law- 
lessness on the whole presbytenan party in 
Ulster. On 23 June 1664 he was outlawed, 
along with John Crookshanks of Raphoe, and 
ordered to give himself up to tlie authorities 
on 27 July. At length, in 1665 or 1666, 
Bruce returned to Scotland, not to keep 
quiet there, for in June 1666 hisiield preach- 
ings procured him a citation before the lords 
of tlie privy council in Edinburgh as * a pre- 
tended minister and a fugitive from Ireland.' 
He did not answer tlie summons, but per- 
sisted in his * seditious and factious doctrine 
and practice.' Early in June 1668 he was 
arrested, in his own hired house near Stir- 
ling, by Captain George Erskine, governor of 
Stirling Castle. lie made every effort to es- 
cape, wounding one of his captors, and being 
himself badly wounded. He was lodged in 
the castle, and the privy council on 4 June 
directed that no one should have access to 
him, * except it be physicians or chinir^eons.' 
On Irt June order was given to transfer him 
to th«i lOdinburgh Tolbooth, and on 2 July 
he was charged before the council by the 
king's advocate. Admitting and defending 
hia practice of preaching and baptising in 
houses and the fields, he was banislied out 
of liis majesty's dorainicms of Scotland, Eng- 
land, and Ireland, under tlie penalty of 
death. He signed a bond of compliance. 
From the ])rint of his sermon, preached in 
the Tolbooth on the following Sunday, it ap- | 
pears that \*irginia was to be the place of his 
exih'. Ihit an order from Whiteliall (dated ' 
9 July) directed the pri'Ny council to send 
liiin up to London 'by the first conveniency 
by st'a.' On Mi Sept. he was conveved to 
Preston])ans, and thence in the ship John 
to Jjondon. A royal warrant committed him 
to the (Jateiiouse at Westminster. It is said 
that he was to have been transported toTan- 
ffier. His wife in vain j)resented his petition 
iTor 'sustenance or rt'h'ase.' He was allowed 
to ])reacli at the Gatehouse, and among his 
audit'uce was Lady Castlemaine, one of ; 
Charles H's favourites. Through her influ- | 
ence a second i)etition (still extant) was more \ 
successful. 1 he king declined to remit the 
sentence of banishment, but allowed Bruce 
to select his place of transportation. With 
much quickness he at once asked to be sent 

to * KiUinchy in the woods.' The end was 
that his kinsman, the Earl of Elgin, pro- 
cured for him a writ quashing all past sen- 
tences, and he ^t bacK to Killinchy with his 
family in April 1670. In the summer of 
that year his people set about building him 
a meeting-house (rebuilt 1714). Though 
Roger Boyle, who had succeeded Jeremy 
Taylor as bishop of Down and Connor, insti- 
tuted jproceedings against him and others for 
preaching without license, Berkeley, the lord- 
lieutenant, and James Margetson, the pri- 
mate, intervened, and the presbyterians were 
i left unmolested. In 1679 Bruce signed an ad- 
! dress presented by the Down presb3rtery to the 
I Irish government, disclaiming any complicity 
' with the rising of the Scottish covenanters 
j put down at Bothwell Bridge. He was fre- 
i quently over in Scotland during this period ; 
'• we find him in 1672 at Carluke, and in 1685 
; in Galloway. His final retreat to Scotland 
i was in 1689, when the war broke out, and he 
was ' forced over from Ireland to Galloway 
by the Irishes.' He had several offers of a 
cfiarge, but went of his own accord to An- 
woth, Wigtonshire, a parish made famous by 
the ministry of Samuel Rutherford. The late 
incumbent, James Shaw, had been ousted by 
the people. Bruce was a member of the 
general assembly of 1690. He was called to 
Jedburgh, but decided to remain at Anwoth. 
Some curious stories are told of his predic- 
tions ; the most remarkable is, that on 27 July 
1680, the day of the battle of Killiecrankie, 
he was preaching at Anwoth, and declared 
that Claverhouse ^ shall be cut short this day. 
I see him killed and lying a corpse.' At 
Anwoth he died in 1693, and was buried in 
the church. He was in his fiftv-ninth vear, 
and the thirty-seventh of his ministrv. He 
married (contract dated 80 May 16o9) his 
cousin .Jean, daughter of Robert Bruce of 
Kinnaird, and granddaughter of the Robert 
Bruce mentioned above. In his second peti- 
tion from the Gatehouse he speaks of^ his 
'family of young and helpless children left 
behind him ' in Scotland. Three of his chil- 
dren died young, and w«Te buried at Kil- 
linchy. His eldest son was James [q. v.] 
Bruce published nothing himself, and tlm 
rough quaint sermons issued as his weni 
taken from the notes of his hearers. 1. * A 
Sermon preached by Master Michael Bniice, 
in the Tolbooth of Edinburgh, the immediate 
Sabbath after he received the sentence of 
ezile for Virginia,' 4to, n.d. (text, Ps. cxl. 
12, 13). 2. * The Rattling of the Dry Bones ; 
or, a sermon preached in the night-time at 
Chapel-yard in the parish of Carluke, Clyds- 
dale. May 1672/ 4to, n.d. (text, Ezek. xxx^-ii. 
7, 8). 3. • Six Dreadful Alarms in order to 

Bruce m Bruce 

the right improving of the Goepel ; or the | a healing sermon, on 5 Jan. 1726, before the 
substance of a sermon, &c.,' 4to, n.d. (text, ■ sub-synod. That same year he was placed 
Matt. vii. 24; printed about 1700). 4. * Soul | with the other nonsubscribers by the general 
Confirmation ; or a sermon preached in the synod of Ulster in a separate presbytery 
parish of Cambusnethen in Clyds-dail,' &c. (Antrim),and in 1726 the Antrim presbytery, 
1709, 4to (text, Acts xiv. 22). 5. *A Col- of which Bruce was clerk,' was excluded from 
lection of Lectures and Sermons, preached the general svnod, and became a distinct 
mostly in the time of the late persecution,' ecclesiastical l)ody. A subscribing congre- 

formed at Holy wood, under 
and most of Bruce*s hearers 
'^odrow says he had only 
Edin. 1880, 8vo, witt biographical notices by > ten or twelve families left, yielding a stipeni 
the Rev. James Kerr, Greenock ; contains of scarcely 4/. To improve his position, a 
three sermons by Bruce on Gen. xlii. 25, Ps. j fortnightly evening lecture was established 
cxix. 183, and Mark ix. 13). 6. A manu- ' in First JBelfast, and Bruce was appointed 
script collection by Daniel Mussenden, mer- lecturer, at 20/. a year. His reputation as 
chant of Belfast, 1704, contains a sermon on , a minister was high, but he wrote so little 
Slatt. xxviii. 1-4, 'preached in Scotland 'by ' that it is difficult to fonn a judgment of his 
' Mr. Mihail Bruce.' merits. He is believed to have had a prin- 

[Hew Scott's Fasti Eccl. Scot. ; Wodrow's ' cipal hand in the nonsubscribers' historical 
Hist. vol. ii. and Analecta ; Reid's Formal Chris- | statement, * A Narrative of the Proceedings 
tians, Belf. 1729, pref. ; Original Letters to of Seven General Synods of the Northern 
R. Bruce. Dnblm, 1828 ; J. S. Reid, in Orthod. Presbyterians in Ireland,' &c., Belfast, 1727, 
Presbyterian, February 1831 ; GniVs Eccl. Hist. 8vo (the preface is signed by Samuel Hali- 
ofScotland, 1861, ii. 247; Adair's Tnie Narrative dav, moderator, and Michael Bruce, clerk). 
(Killen). 1866, pp. 258 sq. ; Reid's Hist. Presh. He died 1 Dec. 17;3o, and was buried at Holv- 
ai.inteland(Killen),1867,ii.219 8q.;With^ wood, where Halidav preached liis funeral 
rows Hist, and Lit Mem of Presbyt^nanism m ^^^^^ /pg ^^^- 37. ^^ 7 jy^^ j^ ^^jg 

Sup.; j'oirerBnoven J>rucef<, in i^. vYDig, o April , :' ... . - - - . 

1885; information from a descendant.] A. G. together m religious communion, recom- 
mended in a sermon, &c., Belfast, 1 7l^5, 8vo, 

, , pj). zy.) sq. , . 

subscribing the Westminster Confession, and Bruces, in X. Whi^, 16 April 1885.] A. G. 
promising not to ' follow anv divisive courses 
all the days of my life.' He was ordained BRUCE, MICHAEL ( 174(>-17()7), poet, 
minister of Holywood, co. Down, on 10 Oct. the fifth of eight children of Alexander 
1711, and acquired the reputation of a quiet, i Bruce, weaver, was born at Kinnesswood, a 
solid preacher. He wiw a member of the hamlet in the parish of Portmoak, on the 
ministerial club, founded in 1705, and subse- eastern shore of Ijochleven, Kinross-sliire, on 
qnently known as the Belfast Society. This 27 March 1746. His father was an elder of 
body, of which the mainspring was John the seceding church which adhered to Tho- 

the nonsubscription controversy broke out, all men.' Bruce, who was a quick and deli- 

his father, James Bruce, became a subscriber, cate boy, was early taught to read and write, 

Bruce, who broke with Calvinistic orthodoxy, and was made useful as a ' wee herd loon ' in 

became a decided nonsubscriber, and in 1723 tending sheep. At the village school his 

waa one of the four ministers accused by great companion was William Amot, to 

Colonel Upton at the Belfast sub-synod as whose memory he wrote * Daphnis ' in May 

* holding principles which opened a door to 1765. At the age of eleven he had resolved 

let all heresy and error into the church.' 
In 1724 he protested against the exclusion 
of Thomas Nevin of Downpatrick for all^d 
heresy. He preached what was intended as 

to be a minister. When he was about six- 
teen his father received a beouest of 200 
merks Scots (11/. 2*. 2d.)y which he devoted 
to his son's education. Bruce was enrolled 

Bruce i" Bruce 

^/n£n:r.;r }.'.i&f^\i Vj tL« aru eoor^ *for in Lis frKnd** p>E^& &»£ {.-c Hkj^ poipMe got 
17^^ \.^^r^,x fffrtronr 4>>b;? with n^oral fosde»:on of 3»§t c^ Braee'^ iBftBBicnpU, 
f^i;^>%<ypKT>. And t^kin^r pi«sft>ar»; in l^Ilei consist inr of p>=ae« aiai I^ecters. uid em- 


Ifi^^fT* "how, 4n »4in:r%b]ft yr^te^ njle. and U^ illneas. he had C7ac£cribed Lis poeotf. 

TototlK IJuimrv So- Xot till 1770 did L»yi 

/!/yT*tr;l>»i*^ V/m^ pr.*«^!ii> to thfc IJt«»rT So- N<>t till 1770 did L«:<£a3 iime- tike small 

ir.*i*.r, I>Av;n;^ th^r ariir«r-ity in 1705, he rolTime of * P>:>5si§ -sa srirerml Oecasons^ by 

y^rnxTtih *^}.f^»\nkiiMUiT uf OaiiTi«T Bnd;fe, in Michael Bniee/Eiiix:barzL.lihno, prefixing a 

th^ pkr>h '>f C1<;s.-h, Kinr»>**-**hir»r, on the very well-nrirt'S-n b£>papLicaI p:«^ace. It 

ir»At>fm »Me of L/yrhleT*^. lie had twenty- contain* bat seyentcen p:«oe$w including some 

^ij^ht popiky at the rate of 'Iji. a ooarter, and by different authr*?^: * the •?n}y other author 

fr*:^. \iffiLTt\ with their parents in rotation, erer specified by I»san wa? Sir John Foulis, 

fie wrot/; a yf^-XvKtX appeal to the managers hart., to whom the Vernal CKie is ascribed br 

for a new tftble, and c^/nt'-mplated tlie pab- Dr. Anderson *«GKO&iST>. P^^rscn maintains 

licati^/n of a volume of p^jenu;. W nile that the whole contents of the Tolome were 

^/ar'ling in the hoav; of one Grieve of known to him as Bruoe's except this ode. the 

<!\H^Aft(i)iiti he fell in Jove with his pupil, 'Ode to the Fountain.* M.Hie to FaolL'* Chorus 

hix h*r»i\ daughter Magdalene. He cele- of Elysian Bards/ and * Dam^h Odes.' More- 

hnU-n ht'T in hin * Alexia* (under the name over, to Bruce's companions the volume ap- 

of Kumelia) and in two r^m^. She married peared strangely defective. His father at 

f)avid J/*w. Still eager lor the ministry, once said. * A\Tiere are my son's Gospel son- 

VtTut'M found tJjAt the anti-burjrher sjTirid nets?' He went to Eldinbur^h for the mano- 

would not receive him an a sturient, owing scripts, and got some of the papers, but 

to hi» <umn*H:iion with Mair. Accordingly never recovered the aforesaid quarto. The 

he Ay]A\fA to t)i«; burgher Kvnod, and was chagrin hastened the old man's death. In 

¥'n rolled in fh'* cla«»*r8 of John Swanston, the* Weekly Magazine, or Edinburgh Amuse- 

miniMler At KinroMw. In 17W he looked out ment ' of 5 >ray 1774 the 'Ode to the 

for a II'' w 'ichtffAf and found one at Forrest Cuckoo/ from the 1770 book, appears as a 

.Mill, fi'-ar TiilicoultrA', r/lackraannan.ihire. contribution signed * H. P.: * in the next num- 

To ibi- p'-ri'^'J F><:long-* bin ri/>rreflp<')ndence l^er the piracy is exposed, and the real 

witli h'lH ffitb'rr'n apprentice?, I)avid PearH/>n, initials of the thief are said to be * B. M.' 

who bad '•♦•ttbid at Ka-iter Halgt^lie, near A charming paper in the ' Mirror* (Xo. J^, 

Kinn^'^.-wrKKl. H<; full ill, b<'ing in fact Saturday, 29 3lay 177^, sign^-d * P.,' and as- 

H';iz<'d witb coMHurnption, but was for tlif crib*?d to William Craig, one of the lords of 

time n?Hton-d tliroiigli thr' skill of John Mil- session) drew public attention to Bruce's 

lar, M.I)., to wliorn be addrcHH^^d some grate- genius, as exhibited in the 1770 volume, 

fill liu'^H, <'nclo.-<'d tr> l*rar«*on on 20 Nov. Two years later Logan published * Poems, by 

I7*J^>. On 7 l>ec. b<' nwntionH liiH * Loch- the Ke v. Mr. Logan, one of the ministers of 

b'V*'n ' aH Iwring *now finisbed.' David Arnot Leith/ 1781, 8vo. The first piece in this 

Cwifb wbom Hruce bad kept up a literary volume is the *Ode to the Cuckoo/ with a 

rorn*h]iond<"nce, oftf-n in Latin) is portrayed few verbal changes from the 1770 issue; at 

in it an y\gricola; LieliuH is ihougbt to be the end are nine hymns, the first and fifth 

(jj'orgr* llenderHon, a college friend, who died Ijeing revisions of nymns already in print, 

in 170'}. At b'ngfli ill-heal til forced liim to All these hymns and adaptations are claimed 

nvsign bin srliool in tbe course of the winter, for Hruce by his brother James, who says he 

and 1m* niarb; bin way home on foot. In the had heard them rej)eated. Tlie Scottish 

Hpring be pr'uni'd bis tr»ucbing'Kleg}'' onbis kirk adopted them into its * Paraphrases * in 

own approacliing (lentil. On 5 July (0 July, 1781, and from this source they have been 

A NDKHHON) 1 707 be was found dead in bis bed. introduced into innumerable hymn-books. 

His fatlM'r(of whom tbrn'iHaniemoir by Pear- With regard to the *Ode to the Cuckoo/ on 

son in tbi» Kdinbiirgli ' Missionary Cbronicle/ which the controversy mainly turns, there 

171)7) followed bim on 19 July 1772. is an accumulation of evidence. Bruce 

During Hruc«''H lif«» bis ballad of * Sir ; \\Tites that he had composed a *poom about 

Jnincs tin' Uosh' wasprinted in a nowspaj)er. a gowk.' A copy of the ode in Bruce's 

His ' Locbleven,' bis * Pastoral Song,' and i handwriting is said to have been seen by 

liis song * Locbleven no more' (in both of j Dr. Davidson of Elinross, and by Principal 

wbirli Pegg}' is .Magdalene Grieve) appeared Baird of Edinburgh. Pearson affirms that 

in the ' iMlinburgh Magazine/ At tlie tinnj , Alexander Bruce read the poem aloud from 

his arin'K qiiortn honk, a fnw day!> after 
MichAel'a death. If wb£ never seen in Lo- 
gkn's hnndwriting before 1787, the year in 
which be oblAincd liriicc's manuscripta. 
Aft*r puhliBhing his own volume, Lo^an ia 
" 1781-S Iripd to present by law a, reprint of 
ihe 1770 book ; Init it was reprinted at Edin- 
' hMTgh for a Stirling booksyller in 1782. It 
j!««8 reprinted in llSi, 1796, and 1807. 
Il A^inst LojeHH it is urged that his 
'' moiiKly publiahcd sermons tl790-l> show 
[ plog^ariinie ; aitd that iie clnimed as his own 
, (nsmi; them as (candidate for a rhair at Edin- 
|i burgh) a course of lectures afterwards pub- 
■ JiaUed in his lifetime by I)r. W. Rutherford. 
li The vindication of Dnice's anthorebip of tiie 

I oonteated pnnms and hymns was ably under- 
t»ken by William MackelTie, D.D., nf Bal- 

''c«lie, in hia 'I.iochleven and other IWnia, 

II Sy Michael Itruce ; with Life of the Author 
Erom original sources,' Edinburgh, 183", 8to, 
and has be«j» fur! her pursued by the Rev. Dr. 
Oromrt, in his edition of Brace's ' Works,' ■ 
1806, »vo, with memoir and notea. On Iha ' 
Other hand, the claim of Logan is advocated ! 
la David Lung's 'Ode to ttie Cuckoo, with | 

tnrmarka on its authorship, kc.,' 1873 (pri- ' 
Vktelv printed). A strong point is that the 
Rev. Dr. Thomas Robertson, minister of DbI- 
raeny, vrrilea to Baird on i>2 Fob, 1791, say- ' 

ling lliAt he and Logan had looked over the ' 
maniLscripts of Bruce together j and the, 

«tkckoo ode is not amonp thoM he identifies 

wa Brace's. In the article * Michael Bruce ' ; 
in the ' Encvclopffidia Britannica' (ninth' 

Mttionj 187ft,' iv. 393) stress is laid on (he 
kdmission of Lojtan's authorship of the ' Ode 
to the Cuckoii ' by Isaac D'Ismeli, Thomas 
Cunpbell, Robert Chambers, and llavid 

1796) and Joseph Biirel (31 Aug. 1795), 
ciumin^ the ode for liruce, on' given by 
Andeison in his life of Logan (1795). Later 
defenc«i< of Iioean's claim will be found in 
|lit> " Brit, and For. Evangelical Review,' 
1877 and I «7>t, articles by.lohn Small, M.A. 
(TieTirintMl separately) and Rev. R. Kmal). 
It IS not easy lo relieve Logan of the charge 

... . "the 


I fLir*. by Rol*rt Anderson, M.D„ in his 
Britisfa Poets, rol. ix. 1785, pp. 273 sq.. 1029 sq,. 
1331 iq. ; Hilltrr's Our njinns. their Authors 

II emcT Words. XoTemti 

BRUCE, PETER HE.N'RY (l«93-1757i 
miSiliiry adventurer, was bom at DetrinI 
Caalle in Westphiilia, his mother's liume, S 
1093. lie was descended from the Bruoesd 
Airth, Stirlingshire. Uis grandfather, JtA 
Bruce, took refuge from the CromweUi«_. 
tronblesin theserviceoftlieElectorof Bru^ 
denburg, and his father was bom in Prussia, 
and obtained a commission in a Scotch regi- 
ment in the same service. The Cither accom- 
panied his regiment on it« retuni to Scotland 
m 1 698, and took his wile and child with him. 
The boy wa» now sent lo school at Oupai in 
Fife for three years, after which he remained 
three years more with his father at Fort Wil- 
liam. In 1704hisfathertoobhimtoQ«rmBD]', 
and lelt him with his mother's family, by 
whom he was sent lo a military academy to 
learn fortification. Soon after hia uncle Re- 
beur, who was colonel of a regiment serving 
in Flanders, took charge of liim, and entered 
him in the Prussian service (1708). He gat 
his commission in his sixteenth year (17(fe), 
in consequence of distinguished conduct al 
the siege of Lille, and he appears to have 
been present at a considerable number of the 
battles and sieges in which Prince Eugene's 
troops took part. In 1711 he quittS the 
PruBsinn service, and entered that of Peter the 
Ore&t of Russia, on the invitation of a distant 
cousin of his own name, who held high rank 
in the Russian army at that time. lie was sent 
with despntcheB to Constantinople in 17 
and his ' Memoirs' give an interesting accoi 
of that city as he saw it. His ' Memoirs ' n 
contain many interesting anecdotes of Pe 
the Great and his court during the je 
1711-24, for the grealerport of which pent 
Bruce appears to have lived at St, Peter 
burg when not following the cxar o 
expeditions. In 1722 he accompanied t 
Persian ejcpedilion led by the czar. Th. 
sailed down the Volga from Nischnei-Novge 
rod to Astrachan, and then coasted nlongthi 
western shore of thoCa«pian as far'asDerbeut 
passing through the countries of severs 
Tartar tribes, of whose mauners and habits 
he eivBS a very good account. 

After this ex^«dition he at last succeeded 
in obtoining leave of absence for a year, a 
quitted Russia in 1734, deti'rmined never 
see it again. He now returned to Cu] 
after an absence of twenty years, and settiitu 
down on a small estate left him by his ui 
uncle, he married, and turned fanner 101 
teen year», during which time he had seren^ 
cliildren. In 1740, desiring to increase h 
incnroe, he again took military service, a 
was sent by the British government to tlie 

Bahamas to carry out some fortifications 

A. 0. I there. Five year* later he again returned 

Bruce 1 14 Bruce 

BRUCE, ROBERT db II (1078P-1141), 
was son of Robert I, and companion of David I 
of Scotland at the court of Henry I. He re- 

to England, and was immediately employed 
in the north, fortifying Berwick and otlier 
towns a^inst the Pretender. Here his * Me- 
moirs ' a oruptly break off; but we learn from ' ceived from David I a gnnt of Annandale, 
the * advertisement' prefixed to the edition then caUed Strath Annent, by a charter c. 
of 1782, that he retired the same year (1746) 1124 (A. P. Scot i. 92, from the original in 
to his house in tlie country, where he died i Brit. Mua. Cart^ Antiqu€By xviii. 46). It 
in 1767. His * Memoirs,' his only literary ! was bounded by the lands of Dunegal, of 
work, were originally written, as he tells us, ' StrathnitJi (Nithsdale), and those of Kanulf 
in German, his native language, and were I de Meschines, earl of Chester, in Cumberland, 
translated by him into English in 1766. and embraced the largest part of the county 
They were printed at London in 1782 for his of Dumfries. Like David, a benefactor of the 
widow, ana are favourably noticed in the ; church, Robert de Bruce founded a monasteiy 
' Monthly Review* for that year. They are of canons regular at Guisbum in Cleveland, 
pleasant^ written, and show very close and with the consent of his wife Agnes and Adam 
intelligent observation. i his eldest son. The church of Middleburgh, 

[Bruce'8 Memoirs; Monthly Review. 1782.] ' with certain lands attached to it, was given 
*• G. V. B. "7 *^*™ ^ ^^® monks of Whitby as a cell of 

' Guisbum, and his manors of Appleton and 
BRUCE, ROBERT db I (d. 1094 ?), was Hornby to the monks of St. Mary at York, 
an ancestor ofthe king ofScotland who made ; Along with Bernard de Baliol of Barnard 
the name of Bruce or Brus famous. The family . Castle he tried to make terms between David 
is a singular example ofdirect male descent in and the English barons before the battle of 
the Norman baronage, and it is necessary to ' the Standard in 1138 ; but failing in this at- 
distinguishwith care the different individuals tempt he renounced his Scotch fief of An- 
who bore the same surname, and duriiur eight nandale, and, notwithstanding his affection 
generations the christian name of Robert, for David, fought with zeal on the side of 
The surname has been traced by some genea- j Stephen. He died in 1141, and left by Agnes, 
logists beyond Normandy to a Norse follower | daughter of Fulk Pagnel of Carlton, two sons, 
of its conqueror Rollo, a descendant of whose , The elder, Adam, succeeded to Skelton and 
brother, Einar, earl of Orkney, called Bnisi his other English lands, which continued in 
(which means in old Norse a goat), is said the family till 1271, when, on the death of 
to hiive accompanied Uolloand built a castle Peter Bruce, constable of Scarborough, with- 
in the diocese of Coiitancei*. A later Brusi, , out issue, they were parted between his four 
son of Sigurd the Stout, was Earl of Orkney, sisters. His second son, Robert de Bruce III, 
and died 10.*5I. But the genealogy cannot saved the Scotch fief of Annandale either by 
be accej)tt'(l. The name is certainly terri- pining David I, if a tradition that he was 
torial, and is most probably derived from taken prisoner by his father at the battle 
the lands and castle of Brin or Bruis, of of the Standard can be relied on, or by ob- 
which a few remains in the »\n\\>Q of vaults taining its subsequent restoration from David 
and foundations can still be traced between or Malcolm IV. 

Cherbourg and Vulloiiges. More than one [Aelred do Rievaux's Dcscriptio de belle apud 
de Bruce came with the Conq^iieror to Eng- standardum juxta All)€rtonam; Dugdale's Mo- 
land, and the contingent ot Mi sires de | nasticon, i. 388-412, and ii. 147.] iE. M. 
Br6aux ' is stated at two hundred men (Le- i 
LAND, Collectanea, i. 202). Their services I BRUCE, ROBERT dk III (Jl, 113&- 

were rewarded bv fortv-three manors in the 
East and West, and fifty-one in the North 
Riding of Yorkshire — upwards of 40,000 

1 189 ?), second son of Robert II, and so called 
IjC Meschin or the Cadet, was the founder of 
the Scottish branch. He held the Annandale 

acres of land, which fell to the lot of Robert fief, with Lochmaben as its chief messuage, for 
de Bruce 1, the head of the family. Of the the service of a hundred knights during the 
Yorkshire manors the cliief was Skelton in | reigns of David I, Malcolm IV, and AVilliam 

Cleveland, not far from Whitby, the seat of 
the elder English branch of the Bruces after 
the younger migrated to Scotland and be- 
came lords of Annandale. 

[Orkiicyingji Saga; Ord's History of Cleve- 
land, p. 198; Domesday, Yorkshire, 332 6, 333, 
and Kelham's lUustnitions, p. 121 ; Dugdales 
Baronage, i. 447. liegistrum Honoris de Rich- 
mond, p. 98, gives the seal of Robert.] M. M. 

the Lion, who confirmed it by a charter in 
1 1 66. 1 le paid cscuage for t he manor of Hert 
in the bishopric of Durham in 1 170, which he 
is said to have received from his father to 
supply him with wheat, which did not grow 
in Annandale. The date of his death is un- 
certain, but he must have survived the year 
1189, when he settled a long-pending dis- 
pute with the see of Glasgow by an agree- 

Bruce "S Bruce 

ment with Bishop Jocelyn, under which he land, hershareofthe earldom of Huntingdon. 

mortified the churches of Moffat and Kirk- 
patric, and granted the patronage of Drives- 
dale, Hoddfun, and Castlemilk^ in return ap- 
parently for a cession hy the hishop of his 
claim to certain lands in Annandale. 

[Charter of William the lion in Aylofie*8 
Charters ; Madox*s History of Exchequer ; He- 

He married, the year before his father died, 
Isabel, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, earl of 
Gloucester. His active career was dist ributed 
between the two kingdoms, in each of which 
he was a powerful subject. 

In 1238 Alexander II, on the eve of an 
expedition to the Western Isles, despairing 

gistrom Glasguense, pp. 64-5 ; Calendar of of issue, recognised the claim of Bruce to the 
Documents relating to Scotland, i. No. 197.1 I succession ; but the birth of Alexander III 

^' M. I in 1241 frustrated his hopes. In 1250 he 

BRUCE, ROBERT db IV (d. before act^d as one of the justices of Henry HI but 
nn^iN^^^ iia v -T ttt ^ y^^^^^ dunncf the next soven vears he appears to ha ve 
1191), son of Robert m, was married m transferred his field of action to Scotknd. 
1183 to Isabel daughter of William the ^^ ^j^^ death of Alexander H in 1255 he was 
Lion, by a daughter of Robert Avenel, when ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ts named in the con- 
he was given the manor of Ilaltwhistle m ^^^^j^^ ^^ Roxburgh to act during the mi- 
TjndBle as her dowry. He must have sur- ^^^-^ ^^ ^he young king, and he formed the 
vived his father, if at all only a short- time, ^ead of the party ftivourable to the English 
as his widow married Robert aellos ml 191, , ^^^^^^ cement^ by the king's marriage to 
and the date of his fathers death being un- | Margaret, daughter of llenrv III. That king 
certain It may be doubted whether he sue- *inted him sheriff of Cumberland and 
o^ed to Annandale. lie was succeeded by ^J^^emor of Carlisle. Between 1257 and 1271 
WiUiam de Bruce, his brother, in that fief f^^ •„ frequentlv served on the EngUsh 
who was the only exception to the Ime of ^. % ^ench, and in 1268 he was appointed 
^^1'- 1? r {f"" ""^^ f yr*!!?^*^^ ^^T5 capitalis justiciarius, being the first chief 

^l^^l^^n'i? '^^'^u'^'^'lo!^^^^ justice of England, with a salarv of 100 

whistle till his death in 1215. ^^^^^^ j^ ^^^^^ ^^ accompanied \he king 

[Dogdalc's Baronage, i. 449 ; Graham's Loch- ^nd queen of Scotland to London. In the 

maben, pp. 16 and 17.] JE. M. ^ Barons' war he fought for Henry, and was 

BRUCE, ROBERT db V (d. 1245), son ^^^^n nrisoner at Lewes in 1264, but was 

of William de Bruce, married Isabel, second ^^1*^*^?^.,^^^!.^*;^'? Ji^*^^^^^ 
daughter of David, earl of Huntingdon, 
younger brother of William the Lion, and thus 
lounoed the claim of his descendants to the 
crown. In 1215-16 he obtained 
John a confirmation of a grant 

and fair at Hartlepool. lie was a witness , . ^^^ , . , . , i • , /. i. 

at York in 1221 of Alexander H's charter I \r^^^ ^y 7^"^^ }}^^ P^}'^ ^^ succession of 
of jointure to his wife Joanna, sister of Margaret, tlie Maid ot ^or^;ay, was roco^r. 
Henry HI. During this reign his own great ^'^''^ ? ^"^ on the death ot Alexander III m 
estate and royal connection by marriage made J^^^ apowerful party of nobles inet at Tum- 
the lord of Annandale one of the chief barons ^'"^y ^^^^' belonging to his son Robert , earl 
of southern Scotland. Like his ancestors he «f Carrick, in right ot his wife, and nledged 
was liberal to the church, confirming and in- I themselves to support each other and ymdi- 
creasing their grants. He died in 1245, and ' f?*^ t^« claims of whoever should gam the 
was buried at the abbey of Saltrey in Hun- kingdom by right of blood, according to the 
tini?donshire. ancient customs of Scotland. 1 hey assumed 

f^ , ' , • «.« -r. 1 , , ^ as allies Richard de Burgh, earl of Ulster, 

[RymerflF(Bdera,i.252; Dugdale s Rironage, ^^^ Thomas de Clare, to whom authoritv 
,. 449 ; Monasti«)n, u 161. Several charters by ^as given to proceed with arms against anV 

J^i^r^n^nZTf th ' "'^^' ?{YrT" one who broke the conditions of the boncJ, 
Charters, and notes of them are printed, Calen- ^.,. c« ^ i io£» / 7-k ^ •»; ,« ^- x ^i, 

dars of Documents relating to Scotland, i. Nos. . -'^.^/Pt. 1;'^ (Docuvientyllu^traU^^^ 
1680-6.1 ^ M History of ocoUnna^ edited by llev. J. bte- 

venson, i. 22). The nobles who joined in this 
BRUCE, ROBERT db VI (1210-1295), ' league were Patrick, earl of Dunbar, his three 
sometimes called the Competitor, from his sons, and his son-in-law James the Steward 
claim to the crown against John Baliol [q. v.], of Scotland, and his brother John, Walter 
succeeded to the lordship of Annandale on Stewart earl of Menteith, Angus, son of 
bis father's death in 1245, and on that of his Donald lord of the Isles, his son Alexander, 
mother in I25I to ten knights' fees in £ng- and the two Bruces, the lord of Annandale, 

I 2 

turned fhe tide in favour of the king, when 
he resumed his office as sheriff of Uumber- 

^^ _^ land. On the accession of Edward I he was 

LhTLecTlVom Kinff ^^^ reappointed to the bench, and appears 
ant of a market ^^^^^ ^^ I^Olxq returned to Scotland. lie was 
' wfm A witnp^a present at the convention of Scone, 5 Feb. 

Bruce "6 Bruce 

andhi8 8on,theEarlofCarrick. They united j^i^rt de Bruce VI, is said to liave accom- 
the chief influence of the south and west of ^^ Edward, afterwards Edward I, in the 
Scotknd against the party of John de Babol, crusade of 1269. On his return he married 
lord of Galloway, and the Com>Tis. A period Mariory, countess of Carrick, and became by 
of civil war ensued, during which Robert de ^he courtesy of Scotland Earl of Carrick. 
Bruce, lord of Annandale, asserted his title ^^ romantic storv handed down by the 
to the crown. Lnable to secure his aim, Scottish historians, that Bruce was carried off 
Bruce took part m the negotiations at ^lis- |, ^^^ h^j^^ ^j^^^ hunting near her castle 
bury, which resulted m the treaty of Bng- ^f Tumberrv, is probably an invention to ex- 
ham in 1290, with the view of uniting Scot- ^use his mamage with a roval ward without 
land to England subject to guarantees for ^^e king's consent. In 127*8 he did homage 
Its independence by the marriap of Margaret ^^ Edward on behalf of Alexander mfor 
to Pnnce Edward. The death of Margaret i^jg English fiefs. In 1281 he borrowed 40/. 
reopened the question of the succession, and f^^ ^is old comrade Edward I, a debt which 
one of the regents, William Eraser, bishop of played a part in the fortunes of his son. He 
St. Andrews, made the appeal to Edward I ^^ ^t at Scone in 1284, when the 
as arbiter, which led to the famous com- ^^^^ ^f succession of the Maid of Norway 

Sitition at >orham m 1291--2, decided in ^^ recognised, but took part with his father 

vour of John de Baliol on 17 >ov. 1292. ^^^^ ^^le other nobles in the league of Turn- 

According to Sir F. Palgrave, Bruce had also y^ ^n 20 Sept. 1286, intended to defeat it. 

some years before appealed to Edward, but j^^^ i^^ f^^^ however, he joined in the 

the documents adduced to prove this are treatvofBrigham( 14 March 1290), rendered 

without date, and the ascription of at least abortive by Margaret's death. The agree- 

one of them to Bruce is conjectural The ^j^nt between Roreuce, count of Holland, 

course of litigation at ^o^ham, where Bruce, ^^d his father on 14 June 1292, to which the 

as well as Baliol, recognised Edwards title eari was a party, shows that Bruce anticipated 
as lord paramount to decide the cause J ^j^^rse decision. About this time he went 

and the grounds upon which the claim of | ^^ Norway with his eldest daughter Isabel, 

Bruce was rejected have been stated m the ^^sMy on account of her marriage to King 

life of Baliol L5;^\I_A protest ^^^Bnice feirik,thewido>ver of Margaret, the daughter 

ce on 

, .. . ur I * Ti J - . parliament, to which 

ment tr)r mutual defence be^t ween Bruce and \ ^^ ^^g summoned. It mav have been with 
Florence, count of Holland, another of the I ^i^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ive that after the death of his 
comi)etitor8, entered into on 14 .Time 1292 ' ^.-^^^-^^ 1.290 Ue resigned the earldom of Car- 
{Dorinnents lUuMratiie of the History of ^ ^j^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ afterwards king {A. P. Scot 
Scotland, edited by Kev. J. Stevenson i. 318), I i. 449 „ ^). On the death of his father he 
show that Bruce was not disposed to ac- | ^j^ ,,0^,^ ^^ Edward for his English fiefs 
quiesce in the adverse decision. His great | ^^ 4 June 1295. On 6 Obt. following he 
age prevented him from any active measures | ^^g ^..^^ ^^^ custodv of the castle of Car- 
to overturn it, and he resigned his rights Ugi^ during the kin^s pleasure, and three 
and claims m tayour of his son, the Earl of ^^^^ ^^^^ he took before the bishop of Dur- 
Carrick. He retired to his castle of Loch- j,^'^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^f t^^ exchequer an oath to 
mabj'n, wliere he died 011 Good I riday, 1294- ^^^^^ j^ faithfully and render it to no one but 
129o, at the age of eiglity-iive, and was m- - - — ^ _ -. - 

iz^M ai me age 01 eigmy-nve ana was m- ^^^^ ^' ^yiien Baliol attempted to assert 

terred at Guisbum in Cleveland, the family ; ^is independence, as was natiikl, his rivals 
burial-place where his stately tomb may still ^^.e Braces sided with Edward, and in 1296, 

^_ - , , ,^ , 1 /. i-, . , he was to be made king of Scotland. The 

He had three sons : Kobert, earl of Carrick, ^^swer, in Norman-French, of F^ward, as 

Barnard, and John. ^i^,^,^ 1^^ Wvntoun (B. viii. 1927) and For- 

[Dugdale's Baronage, i. 450 ; Rymer s Foedora, 1 dun, though it has been doubted, suits his 

i. 698 ; Documents illustrating the History of . character : 

Scotland, ed. Sir F. Palgravo ; Ord's History of 
Cleveland ; Foss's Judges of England, ii. 269.] 

BRUCE, ROBERT de VH, Earl of Car- 
BICK (1263^1304), son of the Comi)etitor, 

Ne avons rcn autres chos a fere 

Que a voas reamgs (i.e. reaulmes) ganere 

Hawo 1 nought ellys to do nowe 
But wyn a kynryk to gyve yhowe ? 

Bruce 117 Bruce 

Baliol, in revenge for liruce^s aid to Ed- nus de Aniiandnle, while his son, the future 
ward, seized Annandale, and gave it, with king, wus styled Karl of Carrick until his 
the castle of Lochmaben, to John Coniyn; coronation in VM6, On 4 June 1295 Kd- 
bnt his possession was brief, for Clifford, the ward I nnjonls by a writ under his privy seal 
English warden, retook it in the same year. tJiat llobt^rt, son and heir of Kobert de 
The elder Bruce retired from Scotland and . Bruce, senior, now deceased, Iiad done homage 
lived on his English estates till his deatli in | for lands held of the king, and tliis Kobert, 
1304, when he was buried at Ilolmecultram ! earl of Carrick, is by another writ nomi- 
in Cumberland. Besides his eldest son nating him keeper of the C4iHtle of Carlisle 
Robert the king, he left Edwanl, lord of , cidled Lord of Annandale on 6 Oct. 1:^5, 
Galloway [see Bruce, Edwakd], killed at I having resigned the earldom three years 
Dundalk in 1318 ; Thomas and Alexander, Ijefore. The deed of resignation, dated at 
taken in Galloway, and executed at Carlisle Berwick on Sunday after the feast of S(. 
by Edward's order in 1307; and Nigel, who 1-ieonard (6 Nov.) l:*i)2, was presented to 
suffered the same fate at Berwick in 1306. Baliol at the parliament of Stirling on 3 Aug. 
His daughters, Isabel, Marv, Christian, Ma- 1:^93. As it was necessary that sasinw of 
tildojttnd Margaret, all married Scotch nobles the lands should be taken by the kin^ be- 
or landed men in the life of their brother, fore he could receive the lioraage ol the 
wliose hands were strengthened by these new vassal, the sheriff of Ayr was directed 
alliances in his contest for the crown. A ' to take it and ascertain their extent, after 
sixth daughter Elizabeth, and a seventh which Bruce was to return and do homage, 
whose name is nnknriwn, are of doubtful i It is uncertain whether homage was ever 
authenticity. rendered, for the disputes between Baliol 

m • T. 1 •• .»/.o .-. if.p> ««.. «,« and Kd ward had commenced, and from the 

«.P*^!^""n°^*"'V-1f*'/',--**r'n?^ *''*}'«'='« l«>th H'e vounfr Bruce nnd his father 
Stevenson s Doinimeiits iliustnitive ot History of . it,,, j. '-i #-\ oi \ i.ww i 

Scotland. S.K, Index nndor RolnTt Bnico, E,trl ^''P^ ^t*""'?,"^ ' '''h, ^^^ '}T ^-"^^^/^l^"? 
of Carrick. but the referencc« after 1295 are to | Y^^^ the Karls of March and Angus, l^obert 
his son RolHirt, after^-ards king ; Acts Pari. Soet. <^'^ ^»'"s le veil (the elder) and Kobert de 
i. 424 <7, 441 fl. 447 A, 448//. There are many . l^^us * le jovene' (the vounger), earl of 
errors in the oHrly Scottish writers as totliel^riico ' Carrick, took the oaths of lummge and fealty 
genealogy, and the repetition of the same name : to Edward at ]:5enyick (Jiaf/man Roth, 176 a), 
led to frequent confujsion of different persons; bnl A series of writs in favour of theearUshows 

spited on z»> July 129o, and again 
i 11 Feb. and lo Oct. \ms. Bv the second 
BRUCE, ROBERT deVIIT (1274-1329), letter of respite it appears that* the earl was 
king ofScotland, son oflvobertde Bruce VII, I about to proceed to Scotland, and by the 
earl of Carrick, and Marjorv, daughter and third that he had rendered such jjood service 
heiress of Nigel, second earl of Carrick, by that the king granted him the delay needed 
Marjory, daughter of Walter the Steward of i to admit of easy ])ayment. His father had 
Scotland, bom on llJuly 1274, was descended meantime been made keeper of the castle of 
on the father's side from a Norman baron Carlisle, and Baliol had retaliated by seiz- 
who came with William the C(mqiieror to I ing Annandale. which he conferred on John 
England; and on his mother's from the Cel- Comyn, earl of Buelian. In the same year 
tic chiefs of Galloway, as the names of her i Baliol'srenunciationofallegiancetothe Kng- 

flrst husband, Adam deKilconquhar, in 1271, the abject lialiol surrendered at Kincardine 
his mother married Robt»rt de Bruce ( \'II), i or Brechin his crown and realm to K<lward. 
son of the Competitor Robert de Bruce (VI), In the following year the Karl of Carrick, 
who assumed, according to Scottish custom, I with other Scottish nobles, received a sum- 
the title of Earl of Carrick. On the decision inons to accompany ?^dward to Flanders as 
of the disputed succession in 1292 in favour I his direct vassals. The Scotch, like many 
of Baliol, and the death of his wife in the i English barons, declined to ob«»y a summons 
same year, the earl resigned that title to his in excess of feudal obligation, and Wallace, 
son, and three years later acquiring, through I during Edward's aKsence abroad, having 
the death of his father, the lordship of An- ! niised the standard ofrevolt, Bruce, although, 
nandaloi he was afterwards known as Domi- i according to Ilemingford, he had sworn alle- 

Bruce "8 Bruce 

glance to Edward at Carlisle on the host and 
the sword of Thomas k l^ecket, joined for a 
brief space the army of the popular leader. 
Urgent letters had been sent to him to aid 
the Earl of Warenne, Edward's commander, 
then advancing towards Scotland, with as 
many men as he could muster, and at least a 

king's coming fled from his face and burnt 
the castle of Ayr, which he held.' Edward's 
campaign was a sin^^le victory, not a con- 
quest. Pressing affairs, especially the con- 
test with his own subjects, whose desire 
for the confirmation of the charters he was 
reluctant to concede, recalled him to Eng- 

thoiisand foot from Kyle, Cunningham, Cum- I land, and he was obliged to trust the settle- 
nock, and Carrick. Instead of complying, in I ment of Scotland to the nobles, to whom 
June 1297, along with Wishart, bishop of he assigned earldoms and baronies, or, as the 
Glasgow, James the Steward of Scotland, chronicler expresses it, the hope of them. An- 
and Sir William Douglas, he laid waste the nandale and Ualloway and certain earldoms, 
country of the adherents of Edward. Wa^ a term which includes Carrick, he assigned 
renne, an inactive general, sent in advance to no one, that he might not irritate those 
Henry de Percy and Robert, de Clifford, who | earls who had only recently seceded and had 
succeeded on 9 July 1297 in making terms not finally cast in their lot with their country- 
with Bruce and his friends by the treaty men. As regards Bruce this conciliatory 
called the capitulation of Irvine. The Scot- policy, so characteristic of Edward until the 
tish barons were not to be called to serve time for conciliation was past, had ita effect, 
beyond the sea against their will, and were | and from 1298 to 1304 he was at least not 
to be pardoned for their recent violence, while actively engaged against the English king, 
they in turn came into the peace, or, in other i A truce was effected by the mediation of 
words, acknowledged their allegiance to Ed- Philip IV of France in 1298. Baliol being 
ward. The Bishop of Glasgow, the Steward, now the pensioned prisoner of Edward, tmd 
and Alexander de Lindesay became sureties Wallace an exile, a re^ncy was appointed, 
for Bruce until he should deliver his daughter which consisted of William of Lamberton, 
Marjory as hostage for his fidelity, which ' bishop of St. Andrews, John Comyn the 
mignt well be doubted. The treaty appears younger, and Robert Bruce earl of Carrick, 
to have been confirmed by Bruce at Berwick \ with whom for a time John de Soulis was 
early in August. Wallace was at this time conjoined. The only document which names 
in the forest of Selkirk, nlonp with Sir An- Bruce is a letter of 13 Nov. 1299, by which 
drew Murray of Bothwell, giithering together the regents propose to Edward a suspension 
the Scott ish commons, who, with less division of hostilities on both sides. Comyn was the 
of interest than the nobles, were determined , active regent representing the interest of 
to deliver their country from the English. ' Baliol and his own, as heir through his 
On 11 Sept. he defeated Earl Warenne and , mother Ada, Baliol's sister. In 1300 the 
Cressingham the treasurer at Stirling Bridge. ' trucewas renewed till Whitsunday 1301, and 
Dundee and other castles surrendered in con- , though Edward made an abortive attempt 
sequence of this victory, and the P^nglish ' to resume the war on 26 Jan. 1302, the truce 
evacuated Berwick. Wallace and Sir Andrew was again, at the instance of the French king, 
Murray, son of the elder Sir Andrew, assum- prolonged till November. It was- during this 
ing the title of leaders of the Scottish armv period of intermittent war and truce, for in 
in the name of John (i.e. Baliol), by God's l300PMward took Caerlaverock, and in 1301 
grace illustrious king of Scotland, with con- wintered at Linlithgow, that Pope Boni- 
sent of the community carried the war into face VIII intervened in the dispute as to the 
Northumberland and Cumberland. At this succession to the Scottish crown, and claimed 
time Baliol, and not Bruce, was the name ! a right to decide it as lord paramount. On 
under which tlie standard of Scottish in- , 27 June 1300 he despatched a bull to Ed- 
dt?j)endence was borne, but its Ix^arer was ward demanding the withdrawal of his troops 
AV allace, and its defenders the Scottish com- and the release of the Scotch ecclesiastics in 
mons. In 1298, Edwanl returning from | his custody, which was presented bv Arch- 
Flanders conducted in i)erson the Scottish i bishop Winchelsey to Edward at New Abbev 
war with larger forces and better general- I in Galloway in October. Edward immedi- 
ship, and his defeat of Wallace at Falkirk ' ately summoned a parliament at Lincoln on 
<m 22 July wrested from the Scotch the | 20 Jan. 1301, when the memorable answer 
fruits of the victory of Stirling Bridge. At denying the pope's claim to interfere in the 
this time Bruce again sided with his country- temporal affairs of England, and asserting 
men. Annandale was wasted and Loch- the feudal dependence of Scotland, was 
maben Castle taken by Clifford, and Bruce drawn up and confirmed by the seals of 
himself, to use the wortls of the cont em- i seven earls and ninety-seven barons for them- 
porary Ilemingford, * when he heard of the | selves and the whole community. Langtoft 

Bruce 119 Bruce 

a contom^rary, states that Bruce was pre- j were advancing to the parts near Stirling to 

sent at this parliament. pursue Iiis enemies ; on the t^h. to the earl 

A**uT> j*i S.X, -o i—u himself, a letter sent by John de Bottetourt 

t^^T^ ^ • [q- v.], ^ho was to receive supplies for lus 

^' service ; and on 15 April there is an urgent 

But His name is not in the list of those sum> letter requesting him to spare no pains to 

moned, or of those who agreed to the reply cause the siege engines he was preparing 

to the pope. It is improbable that he was with stones and timber to be forwarded, and 

there or actively engaged in the controversy i on no account to delay because of the want 

which was carried on by a memorial pre- ; of lead. 

sented to the pope on benalf of Edward in But while Bruce was thus openly sup- 
favour of the Mglish supremacy, and replies ' porting Edward, a secret alliance into which 
by the Scotch in the * Processus Baldredi he entered with Lamberton, bishop of St. 
contra figmenta Regis Angliae,' drawn by Andrews, the friend of Wallace, proves he 
Baldred de Bisset, rector of Kinghom, one had other designs, and though its terms are 
of the Scottish commissioners at llome. It general, it was the first overt act which com- 
was the policy of Bruce at this time to remain mitted Bruce to the cause called patriotic 
in the background, but events were hasten- in Scotland and treason in England. On 
ing which brought him forward as the first 11 June, more than a month heSyre the fall 
actor on the stage. Scottish history at this of Stirling, the earl and the bishop met 
juncture was involved with the relations of at Cambuskenneth and subscribed a bond 
the English king to the court of France and which bound them to support each other 
the see of Home. Edward made up his against all adversaries at all times and in 

Suarrel with Philip the Fair, whose sister ! all affairs, and to imdertake nothing of difti- 
[argaret he married in 1299, and with whom culty without communication. When Lam- 
an alliance was completed on 20 May 1303. berton was taken prisoner in 130() he admitted 
Gascony was restored to France, and Scot- ' the genuineness of the document, and his 
land, up to this time supported by the connection with Bruce was one charge pre- 
French king, was abandoned. The pope also, ! ferred against him by Edward before the 
anxious to stir up Edward against Philip, > pope. Lamberton is an important link in 
with whom he had a nearer and more dan- ' the history of the war of independence, 
gerous controversy as to the rights of church . bringing into contact its first period under 
and state, though unsuccessful in his object, Wallace with its second under Bruce, and 
temporised to gain it, and withdrew his | proving the continuity of the resistance to 

protection from the Scot<;hl Edward, who 
tiad reconciled his own subjects by tardy 
concessions, to procure the necessary sup- 
plies of men and money for the invasion of 
Scotland, commenced the war in earnest in 
1303. In September of the previous year 
he ordered Sir John de Scjjrave to make a 
foray by Stirling and Kirkintilloch, but it 
was delayed till the following spring, and 
on 24 Feb. Segrave was defeated by Comyn, 

Edward though the leaders were difterent. 
In 1305 Wallace was betrayed and carried 
prisoner to London, where he was executed 
as a traitor, though he denied with truth 
that he had ever taken any oath to Edward, 
lie was the only victim at this time. To- 
wards the nobles and the country generally 
a contrary course was pursued. The one 
thing unpardonable was stubborn resistance, 
and the king evidently thought that clemency 

the regent, at Iloslin. Edward himself then and organised government would reconcile 
took the command, and in a brilliant cam- ! Scotland to his rule. With this view, in a 

paign traversed the whole country from the 
boi3er to Elgin, perhaps to Caithness, re- 
ducing every place of strength and wintering 

parliament held at London in Lent 1305, 
Edward ordered that the communitv of Scot- 
land should meet at Perth on the day after 

at Dunfermline. On 24 Jan. of the follow- ^ the Ascension to elect representatives to 
ing year (1304) the capitulation of Stirling, come to London to a parliament to be held 
the only castle which held out, completed three weeks after the feast of St. Jolm the 
his conquest. The evidence is slight, but : Baptist (24 Jimc) to treat of the secure 
sufficient to show that in tliis campaign Bruce custody of Scotland. Ilis advisers in this 

" " ~" " were the Bishop of Glasgow, the Earl of 

still supported Edward. On 3 March Edward 
writes to Bruce : * If you complete that 

Carrick (Bruce^, Sir John Se^rrave, his lieu- 

which you have begun, we shall hold the tenant in Lothian, and Sir .lonn de Landale, 
war ended by your deed and all the land of the chamberlain of Scotland. Representa- 
Scotland gaineia,' and on the 5th of the same tives were accordingly chosen, and the Eng- 
month to his son, referring to the Earl of lishparliament to which they were summoned 
Carrick and the other good people who i finally met on 16 Sept. Bruce was not one of 

Bruce 120 Bruce 

the representatives, but other Scotch nobles to hot words and a chance medley, but 
were specially summoned, and he is assumed Bruce s subsequent conduct proves a design 
to have been of their number. An ordinance, ! which can scarcely have been devised on the 
on the model of similar ordinances for Wales spot, though its execution may have been 
and Ireland, was drawn up for the govern- hastened by the death of Comyn, his pos- 
mentofSc()tland,bywhich John de Bret agne, sible rival for the crown. Bruce had now 
the king's nephew, was named his lieutenant abandoned his former indecision, and acted 
in Scotland ; Sir AVilliam de Beacote, chan- with a promptness which proved he knew 
cellor ; and Sir Jolm de l^ndale, chamber- his opponent and the hazards on which he 
lain. Two just ices were appointed for Lothian, staked his life. He had seen the head of 
Galloway, tlie district betwt»en the Forth Wallace on London Bridge, and at West- 
and the mountains, and the district bevond minster the stone of destiny, on which the 
the mountains respectively. Sheriffs — either Scottish kings had been crowned at Scone. 
Scotclimen or I'.nglishmen — removable at . Which was to be his fate P It was in his 
the discretion of the lieutenant and chamber- favour that he numbered only about half the 
lain, were named for the counties. Coroners vears of the greatest of the Plantagenets, 
were to be lUso appointed, unless those who but against him that the Scottish nobles 
held the office were deemed sufficient. The were still divided into factions, though the 
custody of the castles was committed to cer- popular feeling created by Wallace was 
tain persons, and as regards the castle of gaming ground, while the church, in the 
Kildrummy inAbertleensliire,hewastoplace ' ])er8ons of its two chiefs — the Bishops of St. 
it in charge of a person for whom he shoiUd ■ Andrews and Glasgow — was on his side, 
answer. This shows, it has been said, how What determined the issue was that in Scot- 
much Hruce was favonn»d ; ))ut it is perhaps ! land a great noble now placed himself at the 
rather a proof of the attitude of half conli- i head of the people, wiiile in England the 
deuce, half distrust in Edward's dealings sceptre and the sword, to which Edward 
with him during tlu» earlier period of his clung with the tenacity of a dying man^ 
career, and for wliich the warrant was soon ' were about to pass into the hands of a son 
to appear. The provision of the ordinance i incapable of wielding them. After the death 
as regards the laws was to prohibit the use of Comyn, Bruce, collecting his adherents 
of tile customs of the Scots and of the Britons chiefly in the south-west of Scotland, passed 
(Brets), {\w. Celts of the highlands and (xal- i from lx>chmaben to Glasgow and thence to 
loway. It is not known how long Bruce Scone, where, on 27 March 1306, he was 
remained in London. On 10 Feb. l;KM» he crowned bv the Bishop of St. Andrews, the 
suddenly aj>]»ean'd in Dumfries, jind in the Bishops ot Glasgow and Moray being also 
church of the Friars Minor slew John Comyn, present, and the Earls of Lennox, At hole, 
the late regent, and his uncle Ko})ert. The and Errol. Two days later Isabella, countess 
English eont emporarv writers and the Scotch, , of Buehan, sister of Duncan, earl of Fife, 
the earliest of whom (Bnrhour) wrote at least I claimed the right of her family, the MacdiUfs, 
half a century later, assign a dillerent train Celtic chiefs of Fife, to place the king upon 
of incidents as leading to this act of violence, the throne, and the ceremony was repeated 
They Hgree that its ])ro.\imate cause was the , with a circumstance likely to conciliate the 
refusal of (^^myn to join Bruce in opposing . Celtic highlanders. Though crowned Bruce 
Edward, l>ut the former ascribe the tn*acherv I hnd still to win his kingdom, and his first 
to Bruce, who, concealing his designs, had ; efforts were failures. On 19 June he was 
lured Comyn to a i)la('e where he could fejir | defeated at Methven near Perth by the Earl 
no danger, whih' the latter relate that Comyn of Pembroke, and forced to seek safety in 
had revealed to lOdward the scheme of Bruce the mountains, first of Athole and then of 

to which he had been privy — having formed 
a similar bond with him to that of Lam- 
])(,rt()n — and so jialliate the act of Bruce by 
the i)lea of self-defence. Kecords fail us, 
and l)oth classes of historians wrote with a 

Breadalbane, where on 11 Aug., at Dalrv in 
Strathfillan, Lord Ix)me, the husband of 
an aunt of Comyn, surprised and dispersed 
his followers, notwithstanding his ]>ersonal 
])rowess. His wife and other ladies of his 

bias which has d»'scended to most modem ' family were sent to Kildnmmiy for safety. 

writers, according to the side of the border 
to which they belong. The hereditary enmity 

and her saying, whether liistorical or not, 
proved true, that he had bei'n a summer 

of the famili«'S of Bruce and Comyn, and the but would not be a winter king. It is 

place of the deed, su])]M>rt the English view 
which, in the absence of further evidence, 

a curious circumstance that this lady, the 
sister of De Burgli, earl of Ulster, whom he 

must be accepted as more probable. Ilailes married after the death of his first wife, 
suggests that the death of Comyn was due Isabella, daughter of Donald, earl of Mar, 




appears to have been a lukewarm supporter 
01 ner husband. After wandering as a fugi- 
tive in the west highlands, Bruce took refuge 
in Rachiine, an island on the Antrim coast. 
Meanwhile Edward, despite his years, haying 
heard at Winchester of the death of Comyn 
and rising of Bruce, came north with all the 
speed his health allowed, and displayed an 
energy which showed he knew he liad to 
cope not with a single foe hut a nation. In 
April, at Westminster, he knighted his son 
Eaward and three hundred others to serve 
in the wars, and swore by God and the Swun 
that he would take vengeance on Bruce, and , 
devote the remainder of his life to the j 
crusades. The prince added that he would ; 
not sleep two nights in one place till he \ 
reached Scotland. Before he started, and in 
the course of liis journey, E<lward made grants 
of the Scotch estates of Bruce and his adhe- 
rents. Annandale was given to the Earl of | 
Hereford. A parliament was summoned to | 
meet at Carlisle on 12 March, when a bull i 
was published excommunicating Bruce, along i 
with another releasing PM ward from his obli- j 
gations to obser^'e the charters. The attempt j 
to crush the liberty of Scotland went hand i 
in hand with an endeavour to violate the j 
nascent constitution of England. Edward's 
constant aim was to reduce the whole island 
to a centralised empire under a single head, 
untrammelled by the bonds of a constitutional 
monarchy. His oaths and vows were un- 
availing, and he died at Burgh-on-th^^-Sa^ds 
on 7 July 1307, without touching the soil of 
Scotland. PJefore his death he showed what 
his vengeance would have been. Elizabeth 
the wife, Marjory the daughter, and Chris- 
tina the sister of Bruce were suri)rised in the 
sanctuary of St. Dutliac at Tain and sent 
prisoners to England, where they remained ; 
till after Bannockbum. The Countess of 
Buchan and Mary, another of his sisters, 
were confined in cages, the one at Berwick, 
the other at Roxburgh. The Bishops of St. 
Andrews and Glasgow and the Abbot of Scone . 
were sent to England and suspended from 
their benefices ; but the pope declined to ; 
bestow them on Edward's nominees. Nigel, 
Bnice's youngest brother, was beheaded at 
Berwick; Christopher Seton, his brother-in- 
law, at Dumfries ; Alexander Seton at New- 
castle. The Earl of Atliole was sent to 
London and, being a cousin of the king, 
hanged on a gallows thirty feet higher than 
the pole on which the head of Wallace 
still stood and that of Sir Simon Eraser, ! 
executed at this time. The other brothers of 
Bruce, Thomas and Alexander dean of Glas- 
goWf having been taken in Galloway, were 
sent to Edward at Carlisle and there executed, | 

their heads being exposed on the gates and 
the tower. A little before this, John, a brother 
of William Wallace, was captured and sent 
to London, where he met his brother's fate. 
There were many victims of minor note. 
But, says the chronicler of Lanercost, the 
number of those who wished Bruce to be 
confirmed in the kingdom increased daily, 
notwithstanding this severity. He migut 
have said because of it, for now every class, 
nobles and gentry, clergy and commons, 
with only one or two exceptions, as the Earl 
of Stratheam and Kandolph, Bruce's nephew^ 
saw what Edward meant. Life and limb, 
land and liberty, were all in peril, and com- 
mon danger taught the necessity, not felt 
in the time of Wallace, of making common 

Edward's hatred of Scotland passed be- 
yond the grave. On his tomb, by his order, 
was inscribed * Edward us Primus, Scotonim 
Malleus : Pactum serva.' One of his last re- 
quests was that his bones should be carried 
with the army whenever the Scotch rebelled, 
and only reinterred after they were subdued. 
This dying wish was disregarded by his weak 
heir, who wasted in the pomp of his funeral, 
followed by the dissipations of a youthful 
court, the critical moment of the war, 
fancying that, with Bruce an exile and his 
chief supporters in prison or on the gallows, 
it was over before it had really begun. Bruce 
meanwhile, like Alfred, was learning in ad- 
versity. The 8])ider, according to the well- 
known story, taught him ])er8i»venince. After 
spending the winter in Kachrine he ventured 
in early sprinj^ to Arran in Scotland, and 
thence to Uamck, his own country, where he 
liad many bnive adventures and hair-breadth 
escapes, which should be read in the verses 
of Barbour or the tales of Scott. Scarcely 
certain history, they repr(»sent the pojmlar 
conce])tion of his character in the next and 
succeeding generations. On 10 May he de- 
feated the Eurl of Pembroke at Loudon Hill, 
but failed to take Avr. Edward, in the end 
of August, roused himself; but a march to 
and back from Cumnock without an action 
was the whole inglorirnis campaign. His 
favour for Piers Gaveston and consequent 
quarrels with the chief barons of P^ngland, 
as well as his approaching marriage to Isa- 
bella, daughter of Phili]) the Fair, led him 
to quit Scotland. In his absence Bruce and 
his brother Edward reduced Galloway, and 
Bruce, leaving his brother in the south, 
transferred his own ojxTHtions to Abt'rdeen- 
shire. It was rumoured that Edward would 
have made ])eace on condition of getting aid 
against his own barons. The feeble conduct 
of the war on the English side, and frequent 

Bruce 122 Bruce 

fhiiiip's iif iroiiiTHU. iiiiiii-att' di?:rac!fd bv his success, he made a raid into the 

<•« Mills. -Is, whirh in juiri iiihmvuiT for ilie nonh of Kncrland. On his return he re- 

iiniiiti-rrii]iti'il Muvrs> That now nuendt'd du(vd Hutel in Galloway, Dumfries, and 

J{rii(T'.<* linns. DiiUwinton. and threatened Berwick, where 

In ilir.Muhif l-JiCand airain in May 1;^»>, Edwurd himself was. In March 1313 

(inli>«> thf i'hriinlrUT> h:i\i' madf iwo t\]H- lKiiu:las sur[>rised Roxburgh, and llandolpli 

i!itniii> 111" Hill*, 111" iiM-rran Huilimi. miA on Kilinburirh : in Mav Bruce made another 

'J'J Miiv ili-f.-jitfd iT> r:»rl. ."iio of hi* cliii-f Eii^'lis^h mid, failed to take Carlisle, but sub- 

S-nTrh i»j»jiiint'nT>. n\ lnAtTur>- — .-i Sv^lditr's dufd the Isle of Man. Kdwnrd Bruce had 

nji'dii-iiii* I'lir ihi- illni» lii> hartis1ii]is li:ui :«Ikmit tlit* siimi.' time taken Uutherglen and 

Lriiiit'lit iin. 1m1t\ \iars iitUT. wli-n IvirKiur Ihiinitv. iiiid laid siepe to Stirling, whose 

writ!.', imn si ill i.ilknl oi' ihf * li:irr\ iv.^: nf c-'Vtrn«ir. Mowbray, apved to surrender if 

](nrhiiu.' In tlu- >ain<' vi ar I'dward Bnuv n-'i rtlifVt»d In'fore '24 June 1314. All the 

liuaiii ntiiijiiiTfil ihr tiahvi'^:an>. ar.ii Sir casTlrs wt-rt* disniuntled or destroyed; for 

Jmiih'" !»iiui:las t-vik llan»1.0]»h. :V.o kiiii:"* rx]»t'r:tmv had shown they were the points 

iii-]tlii'\\ . pn^oiuT. w h » arin\ arvis ai«ritd ivT wliicli Tlit* Kiiiilish invaders were able longest 

ihi*. aii.i^tti'*v to ilii- r.a:;.»iial oausr hv »:\»«'d ^<^ hold. Bv the close of 1313 Berwick, the 

Mi'xirf. r»Purfiii\T tunird I • Ar*:) 11. whin kty to tlie tn^rdors, and Stirling, the key to 

till' liTil ol" Lornt'. ]ii> j»ri!u'i]i:il o]']KMitn: in the l.ijlilands, ahme remained in English 

ihr wi".!, nit! \\ir vnsii t;Mi a>i :hi Vlari ol' haiuls. Tlie disputes between Edward and 

Bui-iian. hi!«,'.iic driraTi'ii aT tlif pas> liis K'lnms were now in some degree allayed 

ill" l»rii!ul.r. and l»n:i>i;ilVna:re I a kin. I'V the institution of the lords orduiners 

in Maivij l."i<n» a irihT \\\\\i V'.n:.l:ind was an^l ihe execution of his favourite Gavestou, 

niaile tliron::h ih,- nnil;a;i.'n ol' P]iil:]» o\ anl it was felt if Scotland was not to be 

l'i\.iii-f and ilie ]>o|*,-. and l^'iniU :T.»n. l»;slu»]> l-^st a *:re:it rtliirt must be made. Accord- 

ol" M . .Vndr.'u >. w a^ i-» li a^.d 1«\ I'.ilu ard and iiiiilv. on 1 1 ,lnne. the whole available forces 

iilliiwrd i.i r.imn home, at'-rr rtvt'ivin*: h»»- of Knijland. with a contingent fnim Ireland, 

inMi:r- and j«lfdi;ix. >\li.i«h va>e liojH' that he nuniliring in all about 100,000 men, of 

wouiil ai'i in I'dward's inTere>t. I'urihor wh-'in .VUKH) were archers and 40,000 

111 L-'tiations were rarrii'v! on for the wl-..^li" oavalrv. wen- mustered at IkTwick, the Earls 

111" ilii- I..ll.i\\ mu \i;i:-; In:: :::.;:. '.;il ^i;:]r>; < oi' l.::riea>Tir. Wart-niie, Arundel, and W'ar- 

iiinl lui ai-lh-^ ol i!ii ::iu-.' vt Ti-h r-, .i i: o- ::;..n w .i s al 'ni- of tlie creat feudatories dtH.*lining iln- w.t:- \\:i^ .'iiix ::i:i ::-.;p-., vl. :■» ;;::en.i in person, but sending the bare 

« hi -J I r,-!,. l:;ii», ;i: ;, i^. !,.;■.,! i-..".!;v':l •.:». i-o:!: ir.irrn: to which their feudal obligations 

hiiiii!.'.'. iluilf i-:^\ >'.\ v» Wi;!;>i .; l>:;iiv Ivund them. They at once marched to the 

11^ rii;liihil K:n:: ot" S,o! ;.ii:.l. [• \\;,> :, s-^'n of Stirlini:. and punctual to the day 

«ii" ilii- ].rot.ri-^> 1:.' l-ul i!;.i: ;.ll :li.« rr;.i-h.-d Falkirk on 1*1* . I uiie. A pn.'liminarv 

!ii-li.i]i^ jonnd in :lr.- *!ii!.i'aTon. ski v!:v.>h on Sunday with the advanced guard, 

hi till- aiitiinwi ■•! t!r^ \e.i:- lM\\;ivd. ^^ i:li ^\ liii'li aTlemnied to thn»w it!i»*lf into the 

a laii:!' I'tiivo. an rxpt J.iv.on ::::■' Sv--:- t «w!i. was di>Tin^nished by the |H*rsonal 

laiiil a«» t'.ira-* 1 .iiiiiliu-'w : I'lii l»v;ur i ^;ili^ d e-'iv.l'a: ol' Bruoo. wlio. raising himself in his 

liuii, and In- viMivii.xl xM'h.'u: any n'.a'er:al >::r:".;p'' iV-nn the |»i»ny he rode, fellinl Henry 

Min-i--. I h.'Ui:h a !"a!i'.".M.- lo'dow rd ilif :M\a;:i> I'.i- Bolmn \\i:]ia >in:rle blow of his battleaxe. 

nf ill-|i«». A sr\-or. i ]':"oii«-:r*le\]-. vliv.oti W ]i» !\ Manied lor exj^osing himself to danger, 

ill 1.111 dul M.'i lake I'hu'o. Tiio n.\; thriv li*- Tunirvi ihe subjeet by lamenting that the 

>iiir- NMT'- M^iial>i'«i 1»\ list- vij.'.ii-: ion i»r the a\e was hrokrii. 

ra««il.- -nil h.-M \>\ ;l:e r!ii.Usli in Si-o; land. It was ihe lirst strokeof the battle, with a 

Liiilii h-.«\\ had l».-.-!i '»ii:-]iv:<.\i l'\ tho s'vaTa- o.irri'T etreo! on its issue as well as in histnr\- ol" a ]i.Mviui »a:l.vl :h«'endot" and drama. l»nuv*< tri.>ojts were one-third of 

lolO: l>\niihari.'!» \\.i< ^iirvi-nd* v^ d bv St the I'.niilisli, hnt his giMieralship reduced the 

.li»liii .M«iitiiih in Oei'h- r 1.11 1 ; riVTii w;is ine»|Ualilv. He had ehoseii and knew his 

takrii by liiMio- hiniMlf on > .Ian. \'M-. It gr.Min-l — the New Park, lK?t ween the village 

iiiarkid hi^ |>">.iioii ihai In- e'n.'.iidril .»n t»t' St. Ninian and the BauntK'k Bum, a petty 

L'lM» hn.rne^- with llak-'n \" a ^ou- Mreani, yet sulHeient to produce marshes i«t" tln' iri'at\ ot" I'Jiiii l?;w»'en da nz^erou-' for hoi'ses. while the rising gn'iund 

Ali'\; 111 anvl NLunnv 1\, li\ whuh on his riudit L'^ave points of olwservation of 

tlio Norwi'-ian kin:: ei-dt-d to Seotiaiivl the the advance of the English. He divided his 

l>le of Man. ilu* Sihluy -, and all tlie i»iher tn^ops into four divisions, of which his brother 

i^lauiU 'iin iho wi'si and mmitIi oi' the irriai Edward eoniinanded the right, Bandolph the 

Haf,' i-M-ept the i>li'^ of Orkney and Shet- cent ri'. l.Kuiglas the left ; lirucehimsell* with 

land {Arts Purl. iSt-^.t. \. 4^1 \. Encouniged the reserve plantinl his standard at the Bore 




Stone (still remaining on this spot ), and a 
good point to survey the field. Tlie camp 
followers were stationed on the Gillies' Hill, 
ready at the critical moment to appear as a 
reinrorcement. The plain on the right, over 
which the cavalry, to avoid the marshy 
ground, had to pass, was prepared with con- 
cealed pits and spikes. But what made the 
battle famous in the annals of the military 
art as in those of Scotland was that the 
Scottish troops, taught by Wallace's tactics, 
fought on foot — not in single line, but in 
battalions, apparently of round form, with 
their weapons pointed outwards to receive 
on any side the charge of the enemy. A 
momentary success of the English archers 
commenced the battle. It was reversed by 
a well-directed charge on their flank of a 
small body of light horse under the marshal 
Sir Robert Keith. The Scottish bowmen 
followed up this advantage, and the engage- 
ment then became general between the Eng- 
lish hea"\*y-armed horsemen, crowded into 
too narrow a space, and the whole Scottish 
force, Bruce with the reser\'e uniting with 
the three divisions and receiving the attack 
with their spears, which the chronicler de- 
ficribes as a single dense wood. The rear of 
the English either was unable to come up 
or was entangled in the broken ranks of the 
van or first line, and at a critical moment 
the camp followers, who had been hidden 
behind tne Gillies' Hill, crossed its crest as 
if a new army. A panic ensued. Edward 
and his immediate followers sought safety 
in flight, and tlie rout became general — one 
knight. Sir Giles d'Argentine, alone had 
courage to continue the onset, and fell 
bravely. The number of the English suffo- 
cated or drowned in the Bannock or the 
Forth was calculated at 30,000. Edward, 
pursued by Douglas, with difficulty reached 
Ihinbar, and thence by sea Bamborough. 

No battle of the miadle ages has been more 
minutely recorded, but space forbids further 
detail. A Carmelite friar. Barton, brought 
to celebrate the victory, was made by his 
captors to recount the defeat of the English. 
The Chronicle of Lanercost gives the narra- 
tive of an eye-witness. Barbour, who fifty 
years after enlarged the description, had 
Imown some who fought, and subsequent in- 
quiries confirm the accuracy of his plain but 
yiyid verse. It was a day never forgotten 
by those who took part in it, and to be re- 
membered by distant posterity. It decided 
the indepenaence of Scotland, and, like Mor- 
garten and Courtrav, it was the beginning 
of the end of feudal warfare. The Knights 
in armour, whose personal prowess often 
guned the field, gave place to the common 

soldiers, disciplined, marshidled, and led by 
skilful generals, as the arbiters of the destiny 
of nations. In the career of Bruce it was 
the turning point. The eftects of the victory 
were permanent, and it was never reversed. 
Many English kings invaded Scotland, but 
none after Edward I conquered it. 

The most important result as regards Bruce 
was the settlement of the succession at the 
parliament of Ayr on 26 April 1315. By a 
unanimous resolution the crown was settled 
on Kobert and the heirs male of his body, 
whom failing, his brother Edward and the 
heirs male of his body, whom failing, on 
Robert's daughter Marjory and her heirs, 
upon condition that she married with his 
consent, or, after his death, with the consent 
of the estates. Provision was made for a 
regency in case of a minority by the king's 
nephew, Randoli)h, earl of Moray. In the 
event of a failure in the whole line of the 
Bruces, Randolph was to act as a guardian 
of the kingdom until the estates determined 
the right of succession. The bishops and 
prelates were declared to have jurisdiction 
to enforce the Act of Settlement. Soon after 
it passed Marjorj- married Walter the he- 
reditary Steward of Scotland. Their son, 
Robert II, was the first king of the race 
of Stewart, succeeding after the long reign 
of his uncle, David II, son of Bruce by 
his second marriage, who was not yet bom. 
This settlement showed the prudence of 
Bruce, and the anxiety of the Scottish na- 
tion to avoid at all hazards another dis- 
puted succession, or the appeal to external 
authoritv in case it should occur. Edward 
Bruce, described in the act as * vir strenuus et 
in actis bellicis pro defensione juris et liber- 
tatis regni Scotue quamplurimum expertus,' 
had stood by his brother in the stniggle for 
independence, and deserved the preference 
which ancient, though not unbroken custom, 
gave to the nearest male over a nearer female 
heir. But his active and ambitious S])irit was 
not satisfied with the hope of succet^ding to 
the Scottish crown. The defeat of PMward at 
Bannockbuni, and his incai>acity as a leader, 
encouraged the Irish Celts to attempt to 
throw off the P^nglish yoke. *All the kings 
of lesser Scotland (Scotia Minor) have drawn 
their blood from greater S<'otland (Scotia 
Major, i.e. Ireland ), and retain in some degree 
our language and customs, wrote Donald 
O'Neil, a Celtic chief of Ulster, to the pope, 
and it was natural that they should summon 
to their aid the victor of Bannockbum. 
Robert declined the ott'er of the Irish crown 
for himsc4f, but in May 1315 Edward Bruce 
landed at Carrickfergus with 6,000 men. The 
brilliant campaign of this year, which for a 




moment made it seem possible that the line j 
of Bruce might supplant that of Plantagenet, ' 
ending disastrously in the death of Edward 
Bruce at Dundalk, belongs chiefly to his life, 
and not to that of Robert. But in the spring 
of 1317 Robert Bruce, who had in the previous 
year subdued the Hebrides, and taken his old 
enemy John of Lome, went to his brother's 
assistance. His engagement when surprised 
by the J^^nglish at Slane in Louth is said | 
by Barbour to have been the greatest of the 
nineteen victories of the Irish war. The 
odds were eight to one, and Edward, who 
marched in the van, had hurried on out 
of sight of his brothers troops, so that 
the honour was undivided, and Robert re- | 
proached Edward for neglect of good gene- ■■ 
ralship. The Scotch army after this met ' 
with little resistance in its progress to the 
south of Ireland. Limerick was taken, but 
Dublin saved by it^ inhabitants committing 
it to the flames. An incident too sliglit to 
have been invented marks the humanity of 
Bruce in the midst of tlie horrors of war. 
Hearing a woman cry in the pangs of child- 
birth, he halted his troops and made provi- 
sion for her delivery. 

For certis, I trow there is na man 
That he ne will rew a woman than, 

is Barbour's expression of the speech or 
thought of tlie gentle heart of the brave 
warrior. The arrival of Roger Mortimer as 
deputy infused new vigour into the English, 
and t he Bruces, their success too rapid to be 

iiermanent, were forced to retreat to Ulster. 
Wore tlie disaster of Dundalk Robert re- ; 
turned to Scotland, where the English had 
taken advantage of his absence to resume 
the war. The eastern and midland inarches I 
had been gallantly defended by Sir James ; 
Douglas against the Earl of Arundel and 
Lord Neville, and Sir John Soul is had pro- 
tected Galloway from an inroad of Ilartcla, 
warden of the English march. Berwick still 
remained in the hands of Edward II, a source 
of danger, as well as a standing memorial of 
the former subjection of Scotland. To its 
reduction Bruce on his return at (nice ad- 
dressed liinis(?lf. 

In the autumn of 1317, while he was en- 
gaged in i)re])arations for tlit) siege, two car- 
dinals, Jocelin and Luke, arrived in Eng- 
land with bulls from Pope John XXII * to his 
beloved son the nobleman Robert de l^riice, 
at present governing the kingdom of Scot- 
land,' commanding liim to consent to a truce 
of two years with England. They had secret 
instructions to excommunicate him if he 
disobeved. The cardinals did not venture 
across the border, and their messengers were 

received by Bruce with a pleasant counte- 
nance, showing due reverence to the pope 
and the church, but declining to receive the 
bulls because not addressed to him as king. 
They urged in vain the desire of the pope not 
to prejuaice the dispute between England and 
Scotland, for Bruce had the answer ready : 
* Since my father the pope and my mother 
the church are unwilling to prejudice either 
party by giving me the title of king, they 
ought not to prejudice me during the contro- 
versy by refusing that title, as I both hold 
the kingdom, receive the title from all its 
people, and am addressed under it by other 
princes.' Another attempt to proclaim the 
bull by Adam Newton, guardian of the Friars 
Minor in Berwick, had no better result. 
Newton saw Bruce at ^Vld-Camus (Old Cam- 
bus), where he was at work day and night 
in the construction of siege en^nes, and, 
having got a safe-conduct for himself and 
his papers, returned, in hopes of being al- 
lowed to deliver them. But Bruce was 
firm, and would not receive the bulls unless 
addressed to him as king^ and, as he now 
added, until he had possession of Berwick. 
Newton had the daring to proclaim the truce, 
but on his way home he was robbed of his 
papers and clothes. 'It is rumoured,' he 
adds to his report, *that the Lord Robert and 
his accomplices, who instigated the outrage^ 
now have the papers.' Care had been taken 
that another mission of John XXII sent 
to proclaim his accession to the papal see 
should not enter Scotland, so that the prelates 
and clergy of the Scottish province remained 
now, as in the former period of the war, free 
from a divided allegiance, and the church of 
Scotland was virtually independent. 

In March 1318 the town of Berwick, which 
had stood the siege during the winter, was 
taken by a sur]»rise contrived by Spalding, 
one of the citizens, and a few days after the 
castle capitulated. Entrusting it to the 
custody of Walter the Steward, Bruce in- 
vaded and wasted the north of England. 
The death of his only remaining brother 
and his daughter rendered a new settlement 
of the crown expedient, and a parliament 
met at Scone in December. By one of its 
statutes Ro}>ert, son of the Steward, and 
Maijory, the king's daughter, were recog- 
nised as next of kin ; failing next issue of the 
! king should he succeed while a minor, Ran- 
dolph, and failing him James, lord Douglas, 
I was to be regent. Substantially this was a 
re-enactment of the statute of Ayr. An im- 
I portant declaration was added that doubts 
without suflicient cause had been raised in 
the past as to the rule of succession, and it 
I was now defined that the crown ought not 

Bruce 125 Bruce 

to follow the rules of inferior fiefs, but that ' Great, and Napoleon, was a law-reformer, 
the male nearest in descent in the direct line, : The man of action cannot tolerate the abuses 
whom failing the femaU in the same line, by which law ceases to be justice, 
whom failing the nearest male collateral, ! A statute identical with the ' Quia Emp- 
should succeed, an order sufficiently conform- tores' of 17 Edward I is ascribed to Bruce m 
able to the imperial, that is the Roman law. the Harleian and other later manuscripts, and 
In this parliament Bruce established his , is included in the * Statuta Secunda Koberti 
titletobe deemed as wise and practical a lejris- I Primi,* by Sir J. Skene. But while tran- 
lator as he hadprovedhimseli a general. The scripts of p]nglish law were not unknown in 
most important acts related to the national , Scotland, they are little likely to have been 
defence and the administration of justice, i made by Bruce, and this statute, which by 
Every layman worth ten pounds was to be : preventing subinfeudation would have com- 
bound to provide himself with armour, and pletely altered the whole system of Scottish 
every one who had the value of a cow with land rights, is certainly spurious. In 1319 
a spear or bow and twenty-four arrows. A Edward tried to cut off the trade of Scotland 
yearly weapon schaw was to be held by the with Flanders, but the count and the towns 
sheriffs every Easter. While provision was of Bruges and Ypres rejected his overtures. 
thus made for the equipment and training of A vigorous effort to recover Berwick was 
an armed nation, the excesses attendant on repelled by Walter Stewart, its governor, 
such a condition were restrained by a law aided by the skill of Crab, a Flemish engi- 
that if any crime was committed by those neer,andDouglasand Randolph invaded Eng- 
coming to the army, they were to be tried i land, when the Archbishop of York was de- 
before the justiciar. Stringent acts forbade feated in the engagement called the Chapter 

the export of goods during war, or of arms 
at any time. As regards Justice the usual 
proclamation was made wit n emphasis : ' The 
King wills and commands that common law 

of Mytton, from the number of clergy slain. 
This diversion and the lukewarmness, if not 
absolute abstention, of the Earl of Lancaster 
and the northern barons, led to the raising 

and right be done to puir and riche after the of the siege. When Bruce visited Berwic 

auld lawes and freedomes.' The privilege of 
repledging, by which a person was removed 

he complimented his son-in-law on the suc- 
cess of his defence, and raised the walls ten 

from the jurisdiction of the king's officers, was feet all round. The pope somewhat tardily 
restricted by the provision that it was to j excommunicated Bruce and his adherents 
apply only when tne accused was the liege- for his contumacy, but the English king felt 
man of the lord or held land of him, or was imable to continue the war, and on 21 Dec. 
in his service or of his kin, and if this was a truce was concluded for two years. 
doubtful, a verdict of average was to decide. On 6 April 1320 a Scottish parliament at 
A new law was made against leasing making, Arbroath addressed a letter to the pope as- 
a quaint Scotch term for treasonable Ian- serting the independence of their country 
guage. * Tlie kyn^hes* statute and defendyt and promising aid in a crusade if the pope 
that none be conspirators nor fynders oft ay lis recognised that independence. Part of this 
or of tidingis thruch the quhilkis mater of manifesto which relates to Bruce deserves 
discord may spryng betwixt the kyng and his to be quoted. After referring to the tyranny 
pepull,* under penalty of imprisonment at the of Edward I, it proceeds: *Tlirough His 
ting's will. A hortatory statute recommended favour who woundeth and maketh whole we 
the people to nourish love and friendship with have been preseri-ed from so great and num- 
each otner, forbade the nobles to do injury berless calamities by the valour of our lord 
to any of the ^ople,and promised redress and sovereign Robert. He, like another Joshua 
to any one injured. This was aimed at or Judas Maccabeus, gladly endured trials, 
the oppressions of the feudal lords, and ex- distresses, the extremities of want, and every 
hibits the side of Bruce's character which peril to rescue his people and inheritance out 
gained him the name of the g^od king Robert of the hands of the enemy. The divine provi- 
from the commons. With regard to the dence, that legal succession which we will 
civil law, the feudal actions commenced by constantly maintain, and our due and unani- 
the brieves of novel disseisin and mort d*an- ; mous consent have made him our chief and 
tester, as well as the procedure in actions ' king. To him in defence of our liberty we 
of debt and damage, were carefully regulated, are bound to adhere, as well of right as by 
The unreasonable delays (essoigns) which im- reason of his deserts ... for through him 
peded justice were no longer to be allowed. ; salvation has been wrought to our people. 
No defender was to be called on to plead . . . While there exist a hundred of us we 
until the complainer had fully stated his | will never submit to England. We fight 
case. Brace, like Cromwell, fVederick the • not for glory, wealth, or honour, but for that 

--.•■ ■ -— _• _-»^ 

I .^, 

:r: BrJCc 

ZL..'. v-_. - .. — -- ^ ■_-:•'« Zli- r,r,t^_',r rrllf of want of 

-..- - -_ ■..- - -.- _ _;.-_ .i--r..>.rLjj?*: : .r?e:i h.zn to wit L- 

V. J ... L.-. V LI.- "lir -ur-ts^ c Etri Warennt* on 

v: :i ■_.•-_■ : . ... -^..-i l* rn-ii-i.*. * Ciir:' cara fuit.* 
:.. ■ :_• ■ .. ■ - :. .:._. ■.•;-■— l" •:i-'1:- .'..-*Lf—:'L>n:if Li* barons 
.-- --. -^. - ■:- .: _.- v-i • ■:.--rL:'-.'.- r-iirral-^hip. In 
_:■:■:: - ' ":-..• .zl-z. i-r--:-. lt tv h^hi of a von* 
. :. :. - .--r- T -- -ff-..::.i.:-i l: •*/.•.»».». peialiated 
• r.-ui^zj: y -rL-L^. >:drfc:lnj- Kdward 
:.- .* 2'..-T ■_ .-. • >'. Tr%^-, J r.iin i*- Bret acne, 
_•- : }. j_u -T. .. LI; 1 Hrnrr dr Sully, 
V- . -■ - ■ :■•■..'-:!■- — . -• :1 Z ■ •" : Y n.- ••.'-. tZi'. iLi-r.r "'"L'-r jirisoners 
— . • ' _ ■ • "-'. - ••i:-:. : t"- "- "Li-:. ~:.- "t..^^ kiv^ numiwlv 


■ :•■ . ■ ■- - ■■.-■■■-. .^ . ... - :^ L.—^,z .'.■r.'V^Tr'i a: Ynrk. 

.- -. • .'" - .-•-■- - ■ - ■ • . 7:- .■ ■z.iL-r.'-ZL-i- f i-c'-'I ajfor-it^l .still 

•'-- * ■ • '. -~ - • - r-'^ :c-" - .-:'•• :' L:"wi.ri'* incapacity t-) 

* : :• •.•■■_• - :• ■ • - i- "..- :_> ^n ?..■ — :- >.t .\i:-2r^w llartoLi, 

'. ' • i" •■•- -- • _■ -: .,'-'-- ,.^' '. ■ • ^'l .T-L'-i •Itr". ■: Carlisle and re- 

.-. -■■:■. -■- -.. :- ...-_ ■ ._. —_-.-■. T-.":, L .tr*r- >'?: n ani the warJen- 

■ . '. ■.. * :■...•.-::•-.. - — .■ _ "^ ■- -. - : ::.- r.Lr. ; — . n-: Jtr.u-r antl onterdl 

.- ■ : — >- "7-!.:t : •■ ns.rjiain him and hi^* 

■ : • ■ '_..■-■•?-.- ■ ..'■ . ■- _- •- :. -.» ^"^ — 1 : >.■ :.!ii:i. t »n the dis- 

'-. ■ f. * . . ■ i— .' - -. : - -. : :i- ■ ■. r^ : -^.-.n.-.r::".;. ■:^u? tried and executed 

.'.••■- • —:.. :.- - . -- ■*- *- - y.-T . 1 -- . ir. : :hr K^rl nf Kent 

'.-■'■ : ■ . *-•-', :-- .^ — - ■_- : ^- -• '."••-.— r.- :.:-.:-> Kut thouffh 

. . >■- :. -.- .: ■;• - . -- :.• .- - :-r " i.*-*- r: :..* i.'.h.'HTy. the defeat 

• • • • . ■ ■ " ■ '— - : ^'r • .T. :.: : ..r. . :. ". Ti i^;.: I'/.Trari that he could 

>.' ' -. -. .-.-_--• .-•- : '. ■■ '*■ - :'l }ir.r. .%:: : :n March KilM a 

■ ■■■■ .- :...- ::;... ::--l--.— -r- tt. ■ r-'-. :-~- : rr.vr :::i!: -ins at Newcastle 

■ ■• ■■ 1 ::-•-.- : .- - * - :. . 7. — -. -r.rrr. -r. :V» May. a peace for 

' ."i • : • . :.. -■ - :. .'■■ •- ■...:■--•. v- .r- -a > :• r. "..;:■. •:. which wa-i 

■ ■" • • -.■--:■. -.-.-■ '. - rr -. :.- V.r.j ■.»:" Scotland at 

.'■ . . ■ : •■ _■ ._■..:.-• :■■ . -. :U: •. ■. T J ,:>. Ti.- i^'iminu-'d favour 

;• ' : -.. . --•. - Z' ■ ■ .- •":. ~r- • v :' .•%■ .r-. : :!>. I»v*p-n*ors. which 

■ :. . • --'-■■; '"• -- ■ -'"' :...'. -rr. ■":.- .-.>- :' L:ini^■J^t'■•r's rnbidli'm, 

■ T'.-- ■ :. :" t:::- . ' " i ".-. . " ". :.-~ ■:::>": .r:.?Y in the family of the 

'■ ■ * • ..■:..•■•-.,:.. :".'.-:.:■-. "-".r.j. li> -^j^ivn I<nhtdia. and 

ii' ■ •■ r. ■ ■ -•■-'. '. '. .:-■•■ > :;:j-r >! r:::r.-T ':.•.- r j»u.";r.r.i'.ir. carried it nn 

•■-'•' -■::..-. • •. :" • •. ::.■ : ?.is •.•:). and in I'^i'o lii- 

: •- : .".—.:.- :. "• ':.-.-. ■'.• ll-.r' ■■:' K^nt. i«^infd it. Kd- 

■• '■■.....•..-; ::. .- ■•. V. -:;.'. v. - •. '.• - r:- : }y ;.hr.-'>i aVi hi-^ harons, wa> 

" ■ •-■ -■ :. :-■ r : "^ :- • ":• :: t r.- r.-r in i:'ii'''«. iVp*.»svd early in th».* 

J'' I'. J» ■■:..:■■-;..■_ ■ I,.'.- :' '/. --a :r._- y- .r. ;in 1 murdtTi'd on L*l St']it. 

■' ;.•■■■■ ■■■■-].■: ■ •: ■- -.v •':. r».- .*.v r.riV.riil'.y T.v»k advantairn of the 

ii-Tr:..":-- 1 <a:*' ••f Enjland to strensrtht'n 
."■. '.'.'.*■ ' :).'■ >ci:T:*h cr-uvn. In loL'.'J the 
•kill':l .:::.■■ .:r.;:i'\ oi nandolpli obtained fmm 

''■■ '•'■'• ■ ■'■■ '^ .:"■■'..• n- h .;■ ,i_"..'-.'; :j-r- :|.o i- ■:•■■ li;.- r-.-i'-'irnition i»f the title of kinjr 

■I • ■ i-'irJ. I ..I'.v.-.'i l.v ].■' .-x-f." I- tifSi- itiiuii'.hy a ]»ro!ni?»* to aid in a crusad**, 

' '•• f' ■ ' ■• ■■'■ '•'■ ■■' ':■•'■'• '•'••■ KmlI-Ii ••.•i...M- ji:i 1 thr.- v.-ar< lat^-r. hv the troatv of Cor- 

.■ I'. 

. '.Jjl. 

•:. .:;* «.:j, .>■.:.• >'v 

.:■ L::'.'-. 

■ -■•■r: ?■ i- ].:- .:-:^-.;: 


■■ Ji- 1* ■;■ /-ij .."■■.■; iji-" 

■.:rJ. }■..! 

'.•.'.-.'i liv ].■' •x-f." I- 

1 '' I. •.....'] .'I J.-' 'I.;:' in r-.j:]].]. :..-.- w-. .:.- h.-:l. the Kr-nch kiuiT made a similar acknow- 

'''*'' [•'•(" ''•''■ ;'' ''j ri'i i'lUj-:- m'lkt' l.-diTtii-ni. At a parliament held at Canibu:*- 

•' ' ■• '' '■'■ ■^'•''■- '■\c*-]i'' liy f.r.-'.-. ani k.-nnvrh in loiUi the younpr vrince l»a>id. 

'''■'■''' '■■'''■'ii'i lit \iiu"i-J. iniH triiiinj" :ti. l.ii^rn two year> before, was solemnly reco^r- 

'■ ' I .'liMhii.';.M, ari'l v.a-tiiiM t},.. r.,iuiry ni.-vd n- heir to the crown, which in ca^e of 

■■; '" ' " •'"'' ■■■ '•-■']. Till- ]»;-ii'i.-iir..- iif liis dnaili was to cd to Uobert the son of 

li'.-. hv .'. I,..|i «v.!ylliin;r "I valiw f.ii .Marinry and the Stewanl. This is the tirst 

'»■• lir.. .,1 il,.- iii\a-inn \va> rniK.v.-d. his Seottivh parliament in which there is clear 

•r'.n '..iMj. I., in;' lix-l ;,i ( .'iilr..<>. nort li of evi.lenee of repres«entative.s of the burghs, 

• I.' I 'W.I,, l,.-,|||. .1 n. rorii|.l.:t.;ly u^ a vieK.rv an-l the L^rant made bv it to Bruce for his 

•'•• »" ' i'|,i ..I Ivhsard II to subdue life of a tenth of the rents of the lands, as 




well wood and domain lands as other lands, 
and both within and without burgh, sup- 
plies one reason for their presence. The 
clergy probably made a grant in a separate 
assembly of their own. Although the peace 
between England and Scotland was ratified 
by Edward III on 8 March 1327, both sides 
made preparations for the renewal of the war, 
so that it is difficult to support the accusa- 
tions of breach of faith against either. On 
18 May Edward contracted with John of 
Hainault for a large force of mercenary 
cavalry, a sign that he was unable to rely 
on his own feudal le\<y. 

On 15 June Kandolph and Douglas crossed 
the border with 20,000 men, and Edward 
with more than double that number advanced 
to Durham. The Hainault mercenaries could 
not be relied on to co-operate with the Eng- 
lish troops, and their dissensions, of which 
Froissart has left a livelv picture, had pro- 
bably much to do with tne English discom- 
fiture. A series of manoeuvres and counter- 
manoeuvres on the Tyne and Wear showed 
that neither side was willing to try the issue 
of a battle. Kandolph declined a challenge 
to leave a favourable position on the north 
of the Wear and fight on the open ground 
at Stanhope Park. Douglas with a small 
band made a daring nigut attack on Ed- 
ward's camp on 4 Aug., when his chaplain 
was slain and the young king with difficulty 
escaped. The Scotch under cover of night 
abandoned their camp and retreated home- 
wards, and on 15 Aug. Edward disbanded 
his army at York, dismissing the Hainaultcrs, 
who had been found too costly or too dan- 
gerous allies. 

Bruce himself now assumed the command, 
but his sudden attack on the eastern marches 
fidled. Alnwick repulsed an assault of 
Douglas, and Kandolph and Bruce were not 
more successful in the siege of Norham. 
While still engaged in it he was approached 
by English commissioners with overtures of 
peace. The preliminaries were debated at 
Newcastle, and at a parliament in York on 
8 Feb. 1328 the most essential article was 
accepted. It was agreed that Scotland, ' ac- 
cording to its ancient bounds in the days of 
Alexander m, should remain to Kobert king 
of Scots and his heirs and successors free 
and divided from the kingdom of England, 
without any subjection, right of service, 
claim, or demand, and that all writs executed 
at any time to the contrary should be held 

The parliament of Northampton in April 
1328 concluded the final treaty by which 
(1) peace was made between the two king- 
doms ; (3) the coroiiation-Btone of Scone was 

to be restored ; (3) the English king promised 
to ask the pope to recall all spiritual pro- 
cesses against the Scots ; (4) the Scots agreed 
to pay tliirty thousand marks ; (6, 6, and 7) 
ecclesiastical property which had changed 
hands in the course of the war was to be 
restored, but not lay fiefs, with an excep- 
tion in favour of three barons. Lord Wake, 
the Earl of Buchan, and Henry de Percy ; 
(8) Johanna, Edward's sister, was to be given 
in marriage to David, the son and heir of 
Bruce, and to receive a jointure of 2,000/. a 
year; (9) the party failing to observe the 
articles of the treaty was to pay 2,000/. of 
silver to the papal treasury. 

On 12 July 1328 the marriage of the infant 
prince and bride was celebrated at Berwick. 
The English and Edward, when he attained 
his independence from the guardianship of the 
queen mother and Mortimer, denounced this 
treaty as shameful, and ascribed it to the de- 
partiure of the Ilainaulters, the treachery of 
Mortimer, and the bribery used by the Scots. 
But it was the necessary result of the situa- 
tion at the commencement of his reign, and 
the bloody war of two centuries failed to re- 
verse its main provisions. Scotland remained 
an independent monarchy. The chief author 
of its independence barely sun'ived the ac- 
complishment of his work. On 7 June 1329 
Bruce died at Cardross of leprosy, a disease 
contracted during the hard life of liis earlier 
struggles. There are frequent, and towards 
the close increasing, references to his physical 
sufferings, which made his moral courage more 
conspicuous. He was buried by liis wife, who 
had died in 1327, at Dunfermline, but his 
heart was, ))v a dying wish, entrusted to Dou- 
glas, to fulfil the vow he had been unable to 
execute in person of visiting the holy sepul- 
chre. iJis great adversary Edward I had 
made a similar request, not so faithfully exe- 
cuted, and his grandson granted a passport, to 
Douglas on 1 Sept. to proceed to the Holy 
Land, to aid the christians against the Sara- 
cens, with the heart of Lord Kobert, king of 
Scotland. The death of Douglas fighting 
against the Moors in Spain, and the recovery 
of the heart of Bruce by Sir William Keith, 
who brought it to Scotland and buried it 
along with the bones of Douglas in Melrose 
Abbey, may be accepted as authentic; but 
the words with which Douglas is said to 
have parted with it, 

No"w passe thou forth l)eforo 

As thou was wont in field to bee, 

And I shall follow or else die, 

are an addition to the original verses of Bar- 
bour. When the remains of Bruce were dis- 
interred at Dunfermline in 1819, the breast- 

Bruce 128 Bruce 

bone was found sawn through to permit of any national bias. The slender historical matfr> 
the removal of the heart. rials for the life of Wallace leant themselves on 

Some interesting particulars as to the the one side to the legendary narrative of Blind 
la«»t vears of Bruce are furnished by the Ex- ' Harr^ and on the other to the fictions of the 
cliequer Kolls of Scotland. Enfeebled by f °el>»^ ^^crs, snch as Hemingford aiid Ris- 

diseLe he had to trust the chief conduct of ,^*"e^",l ^ V'vJ^ '^ f'fT''' f T*}1^ """^ 
the ..r to theyoung leaders he had trai^^^^^ 

llandolph and Douglas and he spent most of ^anent results to leave room for misinter^- 
liis time at Cardross, which lie had acquired t^^ion. He was not originally a Scottish patnot, 
in 1326. lie employed it m enlarging the ^nd may bo described, as WaUace cannot, as an 
castle, repairing the jark walls, and oma- English rebel ; but after he once assumed the 
menting the garden, in the amusement of leadership of the Scottish cause he never faltered 
hawking, and the exercise of the royal vir- under any danger or made a false step in policy 
tues of hospitality and charity. Like other until he secured its success. The records chiefly 
kings he kept a fool. A lion was his fa- to be consulted are in Rymer's Fcsdera, Riley's 
vourite pet, shipbuilding his favourite di- Placita, the Documents illustrative of Scottish 
version His foresight had discerned the History, published by Mr. Joseph Stevenson and 
importance of this art. to the future strengt.h ; ^J' ^'^ ^Jf .*,^« ^F^ Series; the Scottish 
an(\ wealth of Scotland. Before his death he \ ^"H"®'; ^^ i \'^^ .tj^« Acts of the Scottish 
" , +^^1, ^„A\a^ Parliament. Kerrs Life and Reign of Robert- 

made preparations for 1"*, ^°^^^^^^^^ the Bruce and Lord Hailes's AnmilsVre both very 

siont'cT m Paris the marble monument, after- ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ collections of the facts. The 
wards erected at Dunfermline, which was ; jn^^^ ^^ England down to the death of Ed- 
surrounded with an iron-gilt railing, covered ^^ j^ ^y j^j^ Pearson, and Longman's Reign of 
by a painted chapel of Baltic timber. Ihe Edward II are the most trustworthy modem au- 
offerings to the abbot of Dunfermline and the thorities as to the war with England written 
rect or of Cardross, as well as the annual pay- by Englishmen. Tytlor's and Hill Burton's His- 
ment to the chaplains at Ayr for masses for tories of Scotland require l)oth to be read. As 
his soul, appear also to have been by his orders. I an independent historian Pauli's Greschichte Eng- 

By his first marriage with Isabella of Mar I landsisof great value, and probably the bestsingle 
ho had an only daughter, Marjorv', the wife of account of the war of independence.] M. M. 
tho St«>\viird and ancestor of" the last line of BRUCE, KOBERT (1554-1631), theo- 
Scottish kings. By his second marriage witli lo«ricjil writer, second son of Sir Alexander 
l^lizabeth do Biirgli, which he contracted l^ruce of Airth, who claimed descent from 
about l.Sa4,lie had two daughters— Matilda, the royal family of Bruce, studied jurispru- 
who married ThimiasYsaak, a simple es(iuire, dence at Paris, *^and on his return practised 
and Margaret, tli»^ wife of William, earl of law, and was on the way to becoming a 
SuthtTlund— aswell as his late-born son and judge. But a very remarkable inward ex- 
successor, David 11, and another, John, who p^rience constrained him to give himself to 
died in infancy. Of several children not the church. lie went to St. Andrews to 
})orii in wedlock. Sir Robert, who fell at study, and on becoming a preacher (1587) 
Du])plin, Walter, who died bef«)re him, was "^ forthwith called to be a minister in 
Nigel Stewart of Carrick, Margaret, wife of , Edinburgh. On 6 Feb. 1587-8 he was chosen 
Robert Glen, Elizabeth, wife of Walter OH- | moderator of the general assembly— a rare 
phant, and Christian are traced in the records, and singular testimony to the wisdom, the 

[If the character «»f r>ruce is not understood stability, and the business capacity of one 
from liis acts, (»f which a singularly complete so young. In 1580, when the king went to 
narrative, hero con(U«n.'?e<l, has descended from so Norway to fetch his bride, and parties in 

di>tan1 a time, no words could avail. Any such 
attempt, vliieh mi^ht become? e;Lsily more pane- 
gyric, is Ixitter omitted, and the space left d<r- 
votrd to a notice of tlie authorities upon which 

Edinburgh were somewhat excited, the king 
appointed Bruce an extraordinary privy- 
cotincillor, and such was his influence that 
he kept all quiet, and on the king's return 

this life lias been basecl. RiH.ours Ikuce. the received from his maiestv a cordial letter of 
Sc<,tlish epic, 18 a poetical, but m the n,ani a thanks (19 Feb. 1589-9()). The queen was 
true account of his whole career A\ yntoun s and ^^^^.^^^^ ^^ Holvrood and anointe<t bv Bnice 
Kordunschrrmiclesare not so tuU as miffhthavo ' -i^ •»«• "u x^'n • tt • "i 

1 *• • .^. ..,wi fi, » +^^,..,w^ «^»,fi;.n., i,iTT, *^T^ I' March following. He again l)ecame 

been anticipated ; and the tormiT confines nim- . ^ , t* , ''n «-» -.r 

self in manv important facts of the rei^^n, to • ?1?J^,®^^^,«,^ ^^ *^^^ ^^"f^*^ assembly 22 May 

irivin^r a reference to th(^ Archdeacon Barl>our. lo^-- *"S power and success as a preacher 

The Kii«:lish chroniclers and the Chronicle of were A'er>' remarkable, and he continued to 

Ljinercost may be referred to with advantage, enjoy the king's favour till 1596, when, giv- 

The success of Bruce and the weakness of Ed- ing offence to his majesty by his onposition 

ward II were too conspicuous to Ixi hidden by to certain arbitrary proceedings, he, with 




others, was banished from Edinburgh. The 
king desired to introduce episcopal govern- 
ment into the church, and tne disinterested 
character of Bruce's opposition is apparent, 
for had he consented, no man would have 
been more sure to benefit by the change. 
This quarrel with the king was for the time 
made up ; but soon aft«r a new bone of con- 
tention arose. After the Gowrie conspiracy 
the king ordered the ministers to give tnanlu 
for his release (0 Aug. 1600), and to specify 
certain grounds of thanksgiving about which 
some of them had doubts. Bruce and others 
gave thanks, but in terms more general 
than the king desired. After much nego- 
tiation, and many efforts of friends to get 
the matter settled, the king carried his point, 
and ordered Bruce to leave Edinburgh. The 
prospect of his leaving was felt profoundly 
by tiie christian community, who hung on 
his lips, and enjoye<l in a rare degree his 
eloquent and powerful preaching. But the 
king was inexorable, ana Bruce*8 ministry in 
Edinburgh came to an end. 

The last thirty years of his life were spent 
here and there. From 1 005 to 1609 he was con- 
fined to Inverness, where he met with much 
harsh treatment from Lord Enzie and others, 
but where his preaching was a singular re- 
freshment to his friends. In 1609 he was at 
Aberdeen, the atmosphere of which was very 
uncongenial, for it was a stronghold of the 
episcopalians. Sometimes ho was at his pa- 
trimonial estate of Kinnaird, near Stirling, 
where he repaired at his own expense the 
parish church of Larbert, and discharged all 
the duties of the ministry; and occasionally at 
his other estate, at Monkland, near Glasgow. 
"NVTiereverhe had an opportunity of preaching, 
great crowds attended ; he preached with re- 
markable power, and his own life being in 
full accord with his preaching, the influence 
he attained was almost without a parallel 
in the history of the Scottish church. In 
1620 he was again banished to Inverness, 
and begged very hunl that, owing to his in- 
firmities and weakness, he might be allowed 
to remain at home. The king was obdurate, 
and the request was refused. In 1624 he 
was allowed to return to Kinnaird, where 
he died 13 July 1631. His remains were 
accompani(Hl to the grave by four or five 
thousand persons of all ranks and classes, 
from the nobility downwards. From his 
very youth he had been regarded with re- 
markable esteem and affection, and the bitter 
trials that chequered the last half of his 
life commended him all the more to the 
esteem of those who were like-minded. It 
was this chequered mode of life, this moving 
about from ^ace to place without any settled 

VOL. TLi. 

charge, that prevented him, as the like causes 
prevented Richard Baxter in England, from 
leaving on his country so deep a mark as his 
character and abilities were fit tod to make. 
Andrew Melville described him as a 'hero 
adorned with every A'irtue, a constant con- 
fessor and almost martyr to the Lord Jesus.* 
Livingstone, another contemporary, said, 

* Mr. Kobert Bruce I several times heard, and 
in my opinion never man spoke with greater 
power since the apostles* days.' 

As an author Bruce is best known by his 
' Way to True Peace and Rest : delivered at 
Edinburgh in sixteen sermons on the Lord's 
Supper, Hezekiah's sickness, and other select 
scriptures.* This book appeared in 1617, and 
bore the motto, significant of its author's 
experience, * Dulcia non meruit, qui non gus- 
tavit amara.' The sermons are in the Scottish 
dialect, and are remarkable as a singularly 
clear and able exposition of the scriptural 
doctrine of the Lord's Supper, enforced with 
great liveliness and power. 

Bruce's conduct in his conflicts with the 
king and in some other matters has been 
placed in a somewhat less favourable light 
in Spottiswood's * History of the Church of 
Scotland ' and in Maitland's * History of Edin- 
burgh.' These views are controverted in 
Woclrf)w's * Life of Bruce ' and in M'Crie's 

* Life of Melville.' 

[Row's, Spottiswood's, and Calderwood's His- 
tories of tho Church of Scotland ; Autobiography 
and life of Robert Blair ; Livingstone's Memo- 
rable Characteristics; Melville's Autobiography ; 
Wodrow's Collections as to the Life of Mr. Robert 
Bruce ; "Wodrow Society's Life and Sermons of 
Rev. Robert Bruce, edited by Principal Cunning- 
ham, D.D. ; Scott's Fasti, i. 4, 17.] W. G. B. 

BRUCE, ROBERT, second Earl of El- 
gin and first Eabl op Ailesbury (d. 1685), 
was the only son of Thomas, third lord Bruce 
of Kinloss, and first earl of Elgin, and Anne, 
daughter of Sir Robert Chichester of Ra- 
leigh, Devonshire. While his father was still 
alive he was, at the Restoration, constituted, 
along with the Earl of Cleveland, lord-lieu- 
tenant of Bedfordshire, 26 July 1660. He 
was returned member for the county to the 
convention parliament in the same year, and 
also to the parliament which met in 1661. 
Succeeding to his father's estates and titles 
in December 1663, he was, on 18 March 
1663-4, created Baron Bruce of Skelton in 
the county of York, Viscount Bruce of Ampt- 
hill in Bedfordshire, and Earl of Ailesbury 
in Buckinghamshire. On 29 March 1667 
he was constituted sole lord-lieutenant of 
Bedfordshire, on the death of the Earl of 
Cleveland. The same year he was appointed 

Bruce 130 Bruce 

one of the commissioners for such moneys as 
had b<H?!n raised and assigned to Charles II 
during his war with the Dutch. On 18 March 
1078 ho was sworn a pri\'y councillor. He 
was also one of the gentlemen of the king's 
bed-chamber, and a commissioner for execut- 
ing the office of earl marischal of England, 
as deputy to Henry, duke of Norfolk. At 
the coronation of King James II he bore the 
sword, and on 30 July 1685 he was appointed 
lord chamlK>rlain of the household. He died 

nection with the plot he was committed U} 
the Tower in February 1095-6. His wife, 
Elizabeth Seymour, sister and heiress of 
William, duke of Somerset, died in childbed 
from anxiety connected with his imprison- 
ment. He was admitted to bail on 12 Feb. 
following, and obtained the king*s permission 
to reside in Brussels, where he married Char- 
lotte, countess of Sannu, of the house of 
Argenteau, in the duchy of Brabant. He 
died at Brussels in November 1741, in his 

20 Oct. of the same year at Ampthill, and eighty-sixth year. By his first wife he had 
was buried there. By his wife, Diana, daugh- ' four sons and two daughtere, and by the 
ter of Henrv Grey, first earl of Stamford, he second he had an only daughter, Charlotte 
had eight sons and nine daughters. Wood Maria, who was married m 1722 to the Prince 
says • * He was a learned person, and other- of Home, one of the pnnces of the empire. 
wise well qualified, was well versed in English One of her daughters, Elizabeth Philippma, 
history and antiquities, a lover of all such mamed Pnnce Gusta\'us Adolnhus of btol- 
that were professors of those studies, and a , berg Guedem, and was the mother of LomM 
curious collector of manuscripts, especially ! Maximibana, the wife of Pnnce Charles Ed- 
ofthosewhichrelatedtoEnglandandEngli8h|ward Stuart, the pretender. TTw Earl of 
antiquities.' I Elgin was succeeded by Charles, his second 

.«„./« 1 «Ai« ,A» « TV. and only surviving son. 

[CoUins's Peerago, ed. 1812, v. 122-3; Dou- /, ^ 

gWs Peenige of Scotland,!. 515-16; Cal. State : [Colhnsfl Peerage, ed. 1812, v 124-6; Don- 
Papers, Dom. Series; Wood's Fasti (Bliss), i. ghis'fl Peerage of Scotland, i. 616.] T. F. H. 

*^^-l ^' ^' ^' BRUCE, THOMAS, seventh Eakl OP El- 

BRUCE, THOMAS, third Eakl of Elgin gin and eleventh Earl orKufCABDiXE (1760- 

and second Earl, of Ailesbfbt (1656?- 1841), was bom on 20 July 176G, and suc- 

1741), was the sixth and eldest surviving son ceeded to his earldoms in 1771 on the death, 

of Uobt^rt . second earl [a. v.], and Diana, j without issue, of his elder brother, William 

daughter of llonrv Grey, hrst earl of Stam- | Kolx?rt. Ho was educated at Harrow and 

ford. AVht*n the Prince of Orange landed in "Westminster, and he also studied at St. -Vn- 

England, ho was one of the noblemen who drews University and in Paris. In 1785 he 

adht'R'd to the cause of James, but on the entered the army, in which he rose to the 

kinjr's withdrawal from "Whitehall he signed rank of major-jreneral. His diplomatic career 

tlie application to the Prince of Orange. lie began in 1790, when he was sent on a special 

Avas one of those appointed to meet with mission to the Emperor Leo}>old. In 1792 

tlie king wlien he was stopped by fishermen he was ap^winted envoy at Brussels, and in 

near the isle of Sheppey, to invite him to 1 795 envoy extraordinary' at IWlin. In 1799 

return to AVhitohall. lie accompanie<.l the he was appointtnl to the eml>assy to the Ot- 

king in his barge to Rochester, previous to toman Porte, and he was desirous that his 

his final fiight. At\erwards he returned to mission to Constantinople should lead to a 

Iji">ndon. hut he never ttv>k the oaths to ^^ il- closer study and examination of the remains 

liam and Murv*. When the Frencli threatened of Grecian art within the Turkish dominion.'^. 

a descent on England, in lt)9(.\ during "Wil- Acting on the advice of Sir William Hamil- 

liam's nhsenoe in Ireland, an onler was given, ton, he procured at his own expense the ser- 

on 5 July, by ()ueen Mary for apprehension vices of the Xea|xilitan painter. Lusieri, and 

of the earl and of other Jacobite noblemen, of several skilful draughtsmen and modellers. 

but the danger having passtnl it was not These artists were des])atched to Athens in 

deemed necessary- to put the onler into exe- the summer of ISOO. and were principally 

cut ion. In 1691 King William issued an employed in making drawings of the ancient 

order to enable him ami his countess to make monuments, thousrh very limited faciliti»'> 

provision for paying their debts and to make were given them by the authorities. About 

leases of their estates. In May lt>95 he was the middle of the summer of 1801, however. 

pn^sent at a m»^ting held at the Old Kiuir's all obstacles were overcome, and Elgin r*- 

Ilead tavern, Aldersgate Street, London, tn ceived a firman from the Porte which al- 

concert measures for the restoration of King lowed his lordship's agents not only to * fix 

James, and was sent over to France to per- scaffolding round the antient Temple of the 

suade Louis to grant a body of troops to aid Idols 'the Part henonT, and to mould the oma- 

in the enterprise. On accoont of his con- mental sculpture and '\-i3ible figures thereon 



in (■loeler KJid g^peum,' but also ' to take bwht 
Miy piece* of stone with old iiwcriptiooa or 
fi^iirps tlimvon.' Tli« actual femovsl of an- 
(Ment marhW from Athnns formed no put of 
El^^ ori^nol {lUn, but the constant iu- 
junw sutfpred by the sculptures of the Par- 
thenon and otiter mniiuments at the hands 
of the Turks induced him to undertaka it. 
The collection thus formed bv operations at 
Athens, and bv exploralioiu in other parte 
of Greoce, anii now known by the name of 
the ' Elgin Marbles,' consisto of portions of 
the friexe. melopee, and pedimental sculp- . 
turea of the Parthenon, as well as of sculp- 
tured slabs from the Atlienian temjile of 
Nike ApleroB, and of various antiquities from 
Attics and other districts of Hellas. These , 
sculptures and antiquitiee, now in our nn- ! 
ttonal collection, may be found enumerated 
and illustrated in the ' Description of the , 
GoUeclion of Ancient Alarbles in the British 
Museum' (parts Ti-ii.), in Mic1iaeli«'e work 
' Der I^rthenon,' and in other archicological 
books. Part of the Elgin collect ion was pre- 
pared for embarkation for England in 1803, 
conidderable difficulties having to be en- 
conntered at eveir stage of its transit. El- 
gin'a vessel, the Mentor, was unfortunately 
wrecked near Ceriffo with it4 cargo of marbles, 
uid it wof not till after tbe labours of three 
rears, and the expenditure of a large sum of 
noneyi that the marbles were successfully 
recovered by lie divers. On Elgin's de- 
partnre from Turkej- in 1803, he withdrew | 
nil his artists from Athens with the excep- 
tion of Liieieri, who remained t^ direct the 
exeavationii which were still carried on, 
though on a much reduce<l scale. Additions 
continued to be made to the Elgin colluc- 
lions, and as late as 1812 eighty fresh cases 
of antiquities arrived in England. Elgin, 
who had been 'detained' in France after 
the rupl ure of the peace of Amiens, returned 
to England in 1806. No inconsiderable 
outcry was raised against his conduct in 
conneclicin with the removal of the antiqui- 
ties. The propriety o* his official actions 
-was called in question ; he was accused of 
vandalism, of rapacity and dishonesty, and 
lit additiou to these accusations, which found 
tbeir most exaggerated expression in Byron's 
* OuTw of Minerva,' an attempt was oven 
mode to minimise the artistic importance 
of the marbles which hod been removed. 
Elgin accordingly thought it advisable to | 
tlLrow open his collections to public view, 
and arranged them in his own house in Park 
Iiane, aniT afterwards at Burlington House, 
Piccadilly. Upon tho supreme merits of 
tlin Parthenon sculptures all competent art 
critics were henceforth agreed. Canova, 

when he saw them, pronounced th<>m ' the 
works of the ablest ortiBls the world lias 
seen.' Afier some prolimitmrv negoiiations, 
a select committee of the House of Commons 
was appointed in 1616 to inquire into the 
desirability of acquiring the Elgin collection 
for the nation. This committee recommended 
ita purchase for the sum of 35,000/., and in 
July ISlti an act was jia^sed giving effect 
to their proposal. The committee, after a 
careful examination of Elgin and other wit- 
nesses, further decided in favour of the am- 
bassador's conduct, and of his claim to the 
oivuerahip of tie antiquities. The money 
spent by Elgin in the formation, removal, 
and arrangement of his collection, and the 
sums disbursed for the salaries and board of 
his artists at Athens, were esiiranti^ at no 
less than 74,000/. 

Elgin was from 1790 to 1840 one of the 
representative peera of Scotland, but after 
his return to England he took Utile part in 
public affiiirs. He died on 14 Nov. 1841. 

{Peerages of Burke and Foster ; Sou^s's 
PMriige of Scotland (ed. Wood), t. S22 f. ; Msmo- 
niodumonlhe Earl of Elgin's Porsuili in Greece, 
ISIU and ISlfi: Koport from the Select Com- 
mittee on tbe Earl of Elgin's Collectlan, 1B16 ; 
RUis'a Elgin Ittarbles, pp. 1-10 ; Kdvnrds's Lives 
of the Pounders of tbe Brit. Mus.. 1870, pt. i. 
pp. 3B0-BS ; MichaeliB's Der Parthenon, pp. 73- 
87. 348-67 iMichaelia's Ancient MarMes in Great 
Britain, pp. 132-51.] W. W. 

BRUCE, SiE WILLIAM (,</. 1710), of 
Kinross, architect in Scotland to Charlee II, 
was the second eon of Robert Bruce of 
Blairhall, by his wife, Catherine, daughter 
of Sir John Preston of 'N'alleyfield, and was 
bom in the early pnrt of the seventeenth 
century. Though too young to have played 
a part in the troublous reign of Charles I, 
no one in Scotland probably contributed 
more in a private capacity to bring about tho 
restoration of the royal familv, to whom he 
proved a firm and constant friend. He is 
said to have been the channel of communi- 
cation between Oeneral Monk aud the young 
king, and to have had the honour of first 
conveying to the latter the inclination of the 
former to serve him. Being a man of ability 
and address, he retained the friendship of 
the monarch, who rewarded him in the very 
year of the restoration with the office of 
cleric to the bills, a very beneficial one in 
those days. Eight years niter, having ac- 
quired the lands of BiUcashie in Fife, he was 
created a baronet hv rornl letters patent 
dated 21 April 160&. He soon after «c- 

auired possession of the lands of Driimel- 
rie, in the same county.his title to which is 
dated 18 April 1670, and having afterwards 

Bruce 132 Bruce 

fccq-jvi from ibr Eirl : f M :r: :n ih-r "-An is fc? iaiicse* f>fihe qiuJitiefr of the * kiiig*8 master 

he: >iir:.nT of Kinmse in iLl: c^ziiTy. hr :' 'w;.rja.' H* &ther. Chi his death the title 

war. sATr bouirliii. • rTrr hfirrZ ir:?lrn-i Vj wrii* lo hi* coosiiL. with whom it became 

:Lh: :;:lr/ His *klll tri :**:-? in luiliinj trriaw, 

1-i to hi* aj.j-:.:i::=:r-:, in I^Cl. i^ -the :a iMLVVitr. Scot., fol^ 1720-40; C-mpbeU's 

k:aj'« .^'iT^-TTOT hni rns^^'rr :f -wiriL^ in:: -..-. rrj. Erli- f.l. 1767 (toL iL 1717); Kincaid's 
Lis -iiiT''.-.'Vii:«irn: in il- r^*::iri:: -n -:>: Hijt- 

fiitiC"? a* ii now siAni*, Thr work wa* 

no: c^.mplei^:i:: h. 7.^. ini Wr.tTlx jl/: sI:.- BRUCE, WILLL\M (1702-1750). pub- 
jrfe'Ler undvr Bracr'? *-jj»rrs~*i:n- In 1».>1 lisher and author, theyouncest son of James 
Ltr ivai StimiEonr'i as rvj'rvrjTnTAilvr in psr- I»r;iet'. minister of KilWeairh^q.T."", was bom 
liamrni of ihe c-ur.ry of Kinr:.>?. ly r:ysl in 17l^. He rec*-ived a collegiate education, 
leiTrr* dat-d a: Windsor on 10 A.u:. in :Li: bvii rmeT>E-i business life. In 1730 he was at 
yeiir. In I'i^O L-r buil: his "wn h;«u>r ai Diiblin in partn<5Tship with John Smith, 
Kinrors. a munsi i-n wLicb appears • :■ bive a publisher wbo had been educated for the 
be».-n orijinaF-v inT'-nir-d for tl- r^siirn.-e of ministrv. In 17-C or 173S he became tutor 
th-^ D;;kr: of York ■ atTerwaris Jan:*:-* II i. to Joseph, son of Hu^h Henr^-, a Dublin 
feL-uld Lv Lav-^ rventually be^n rxol- :t-i liankertM.P. for Antnm 1715). With his 
from succ»^iu;r •-:> thv tbrjn-. Hr? a!s-:> pup: 1 he visi:t-d Cambridge, Oxford, and pro- 
built Harden Ho-.isr in Teviotdale. and in l«ablyG!asi\:»w. for purposes of study. About 
1«N*> th- mansion Louse •;•! Hoprioim in 1745 he setTled permanently in Dublin, and 
Linlithfc'-.iwshipt* wit's commenced from his was an elder ol NVood Street, his brother 
desijiis. It wa.- £nisLed four years later, and Samuel's eoacregation. He was certainly a 
tLe d-sijTi. • ;riven bv Sir William Bruce, nonsubsoril:»er. most probablv an Arian. In 

_ • a « 

who was justly esTet.-me«l the l>est arcliitcict 175c> the general sxtioiJ at Dimgannon accepted 

of his time in that kingdom < Scot land C as a scheme of his origination for a widows' fund, 

say- Cjlin CampU.ll, will lie found delineated which came into oi>erat ion next year. In 1759 

in Lis • Vitruviiis Britanuicus/ The house, it liecame necessary to re<luce the annuities, 

L-.wvwr. wiis at a later date c-'iisid^rablv but it now vields three times more than was 

alt'.rvl jiiid modifi-LeVvii in some particulars originally calculated by Bruce. In Dublin 

of tl;'* |/lan. by x\\" U.tter-kTMwn aroLiiect. r»ruee wa< distiUiTuisht^l as a public-spirited 

Willif.Tii Adam se^ Ad.vm. IIhbert". citizen. He puMislied a pamphlet, * Some 

llruc" is also >aid t.» have designed a Facts aTuU»bservat ions relative to the Fate of 

liridj*- ov».r tlie North hoch.a sheet of watt-r the late ]-inen]»ill.*\c., Dublin, 1 7.");^ ( anony- 

whiuh fumi'/rly r)CL'ii]iied the site of the car- mous, third edition), to show that the linen 

di.-ns now ♦•xtendiii;: frnm tlie f»x>t of the manufacture of tlie north of Ireland was 

Castle K<:)ck to rrincesSlre-t in Kdinburgh ; exjxised to a double danger by the projectetl 

l>ul it was never »'xecuted. and the works closing of the American market, and the 

alrifudy •■uumenite<l iwirh the addition of proposed alx)liti«ui of the protective duties on 

Moiicritfle Hou-f»' in Perthshire, also desicmed loreign linens and calicoes. Bruce, who was 

!a' liini) are the chief if not the onlv known unmarried, died of fever on 11 Julv 1755, 

prr)of- of tlieir authors architectural skill, and was buried in the SJime tomb with his 

It i- iiin».»>>ibl»^ to sav that thev exhibit anv intimate friend and ci.>usin, Francis Ilutche- 

anioniit <>fori;^inalitv or artistic treuius; but son (died Julv 174t)), the ethical writer, 

the-".- were ])ro}»ably lit tie rcjrarded in his lime, Gabriel Cornwall (dieil 178<») wrote a joint 

wh'-n tlie architect's merit consisted mainly epitaph for the two friends in Latin. liruce 

in suiting the retjuiroments of modem lite to kept no accounts, an<l died richer than he 

th«' sup]>ns»d rul»'S of ancient construction, thought. All his property he bequeathed to 

At tlie end of two centuries, howe\er, Holy- his friend, Alexander Stewart of Ballyla\vn, 

rood House is fttill a (juaint and int»-resting co. Donegal, afterwards of Mount Stewart, 

enoujrh struct ur»*. Bruce dice] at a very jrreat near Xewto\\Tiards, co. Dotnti (boni 169i>, 

ag«" iji 1710, and was succeede<l by his son, died '22 April 1781 ; father of the first mar- 

wlio, a(!('onliug to Douglas, was * also a man quis of Londonderry). Stewart divided the 

of ]>arts. and, as he liad got a liberal educa- property among 1-lruce's relatives, in accord- 

tii)n, was looked upon as one of the tiuest gen- ance with a paper of private instructions, 

thinen in the kingdom when he returned from Bruce was the author, m conjunction with 

* " "of 

Iiere nt T^iiblin in 1733, nnd was reprinted in 
17SI AS the first nf a collection of 'Scnrce 
and VnliubleTnctsandSennons' by Abei^ 

piaay on vheOararteroflhe Into Mr, W.Bruce 
in a Letter (o > FriBQil, Lhillin, I'.ifi (bv GsLritl 
Comiran. (Utfd 11 Aag.; preAitor; Ivtler tu 
Siei»»rl by Jsmta Duehil, D.D.), reprinted, 
SfonUitj Rer. rols. xiii. xiv, ; ArnubroDg'* Ap- 
peniiii U> la-men MnrciDHta'a Oidinntion Siarviiw. 
IS29. pi>. 64. 9S ; Hineks's Koticra of W. Bracu 
•nd Conl«mporati» in Chr, Tonchor. Jiinoary 
1843 (nlm iimind wuamulj) ; Iteid'a Hist. Prosb. 
Ch. in IrcluiJ (KjU«d), 1867. >>. 406, iii. 234. 
!189 tq.] A. U. 

BBUCE, Wn.UAM (1757-1841), pree- 
hYt«rinn minister, the second son of Samuel 
Bnice, pnabyterian minister, of Wood Street, 
Dublin, nua Rose Ralnej of Maghersfelt, 
CO, llcrry, wss bom in Dublin on 30 July 
1767. He entered Trinity College, Dublin, 
in 1771. In 1775 he obtained nscbolarahip, 
nnd afterwards graduated A.B.. supporting 
himself by private tuition. In 1776 he went 
to Glasgow for a aewion, and in 1777 to the 
WoTTTnglon Academy for two years, Bruce, 
in presbyterinn matters, iaroujed the looeer 
Mdministration prevalent among his En^ish 
brethren. His first settlement was nt Lis- 
bum. He WBa ordained on 4 Nor. 1779 by 
the Banifor presbytery. Bruce was long 
enough nt Lisbum to acquire considerable 
reputation its a public man. His father's old 
congregation at Strand Street, Dublin, called 
him on 24 March 1782 as colleague to John 
Moody.D.D., onthe death of Thomas Plunket, 
BMat-grandfather of the present (1886) arch- 
bishop ofDublin. Bruce took part in the volun- 
taei morement of I7S2, serving in the ranhs, 
but declining a command. At the national 
KniTention which met in Noverober 1783, in 
the Rotundo St Dublin, he Rat as delegate 
for the connly of the town of Carrickfergiis, 
and was the lost surriring member of this 
CODTention. In 1786 he received the degree 
of D.D. from Oloagow. His Dublin congre- 
gation was increased hy the accession to it, 
on 25 or 29 March 1787, of the Cooke Street 
congregation, with its ex-minister, William 
Dunne, D.D. In October 1789 he was called 
to First Belfast, as colleague to Jamex 
Crombie, D.D. (1730-1790). This call he did 
not accept, but on Cromhie'e death he was 
again colli-d (U March 1790) to First Belfast, 
am at the same time elected principal of the 
Belfast Academy. His Dublin conCTegation 
released him on IS March. In the extrs- 
synodical Antrim presbytery, to which his 
congregation belonged, he was a command- 
ing ipint ! bis bmod view of the liberlj' which 
. g^ consist with prcsbyterion discipline is 

seen in the supplement 'by a member of the 

tTeshvtery of Antrim' to theNewiy edition, 
man's Letters.' In practice he did not favour 
the presence of lay-eiders in church courts. 
His congregation, which comprised many of 
the beet families of Belfast, increased rapidly, 
and it was necessary to provide additional ac- 
commodation in his meeting-house. He had 
ft noble presence and a rich voice. He drew 
up for his congregalion a hymn-book in 1801 
(enlarged 1816 and still in use), but while 
he ^aid great attention to congregational 
singing he resisted, in 1807, the introduc- 
tion of nn organ, not, however, on relicious 
grounds. He broke the established silence 
of presbyterian interments by originntingllie 
cuBlom of addresses at the grave. The llel- 
faat Academy chiefly owed its reputation 
to him. But though Bruce, from 1802, de- 
livered couraes of lectures on lustory, belles 
lettres, and moral philosophy, his main work 
OS principal, from 1 May 1790, when he 
entered on his duties, till be resigned his 
piist in November 1823, was that of a school- 
master. He taught well, and ruled firmly, 
not forgetting the rod ; early in his career the 
famous barring out of 12 April 1792, which 
roused (he whole town, tried his mettle and 
proved his mastery. In the troubles of 1797 
nnd 1798 Bruce enrolled himself as a pri- 
vate in the Belfast Merchants' Lifontry; he 
despatcbed his family to Whitehaven ; and 
regularly occupied his pulnit throughout tlie 
disturbances. Many of the liWal presby- 
terinns had been active in urging the insur- 
rection ; hence Bnice's attitude wss of signal 
importance. His influence with the govern- 
ment in 1800 WHS exerted tosecure adequate 
consideration for the presbyterians at the 
Union. At this period Brace's advice was 
much sought by the leaders of the general 
synod. In November 1805 there were ne- 
gotiations for the readmission of bis pres- 
bytery to the synod without subscription, 
but in May following the idea was abandoned 
as inO|iportune. Bruce penned the address 
presented to George IV nt Dublin (1821) in 
the name of the whole presbyterian body. 
Heaoughtnoperaonal favours; at the death 
of Robert Black [q.v.Jin 1817 the agency 
for the reffitim donvm was open to him, but 
be forwarded the claims ol another. The 
Widows' Fund, founded in liRl, through the 
exertions of his grnndiincle, Williani Brace 
(1702-1756) fq. v.], wss grontly improved bv 
hjs efforts and judgment, Protestants of alt 
sections welcomed his presence on ihe com- 
mittee of the Hibernian BJhli' Sociely. an 
institution which he recommended in letters 
(signed ' Zuinglius") to the ' Newry Telegraph ' 

Bruce 134 Bruce 

(myriated in th« * Belfjut Newsletter/ 16 Xov. gress of Beligioii and Tjemning ; and on the 
Vl'lX). He had a ^ood deal to do with the . Advantages of dassical Edneatiffiiy* Bel£ut, 
e<itablukment of tne Lancasterian school, j 1811, -Ito, ^nd edition 1818, 4to (originaUy 
with which waA connected a nrotestant hut puhlished in the 'Transactions of the Bel&st 
fitlw^rwi.^ undenominational Sunday school. Literary Societr,' 1809 and 1811). 3. ' A 
To provide common ground for intellectual Treatise (m the fieing and Attrihutee of Gk>d; 

{»ursiiit4 among men of all parties, he had with an Appendix on the ImmaterialitY of 
ound^ i'Z:^ Oct, 1801) the Literary So- the Soul,' Belfast, 1818, 8vo (hegun in 1806, 
ciety, a centre of culture in the days when and finished Xovemher 1813). 4. ' Sermons 
Ife;l(iMt took to itself the title of the Ulster on the Studv of the Bihle, and on the Doc- 
Athens, tnnes of Christianity,' Bel&st, 1824, 2nd 
Bruce eschewed personal controversy. He edition 1826, 8vo (not till the second edition 
had always owned himself a unitarian, in the did he rank his doctrines as ' anti-trinitarian ; ' 
broa^l sense attached to the term at its first in- his Arianism is evidently of a transitional 
troduction into English literature hy Firmin type ; in later life he was anxious to have it 
and Emh-n ; when used in the restricted sense known that he had not altered his views, and 
of the modem Sfx:inians, such as Lindsey on 27 Sept. 1839 he sij^fned a paper stating 
and Belsham, he sensitively repudiated all that 'the sentiments, principles, and opinions' 
connection with that school (see his letter contained in this volume of sermons 'coincide 
in Man. liep. 1813, pp. 515-17). Finding his exactly with those which I entertain'). S.'The 
position * misrepresented by the violence of State of Society in the Age of Homer,' Bel- 
party zeal/ Bruce, in 1824, issued his volume fast, 1827, 8vo. 6. ' Brief ^otes on theOoepels 
on toe Bible and christian doctrine. The book and Acts,' Belfast, 1835, 12mo. 7. ' A Para- 
marks an era. Unitarianism in Lreland had : phrase, with Brief Notes on St. Paul's Epistle 
long b<;en a floating opinion ; it now became ' to the Romans,' Belfieist, 1836, 12mo. 8. 'A 
the badge of a party. In the preface (dated ; Paraphrase and Notes on the Epistles and 
17 Marcn) Bruce claimed that his views were ' Apocalypse,' Liverpool, 1836, 12mo. 9. 'A 
' making extensive though silent progiress . Brief Commentary on the New Testament,' 
through the general synod of Lister.' This ' Belfast, 1836, 12mo. Besides these he con- 
was accepted by trinitarians as a gage of i tributed papers, scientific and historical, &c., 
battle; the g«*neral ^ ^' ..,. .. i.,,^,. 

2 July, agreed to an 
contradiction to said 

the seceders of 1829 in the formation of the Among these articles may be notfceda series 

Unitarian Society for the Diffusion of Chris- of twenty-three historical papers on the *Pro- 

tian Knowledge (9 April 1831), though he gress of Nonsubscription to Creeds,' contri- 

would have preferred as its designation the bated to the * Christian Moderator,' 1826-8; 

colourless name, * A Tract Society.' By 1884 these are of value as giving extracts from ori- 

he had retired from public duty, and was ginal documents. His* Memoir of James VI,' 

suffering from a decay of sight, which ended m * Transactions of the Royallrish Academy,' 

in blindness. In November 1836 he removed 1828, gives copies of original letters, and 

to Dublin with his daughter Maria. Here he information respecting his ancestor, Rev. 

died on 27 Feb. 1841. He married, on 25 Jan. Robert Bruce of iGnnaird. 

1788 Susanna Iliitton (died 22 Feb. 1819, [Armstrong's Appendix to Ordination Service, 

aped o6), and had twelve children, of whom James Martineau, 1829, pp. 75-7, 89; Porter's 

SIX survived him. Several portraits of Bruce Funeral Sermon, The Christian's Hope in Death. 

exist; the earliest is in a large picture (1804) 1841 ; Bible Christian, 1831, pp. 47, 239, 289, 

by Robinson, containing portraits of Dr. and 1834, p. 389, 1841, pp. Ill sq. ; Chr. Reformer, 

Mrs. JJnice and others, now in the council- 1821,pp. 218sq., 1869,p. 318; Reid'sHist.Presb. 

engraved in mezzotint (1819) by Ilodgetts ; ^^'''^\ ^^f • ^t^F*^^ ^^V^ P' *% \2^; "\l®,®^» 

a fine painting of head and bust is in the H' f^' ^^^ ; Be^. Newsletter. 26 Feb 1819 ; 

^^»ooL« ^^ « ,^««,io«., T T> Tk T Mmutes of Gen. Synod, 1824, p. 31 ; Insh Unit. 

^o?Ti:Z^^^ grandson, James Bruce D.L., ^ ^847. p. 367 ; Disiiple (Belf.), 1883, pp.84, 

of Thorndale ; an engraving by Adcock from 93 ^ . c. Porter's Seven Brnces. in Northern 

a niimatiire by Ilawksett was executed for ^yhig, 20 May 1886 ; manuscript extracts from 

the Christian Moderator/ 1827. He pub- Minutesof Gen. Synod, 1780; manuscript Minutes 

BRUCE, WILUAM (1790-1868), Irisli 

boiD at £<:lfust lU Hov. 17MJ, tho sL-cond sod 
of ■Waiiiim Bnice (1757-1841) [q. v.] He 
■whm edueatt^ first at the Belfaet Acndem; 
undei bis father; entered Trinity Colleeu, 
Dublin, on S July 1804, where he ohtained a 
dchoUfBhip and Efradual«d A.B. on SO July 
1809. Me»ntinieheattcDdedaeeseioii(180^ 
1809) at Edinburgh, where he studied moral 
pbilosophv, churcfi hialory, &c., under Ihinild 
Stewart, Hugh Meikkjuhu, nnd others. His 
theological studies were directed by the 

fewof hi^fatber's^fts, but his quiet firmness 
Mid aniiahitity rave him a hold ou the affec- 
tiotts of his people. Theologically he followed 
cloeely in his father's steps. It is believed 
that he edited the Belfafit edition, 1819, 8ro, 
of ' Sarmoiia on the Christian Doctrine,' by 
Richard Price, D.D. (originally published 
1787), whieb contain a mild assertion of a 
modified .'krianism, as a middle way between 
Calvinism nnd Socinianism. In If'il Bruce 
came forwurd as a candidate for the vacant 
claasical and Hebrew chair in the Belfast 
Acadeinii'al Institution. Two-thirds of the 
Arian TOtu went against Bruce, in cona»- 
Qoence of the hostility hitherto shown to the 
institution by his family ; but Sir Robert 
B«t«aon, the episcopalian leader, and Edwurd 
Bsid of Rnmelton, moderator of the general 
aynod, made eflbrts for Bruce, and he waa 
elected on 27 Oct. by a large majority, The 
appointment conciliated a section wliich had 
gtood aloof from the institution on the ground 
tbiai it had sympathiaed with unconstitutional 
principlesin 1(98, nnd ultimatL'ly the govern- 
ment grant, which had been withdrawn on 
th«t account, was renewed (27 Feb. 1629). 
Bruce, «till keeping his conirregation, held 
the ohair wilh solid repute till the establish- 
mtmt of the Queen's College (opened Novem- 
tel849) reduced the Academical Institution 
to the rank of a high school. The Hebrew 
chair was separatRd from that of classics 
in 1BS5, when Tliomos Dix Hincks, LL.D., 
another Arian, was appointed to fill it. Bruce 
took no active share in the polemics of his 
ttmo. An early and anonymous publication 
on the Trinity sufficiently defines his position. 
In Later life he headed the consenative mi- 
norily in the Antrim presbytery, maintaiu- 
inff that oonsuhscrihing principles not only 
flowed but required a presbytery to satisfy 
itself oa to the christian faith of candidates 
for the ministry. The discussion wua con- 
' iUnl with much aciimony (not on Bruce's 

part), and ended in the withdrawn! of five 
congregations, since recognised by the kd- 
vemment, as a distinct eccletiiiiatical body, 
the northempresbytetjof Antrim, of which, 
at its first meeting, 4 April 18fi'2, Bruce was 
elected moderator. In the same year the 
jubile« of his ordination was marked by the 
placing of stained glass windows in his meet- 
ing^houae. He retired from active duty on 
alAprillSer. Froml832hehsdascolle8gue 
John Scott Porter, who remained sole pastor 
[seellKCCB, William, 1757-18411. Heeon- 
tinued his services to many of the charities and 
public bodies of the town. He studied agricul- 
ture, and carefully planted hia own grounds 
at The Farm. Hia last sermon was at a com- 
munion in Lame on 28 April 1867. He died 
25 Oct. 1868, and was buried at Holywood 
28 Oct. On 20 May 1823 he married Jane 
EliMbeth(died27 Nov. 1878, aged 79), oiily 
child of William Smith of Burbudoes and 
Catherine Wentworth. By her he had four 
sons and six daughters ; his first-born died in 
infancy ; William died 7 Nov. 1868, aged 43 ; 
Samuel died 6 March 1671, aged 44. 

He published: 1. 'Observations on the 
Doctrine of the Trinity, oeeaeioned by the 
Rev. James Carlile's book, entitled " Jesua 
Christ, the Great God our Saviour," ' Belfast, 
1828, 8vo, anonymous ; Carlile was minister 
of the Scots Church, Mary's Abbey, Dublin 
(died March 1854). 2. 'Un the Right and 
Exercise of Private Judgment,' Uelfost, 1860, 
8vo (sermon. Acts iv. 19, 20, on 8 July). 
3. ' Address delivered to the First Presbyte- 
rian Congregation, Belfast, onSunday, 12Jan. 
1862, in reference to the recent proceedings 

and Limitation,' Belfast, 1862, 12nin(sermon, 
1 Cor. viii. 9, on 5 Oct., the day of llie re- 
opening of his church after the erection of 
memorial window), 

[J. 8. Portac'sFunoral SBrmon, Th« Sew HeavBO 
and New Earth, 1868; Reid's Ufat. Pniab. Ch. in 
Iraland (KiU»b), 1887. iii. 44S; J. L. Portor-sLift 
and Timw of H. Cooke, 1871. p. 62 sq. : Bolfiul 
Newsletter, 1821 ; Bena'a HM. of Belfast. 1880, 
ii. 108; Chf. UnilRrian, 1862; Konaolacriber, 
1862; Chr. Life, 4 Due. 1878; C. Porter's Seven 
BrtKws, in Northoni Whig, 28 May 1885 ; mauu- 
■cript Minutes Antrim Presbytery, Northern 
Presbytery; Hioutes and Baptismal ItoKiatar. 
First ProHb. Cb. Uelfiist ; tomb«<Dtioa at Holy- 
wood; privalo infoniuilioE.] A. G. 

BEtrCKNEB. JOHN il72tl-l804), 
Lutheran divine, was bom nu .31 Dee. 1726 
at Kadzand, a small island of Zeeland, near 
the Belgian frontier. He was educated for 
the ministry, chielly at tho university of 
Froneker, where he studied Greek under 

Bruckner 136 Brudenell 

Valckenaer; and held a charge at Leyden. \ Cassander (1515-1566) being a catholic di- 
In 1752 a business journey to Holland was . vine who laboured for union between catholics 
made by Mr. Columbine, elder of the 
wich church of Wa" 
Flemings, founded 

beth, and holding the church of St. Mary the ; Wakefield*s * Enqiiiry into t\ie Expediency 
Less on lease from the corporation from ; and Propriety of Public or Social Worship/ 
March 1637. Columbine was directed to j 1791. In his preface Bruckner promises a 
seek a fit successor to Valloton, late pastor j continuation). Ue began a didactic poem in 
of the Walloon church. On his introduction, j French verse, intended to popularise the 
Bruckner, who could preach in Latin, l)utch, views of his ' Th^orie.' Four pathetic lines 
French, and English, settled in Norwich in on his own wrinkled and * lugubre ' counte- 
1753. In addition to his duties at St. Mary i nance are given in Mrs. Opie's * Life.* 
the Less, he succeeded Dr van Sarn, about f Norfolk Tour, 1829. ii. 1074 (based on ar- 
1/ 66, as pastor of the Dutch church, to whose ' tide by W. Taylor in the Monthly Mag.) ; Van 
use the choir of St. John the Baptist (the der Aa's Biographisch Woordenboek der Neder- 
nave being used as the civic hall under the landen (errs respecting the diite of death) ; 
name of St. Andrew's Hall) had been per- ^ BrightweirsLifoof Amelia Opie, 1864, p. 29 seq.; 
manently secured from 1661. This charge ^ Biblioth. Parriana, 1827, p. 268.] A. G. 

was scarcely more than nominal, and that of ■ 
the French church arradually became little BRUDENELL, JAMES THOMAS, 

else. Li both cases there were small endow- 
ments. Bruckner held the joint chaijje till 
his death, and was the last regular minister 
of either church. He made a good income 

seventh Earl of Cardigan (1797-1868), 

gmeral, the only son of Robert, sixth earl of 
ardigan, was bom at Hambledon in ELamp- 
shire on 16 Oct. 1797. From his childhood 

by teaching French. Mrs. Opie was amonff he was spoilt ; for he, as well as his seven 

his pupils. He was a good musician and 
organist, and a clever draughtsman, as is at- 
tested by his portrait of his favourite dog ; 
for he kept a horse and pointer, being fond of 
outdoor sports. The Norwich literary* circle 
owed much to his culture and learning. lie 
died by his own hand, while suffering from 
mental depression, on Saturdav, \'2 May 1804. 
He was buried at Guist, near toulsham, Nor- 

sisters, possessed the proverbial good looks 
of the Brudenell family. He spent two years 
at Christ Church, Oxford, and when he came 
of age, in 1818, was returned to parliament 
by his father's cousin, the first marquis of 
Ailesbury, as M.P. for Marlborough. He 
entered the army, and purchased a cometcy 
in the 8th hussars in May 1824, when he was 
twenty-seven vears of age. He made up for 

folk. He had married in 17?^2 Miss ('ooper his delav by lavish exi)enditure in purchasing 
of Guist, a former pupil, who predeceased ■ his graaes, and became lieutenant in January 
him. Opie painted nis portrait, which was ; 1825, captain in June 1826, major in August 
exhibited at the Koyal Academy in 1800. j 18;K), lieutenant-colonel in December 1830, 
In Mrs. Opie's * Life ' a curious stor>- is told and lieutenant-colonel of the loth hussars in 
about the expression of the eyes in the por- 1K^2. In 1829 he resigned his seat for Marl- 
trait reminding a visitor of the countenance borough on account of a difference with the 
of a person who had committed suicide. One • Marquis of Ailesbury on the subject of ca- 
of Mrs. Opie's * Lays' is about this portrait, tholic emancipation, and at once purchased 
Bruckner wrote : 1. * Th6orie du Systeme \ a seat for Fowey. In 1832 he fought a most 
Animal.' Leyden, 1767 (anon.; in chai)s. vii. | expensive election for North Xorthampton- 
and X. there is an anticipation of Maltnusian shire, and was returned with Lord Milton for 
views). 2. * A rhiloso])hical Survey of the his colleague. Lonl Brudenell found himself 
Animal Creation; an Kssay wherein the soon hemmed in by troubles among his ofii- 
general devastation and carnage that reign cers. They had a natural feeling against the 
among different classes of animals are con- lord who had Iwuglit himself into his com- 
sidered in a new }»oint of view, and the vast mand, and his unconciliating temper caused 
increase of life and enjoyment derived to the peri)etual quarrels. At last, in 1833, he 
whole from this necessity is clearly demon- illegally ordered one of his officers, Captain 
strated,' Ix)nd. 176H (anon. ; a translation of Wathen, into custody at Cork. Wathen so 
the fon^going). 3. * Criticisms on the Diver- thoroughly justifitnl himself before a court- 
sions of Purley. By John Cassander/ 1790, martial that Brudenell had a hint to resign 
8vo (the name Cassander was suggested by the command of the 16th hussars. His 
his birthplace, and. according to Parr, recom- father, however, who was an old friend of 
mended itself to him as a * peacemaker be- William IV, obtained for lum the command 
tween the grammatical disputants j* George , of the 11th hussars, which he assumed in 


huBNirs e 
re^mcnt in t U« Bar 
wards by Iheqiieei 
Albert's Own Hus 
from India 

India in It^Sd. The rvgiment wns <it once 
ordered home, and on its arrh'uj in 1837 
Brudenell found that his father wa« dead, 
and tliot he had succeeded tu the earldom i 
»nd 40,000/. a year. j 

As Lord Cardigan he was not mure sne- \ 
ceasful in getting- on with his officers thHn 
be bad b«en as I^rd Brudeoell. Vet he wns , 
liberal with bis money, and as be spent 
10,0001. n j-ear on the regiment, the tllb 
le the smartest carttlry 
;e, andwaa aelected after- . 
o bear tbe title of Princ« . 
lTS. Tbe regiment on its 
faa stationed at Canter- 
bury, and at that place occurred what was ' 
known as tbe ' Black Bottle ' riot. Cardigan 
ordered a certain CaptBln Reynolds under ai^ 
rest for a trifling reaaon, oiid a feud arose, 
which again brought him into notoriety-. 
He shortly afterwards met aaotber Captain ' 
Reynolds of his regiment nt Bnghton, and 
onliBred him under arrest for impertinence. ' 
Agarliled account of this transaction appeared 
in tbe ' Morning Chronicle,' signed ' H. T.' 
Gordigan found out that the writer was a 
certain Captain Han'ey Tuckett, and im- 
mediately challenffed him. The duel took 
place on Wimbledon Common on 12 Sept. 
1840, and at the second shot Captain Tuckett 
WW wounded. This duel created immeuse 
excitement, and public feeling ran strongly 
Beainst Cardigan, who demanded his right to 
be tried by hie {leers. Un 16 Feb. 1841 Lord 
Benman presided as lord steward. Sir John 
Campbell, tbe attorney-general, prosecute<l, i 
and Sir William FoUett led for the defence. ' 
Tim trial lasted only one day ; tbe prosecu- I 
tion hod omitted to prove the identity of 
Captain Tuckett with Captain Han-ey James I 
Tuckett, and Cardigan was declared by all 
the peers present ' not guilty upon my honour,' 
except the Buke of Cleveland, who said ' not 
guilty legnUy upon my honour.' Cardigan 
rt^lainnl the command of his regiment till 
Ilia promotion to tbe rank of major-general 
in 1B47. He lived the ordinary life of a 
wealthy nobleman until the Crimean war 
broke out in 185J. He was then sent out in 
command of a eavalry brigade in Major- 
freneml Lord Lucan's dirision. I,ord Lucan 
and Cardigan, whose sixler Lord Lucan bad 
sutrricd. were old enemies. I^rdigan de- 
clared tliat he understood hia command to 
Iw independent of Lucan's control, ajid tlieir 
boatility appeared both at Varna and the day 
before tliR battle of the Alma. ^Vben the ! 
cavalvy dlvixion encamped outside Balaclava, ' 
Lord Lucan lived in camp with tile men nnd 
febanid thair privations, while Cardigan had 
ibi^ iwiufious yacht tn the harbour, and 

dined and slept on Ijoanl. At [lie attack 
on Balaclava, when the liiissinns had been 
' driven back by the I)3ril Higlilauders, and 
charged in Hank by tlie heavy cavnlrv, an 
order was sent down by Captain Nolan, 
aide-de-camp to Mujor-general Airey, thai 
the light brigade was to charge along the 
goutbem line of heights and drive the enemy 
from the Turkish batteries. Tlie order was 
easy of execution; Lord Lucan must have 
known along wliich line the light brigade 
wae to charge, and Captain Kolan knew petw 
fectly whither to lead the troopera. But Car- 
dimin could see nothing from his station, and 
believed he was to charge straight along the 
valley in &ont of him. Lord Lucan did not 
inform him of his error, and Captain Nolan 
was unfortunately killed )ust as be perceived 
the erroneous direction tfie brigade wag tak- 
ing and while trying to set it right. Straight 
down the valley between the Ru«$tan bat- 
teries alonp one line of bills, and the cap- 
tured Turkish batteries on the other, and right 
at the Russian batteries in his fi~ont, Cai^ 
digan mlloped many yards in front of his 
men. He was first among the Russian guns, 
receiving but one slight wound in the leg, 
and then rode slowly out of the melfie. Un- 
fortunately for his reputotion, although he 
WHS the first man among the Russian guns, 
he was not the last to leave them. (Ifflcers 
and men stood about looking for their general 
and wMting for orders, and then rode away 
from the guns in tens and twenties, in twos 
and threes. Cardigan bad played tbe part 
of a hero, but not of a general. Great was 
the excitement in camp after the charge. 
Lord Raglan was profoundly displeased ; 
some blamed Lord Lucan, some Cardigan, 
others General Airey, who bad only written 
the order, and others Captain Nolan, In 
truth, no blame could be niod on any one. 
Cardigan faithfully obeved the order he had 
misunderstood, ilis sukveqiient conduct was 
unfortunately indiscreet. He returned to 
England in January 1865. and was treated as 
a hero. His portrait was in every shop win- 
dow, and his biography in every newspaper. 
He was invited to a banquet by tbe lord 
mayor at the Mansiim House on (} Feb., and 
boasted of his prowess after the dinner. He 
was made inspector^ neral of cavalry in 
1865, which post lie held for the usual term 
of five years, was made K.C.B., a commander 
of the I>^on of Honour, and knight of the 
second class of the order of the Me^idie, and 
was promoted lieutenant-general in IS61. 
He was made colonel nf the 5th dragoon 
guards in 1859, which he exchanged for the 
colonelcy of his old regiment, the 1 Ith hussars, 
in August leSO. Not satiolied with all these 





honours h^* alwavH insisted on being re^^arded 
M» a hero, and in IfiWi ap])lied for a cnminal 
information for libel against Lieutenant- 
af}\onH\ tluj Hon. Somerset J. G. Calthorpe, 
Lord llaglan's nephew and aide-de-camp, for 
a statement in his ' Letters from Head- 
quarters/ that after the charge of Balaclava 
* unfortunately Iy>rrl Cardigan was not present 
when mrwt n.fjuired ;' but he was nonsuited. 
After the trial he lived quietly at Deene 
Park, his H4;at in Northamptonshire, where 
he died from injuries caused by a fall from 
his horse on 28 March 1868. He left no 
children, and his titles devolved on his second 
cr>usin, the H«*cond marquis of Ailesbury. Car- 
digan was tli»^ autlior of * Cavalry- Brigade 
Movements,' 4to, 18(J1. 

[Thore \h no life pnl'liNhe^l of Lrml Cardigan, 
arm for it g«'iicml .skctcli of his lifu reference must 
\m jntuUi to tho Tini«>H obituary notice, &c. An 
account of his tritil l>eforo tho House of Lords 
was piiblishtMl in 1H41, and there is a useful 
arialysiH in T<iwnson<rs Mo<lern >Stato Trials, i. 
209 (1850). For his l^chaviour at Balaclava see 
alx)Vo all Kinglakc'.s Invasion of the Crimea, vol. 
V. ; th« Ilej)ort of the l'rocee<lin^8 in the Queen's 
Bi'nch taken by Lieut .-gm. thu Karl of Cardigan 
on applying for a criminal information for libel 
against Li«^ut.-col. thf Hon. S. J. G. Calthorpe, 
1803, and a curiously aboMve little work. Was 
L)r«l Canlipm a II«to at Bjilaclavii ? by George 
Kyan, IKo.'i.] H. M. S. 

BRUDENELL, IlOBKllT (1461-15;31), 
judp', was d»'S(;«'H(l«*cl from William IJrude- 
nell, who was s«'ttl»;(l at Dodington and 
A(ld«Tbiirv in Oxfordshin*, and Aynhoe, 
Nortliain])ton.shin', in the rri^ni of Henry 111, 
an<l from an Kdmiiiid IJrudenell who was 
attorri«'y-^»^»Mi»'rHl to Kichard 11. liolntrt, 
horn in 14(11, was tin* s^rond son of Ed- 
mund ]5rud»'n»'ll of Apnondesham, lUick- 
in^liMUishint, by bi> s(»coii(l wife, IMiilippa, 
dau^:ht(»r of Philij) Knpfletield of Englefield 
and l^^infliin«rti»'ld in Essex, who Vjrought 
him (!onsi(b»rabb; pro])frty in Huckingham- 
shin*. lIobtTt was educated at Cambridge 
and ' bn*d to th»* law,' and, though his name 
occurs in tin* y»'ar-books as arguing at the 
bar no mrliMr than Ililarv term 14iK), he 
was ill th»* commission of over and terminer 
for IJuckingliMm in 14^9. He sat in par- 
liament in loO.S, and was one of the com- 
missioners for Leic(?stershire for raising the 
subsidy granted by ])arliament in that year. 
Tn Michaelmas term l')04(not lo()o, as Dug- 
dale has it in the • Chronica Series M he, with 
nine others, was raised to the rank of ser- 
jeant-at-law, and the new Serjeants held their 
inaugural least at Lambetli Palace. On 
'2i) Oct. of the year following he was ap- 
pointed king's seijeant, and on the death of 

Sir Robert Read he, on 28 April 1507, was 
made a justice of the king's bench. On the 
accession of King Henry \m Brudenell 
was transferred to the court of common 
pleas, in which court he sat aa a puisne judge 
for twelve vears. In 1515 he was a com- 
missioner of sewers for Norfolk, Cambridge, 
and Leicestershire. On 13 April 1521 he 
was appointed chief justice of the common 

Eleas, and held this office till he died. On 
eing appointed to the chief justiceship he 
revisitea Cambridge, and the university, 
with which he seems to have maintained 
his connection, made him a present. On 
another occasion it presented him and his 
wife with a pair of gloves. In 1529 he was ap- 
pointed a commissioner to sur\'ey the castles, 
forests, and other possessions in Leicester- 
shire belonging to the duchy of Lancaster, 
and to inquire into encroachments. He died 
30 Jan. 1531, and was buried in the south 
aisle of the church of Dene in Northampton- 
shire, in an alabaster tomb between his two 
wMves. There is a full-length efiigy of him in 
his judge's robes with the inscription : * Of 
your charity pray for the souls of Sir Robert 
Brudenell, knight, late chief justice of the 
king's common bench, at Westminster, and 
of Margaret and Philippa his wives.' He 
was of a literary turn, contributing among 
other ])iece8 a descri])tion of Stanton to Le- 
land (Ithi. i. 13, 15, 18, 84, 85,89, viii. 110). 
In the course of his life he ac^juired verj' con- 
siderable estates, chiefly in Leicestershire, 
with which he was connected as early as 1 503, 
and founded a chantry* at Billisden in 1511, 
and also elsewhere. His land in l^Mcester- 
shire was situated at Stanton Wvville, and 
was acquired through his first wife, Margaret, 
widow of William Wvville of Stanton, and 
sisterand coheiress of Thomas Kntwysell.high 
sheriff of Lancaster and Warwick in 148i^, 
who, with his wife, Katherine (the heiress of 
the Wyville family), being childless, aliened 
the manor to Brudenell. He also, at the 
end of Henrv* VIl's reign, purchaseil the 
lordship of Cranoe in the same county from 
John Cockain. His second wife was Philippa 
Powre of Bechampton. By his first wife 
he had issue four sons, Thomas, Anthony, 
llo))ert, and Edmund, and a daughter, Lucia ; 
bv his second wife none. Of his children 
only the two eldest had issue, the former 
foimding the family of the Brudenells of 
Deene, the latter that of the Brudenells of 
Stanton Wvville or Brudenell. That he had 
other lands besides those in Ijeicestershire is 
])lain from the fact that he settled the manor 
j of Deene on his eldest son, upon his marriage 
j in 1520 with Elizabeth, eldest daughter of 
, Sir William FitzwUliam, and that to his son 

Anthonr he gave (be lordelilp of Gkplborpe 
in Nortbflmfloneliire. Itolh branclitis Inug 
Hxisled. His greal-cnindson whb one of tlie 
fint Imronetg created, and was nutde a bnron 
in less, uid earl of Cnidigan in 1661. 
AraoDK bis desceodauts were George, fourth 
uarl, who was created Duke of Montagu in 
1T76, B title which expired on his death in 
1790 ( and Jmdas Thomas, seventh e&rl [q. t.] 
The BrudenelU of Deene became extinct in 
1780. The arms of Brudenetl were a chevron 
giilee between three morions azure. 

[Fou's LiTGH of tfae Judge*; Dngdalea Ori- 
IpntH, tl3; NieboU'B Leicestershirs, ii. fiS4, 
808; Vbraut's Viiiuition of Northumptontihire; 
Wtighl'»Eoaand(Leland),iy. pL 2. 192; Pari. 
BoU(,Ti. S39 ; Letters Hfd. VIII, Brewer. ToL ti. 
No. 495; Cooper's Atbfue Caulab. I. 43, 528; 
Baler's MS. uiv. 67 ; Hrydges'a NortUmpton- 
■hire, ii. 301 ; Cburton'e Lires of Smyth and 
SnttoD, 339, 31)5. 441 ; Lipscoiab's Baekingbam- 
Bhira : Campbell's Reign of Hennr VII, ii. 479.] 
J. A. H. 

BBUEN, JOIIN (1560-1(125), puritan 
lajiiian,wastheeoii of aCheehiresqtiirewbote 
&mil,<vhadlon);buHn settled at Bruen Staple- 
ford, and ifl believed to have ffiTen its name to 
the township. There had been a succeeeion 
from the middle of the thirteenth century. 
The elder John Bruen of Bruen Stapleford was 
thrice married. His union with Anne, the 
nater of Sir John Done, was childless, but his 
second wife brought him foorteen children, of 
whom Katharine.afterwftrdB the wife of Wil- 
liun Bretlargh, and John, who, although not 
the eldest bom, became W Hurvivorsbip his 
heir, were remarkable for the fervour of their 
pnritanisni. John was in his tender years 
■eat to his uncle Diitton of Diitton, where 
for three jears he was iau);ht b; the school- 
master James Uoe, Thu Dutton familj had 
bj charter the control of the minstreU of the 
county. Young Bruen became an expert 
dancer. ' At that time,' he said, ' the boly 
Babbaths of the Lord were wholly spent, in 
«11 places about us, in May-games and Mny- 
polM, pipings Hud dancines, for it was a rare 
thing to hear of a prenouer, or to have one 
Mrmnn in a vear.' Whoii about seventeen 
he anil his brother Thomas were sent as 
ffentleraen-rommoners to 8t. Albau Hall, 
Oxford, whoretUeyremntnedabouttwoyenrs. > 
H« left Iht> university in 1571*, and in the 
following year was married by his parents to 
K daughter of Mr, Hanlwure, who bad been 
twico mayor of Chester. Bruen at this time 
keml^ enjoyed the ph-Hsures of the chase, 
and, m conjunction witji Kulnh Done, ' kept 
foHrti-cn couple ofgreHl tnouthed dogs.' On 
Uie dRBlh of bin iuther In IfiR? his means 
mov nsduced ; hu cast ull' hi)i dogs, killed the , 

game, and disparked the land. His children 
were brought up strictly, Bud his choice of 
servants fell upon the solier und [lious. One 
of these, Robert Piislifield, or 'Old Robert,' 
though unable lo read or "ftTite, had acquired 
so exact a knowledge of the Bible, that he 
could 'almost always' tell the book and 
chapter where any nnrlicular sentence ww 
to be found. The old man had a leathern 
g'irdle, which served him as a niftnona 
trfAnica, and was marked into portions for 
the several books of the Bible, and with 

E lints and huots for the smaller divisions, 
men in summer rose between tjiree and 
four, and in winter at five, and read preyeiD 
twice a day. His own seoeons for prayer 
were seven time* daily, He removed the 
stained glass in Tarvin Church, and defaced 
the sculptured images. On the Bunday he 
walked trom his house, a mile dislntit. to the 
church, and was followed by thu greater part 
of his servants, and called upon such of his 
tenants as lived on the way, so that when he 
reached the church it was at the head of a. 
goodly procession. He rarely went home to 
dinner after momiiig prayers, but continued 
inthecburchlillaflertheeveningservicf. He 
maintained a preacher at his own housv, and 
afterwards for the parish. Bnicn's house Iw- 
came celebrated, and a number of ' gentlemen 
of rank became desirous of sojouming under 
his roof for their better information in the 
way of God, and the more effectual reclaim- 
ing of themselves end their families.' Per- 
kins, the puritan divine, called Bruen Staple- 
ford, 'for the pmclice and powerof religion, 
the very topsail of all England.' His wife died 
suddenly, and after a time he married the ' very 
amiable and beautiful' Ann Fox, whom he 
first met al a relieious meeting in Manchester. 
For a year they dwelt at her mother's house 
at Rhodes, near Manchester. He then re- 
turned lo Stapleford, and again bis house 
became the abode of many scions of gentility. 
Bruen's second wife died after ten ypars of 
married life, and the widower brok" ii]) bi.» 
household with its twenly-one boarders and 
retired to Chester, where he clefirwl l in- debt 
of his estate, saw some of his children settled, 
and maintained the jioot of his parish by the 

Eroduce of two mills in Stapleford, whither 
e returned with his third wife, Margaret. 
He bad an implicit belief in special provi- 
dences, 'judgmBnt8,'witchcrafl,&c. Hekejit 
a hospitable house, and was kind and chari- 
table to tbepoor of his neighbourhood and of 
Chester. He refused to drink healths even 
at the high sheriff's feust. Towards Ihe end 
of hb life bis prayers wi/re twice accompanied 
by ' ravishing sights.' He die<l after an ill- 
ness, which was seen to be mortal, in 1EJ25, 

Bruerne u© Brugis 

at t!iv !»*:♦- •»!*•»'». ThtT- i> a iK»rr.ii: > if him and its cause (^Jettel, JVorks), Xeverthe- 

in I'hirk*- ' M:irr»\v ni" lu'cle^i;i>!ii';ii Hi^T-try." It-ss. the fellowi* of Eton, acting without the 

Thi- lias )>vn rr-t-n^Tavrd hy Kichard-ion. consent of the queen, elected mm as^ provost 

Aiii"iij t!!».' llarU-inn MSS. is a canjiila- on -'» July lotU, granting him at the same 

ti-'ii liv him riiTiTlfrl 'A lvk*1v vr'tiTa)»le time the usual leave of absence. The inde- 

C'lit-cTi'in nf »livvr> .vnUMuvs nii: of Holy pendence of their action and the unfitness 

Scrip! art', and varit-ty of mativr lUiT "i M-vt^ of their choice roused much indignation, and 

nU diviii.' auT!i<»rs.* Tht"»e nr»." c.»mmouly Bishop Grindal wrote to Cecil that *suche a 

callfvl hi* rard>. and an* tifty-t wo in luimU'r. si^rte of hedjre priest es ' should not be allowed 

Th'- >anii.- iMll»rTi"n contains ilu* ]vTi:i»n f-f to act in despite of the roval prerojjativc 

his '•■m. I'alvin Hnivn. of l''!i'>ii*r. nuTivr, [State Papers, Eliz. Domestic, xix. I'S, ."<0; 

rfSjHvTini: tlif :r»aTiurnt h»' mvivt-d f t visit- Ltte). Archbish^»p Parker was accordingly 

in;: IVvnii" wh-n lu* was Tak^n Throuirh directisl to hold a visitation of the college, 

C!if*Tfrit»inij»ri'-»nmr.'nt at Carnarvnn Cattle, and to inquire intn the election of the pro- 

Tlit* lift* uf. liihn HnuMi was n»T t'Vfjiiful. and vost, 'of whom there is disperst very evil 

hf i- 4'hiftly notal-lf a> an i'niU.»d;mvnt of the fame/ llie visitation was held on 9 Sept., 

jmriran i-U/al of a ]»i..iu> laynnin. and thoujrh Bnieme at first objected to the 

[A Faithful Rc!n- ustranio of tV.e Holy Lifo commission, allejrine that it had expired, he 

an; Haijy l»i'.iih <»:" John I>ruin. 1 y Wiliiam finally resigned the provostship, receiving 

sum of monev to W accounted for {Parker 

BRUERXE, KICIIAKl) ilolOr-irnCS^ 0.rresjhyndefice\. 
pr.if.-<.ir nf Hohr»'W. tVllow of Lim-nln Col- pv^vHlV Fasti Ox.-n. U-d, Bliss), i. 87. Vl-\ 161; 

K'.'". <ix!".'r.l. and «'•' rt-ivivi-d th.- dt»- Fox e^ Acts a:ul M-Tiiir-unt** (ed, 184fri. vi. 130. 

LT« V nf B.l». ill l.')ir. and tho no\t yi*ar was 1*13; StryjVs M.m 'rials of Cranmer, ii. 1090; 

aj'ii-'inTi ■! pr.'l'.-s^nr <if livbrrw in ilio uni- LilV of Parker, i. •Ju-'>-7 ; Ix-land'sCygnivi Cant io 

v.-r-ity of I >\l'..rd. Whilr hiddinj liiis oilioe («>1. I60SV p. 22: .Tcwi Ts Works, iv. II'J'J (Parker 

h" \v:is on" nf tlio wimes^rs on l»olialf of SH-'ivty^ ; Zurii-li Lertors. i. 7 (Parker Soo.) ; 

W H 

(>-ivr«l tin- j'anoiirv at Chri*«t Churidi tor- 

ni-rly li.ld l.y IVtrr Martyr. Hi- Ir'aminkT BRUGIS, TIKOI AS (f. l(>4()r). ^urtroon, 

i* i"»'lrljrati-d l»y Liland. wh.». in his 'Cvirnoa was horn pro]»ahly h.'twfen IHIO and U>:K), 

C.inti».' 1. ri.'J:',. rall> him * llo^ca-i radius since lie praotisrd fur sevt-n years a^ a sur- 

idiMri.' nntl Hi-^lmp Ci»x. tlum^'h ono of the ^'eon dnrin;: th»' civil wars. II»» d'V.* not 

jKirty nj^ji.wMd ri» him. >ays in a let tor to reo«>rd n])on whioh <ide he served. Hi' ob- 

Pt'T.-r .M:irtyr. • llirliartl Bruorn*'. an exoel- tained the de;rro'^««fvloctor of physio, though 

It-iiT II.I»r;ii>T. i« in poss*«><ioii .if ymir pri*- from what univ'*r<ity does not appoar. and 

})*'ni\' { Zi/n'i /{ Let fn:<). Tn May 1"»">7 he was s^'tth'd at Uiokmansworth, IIertfi»rdshire, 

in^TMll»-d lannii of Windsor. l>urinir !•">'><> whore lie de>i'rihos himself us curint: '(by 

hi- ir»)»r»\v l«M-tiiris wor«^ taki-n by IVter de God's help) all >orts of a^ues in y«>nnii and 

SiT I, and «it1:.t«. appear to havo lo^tured in old, and all manner of old sort»s tliat are 

hi- nhn'i- diiriiiL: thtf noxt two V'.-ars. This curable bvart." 

ni.iy h.'ivf ho«'n sim]dv hooans»" h^ was en- Bruiris wrote 'The Marrow of Physioke,' 

L'aj^-d ♦d-ii-wlii're (WoniO. On the other l^mdon. ir>40. 4to: and * Vade Mecnm. or a 

hand. th»- o.'-<Mtion nf his loeturo^ may have Companion for a Chirurpion.' of wliioh the 

liiM-n ••nf'-rL'fd "n ac'cuinr of hi? misoondnct. tirst edition a]»ivarod, London, I60I, l:?mo, 

II" i- Slid t'» have boon ^'■uilty «if pross im- and the st»venth 1<>>*1>, in the same siz.*. Tlie 

mnraliry. and eonseipn-ntly to have Wen popularity of this little book shows that it 

cd»lii»-«'d to r»/-i^n his prnfossor<hip s<mio time must have bot»n useful, but there is nothinp 

bfforo March l.V>9, the date of a letter in original in tliis or in the earlier work. Per- 

which .Tewol t»ills Martyr of his resigmation haps the only notable thing in the * Vade 



Mecuro " is a email contribution to forensic 
nuMiiciaci, in thta ghupc of nilea forthe reports 
wLlt^h a surgeon mi^t have to m&kebemre a 
coruncr's inquest. Even this is partly lakan 
from Ambroiae Parfi; but we know of nothing 
iik» it in any earlier Englisli book. 

[Bregiii'.- Work!.] J. F. P. 

(I73tf-1809), diplomuli!.t mid astroootner, 
wna the son of F. "VV. Graf tou Briihl of 
MartinBkirchen, who died in 1700, and ne- 
phew of Heinrich ron Briihl, Saxon prime 
nuuator 1748-03. Bom at Wiederaii in 
Eltictorat Saxony on 30 Dec. 17S6, he studied 
at LiCipiig, and there formed a cloee friend- 
ship with Gollert, who addressed an ode to 
him on his fourteenth birthday, and corre- 
sponded with liim for aoiae years ('see Gel- 
LBBrt Sammtt. Schri/ten, u. 71, %-iit. 24-1 1ft, 
Leipug, 1784). At Paris, in 1755, Briihl, 
th«D in hie nineteenth year, took an active 
put ID Sason diplomat^ ; was Bummrined 
to Warsow in 1759; named, through bis 
uncle's influence, chamberlain and comman- 
dant in Thuringia, and in IT&l appointed 
nmbasiiadar exiruordiuary to the court of 
St. James's. Save for one journey homeward 
in 1785, lie never afterwards left Kn^Iand, 
but died at his house in Old Burlington 
Street on 9 June 1609, aged's. He married, 
fimt, in 1767, Alicia Maria, dowager coun- 
teM of Enemont, who died on 1 June 1794, 
leaving him a son and daughter; secondly, 
in 1796, Mifis Cherone. From 1798 he be- 
longed to the Saxon privy council, and was 
a knight of the White Eagle. 

lie loved astronomy with piBaion, and 
effectually promoted its interests. Through 
his influence Von Zach, who entered his 
&nuhr OS tutor shortly after his arrival in 
London in Norember 1783, became an aatro- 
anmer. With a Eadley's seitont and a 
dirononieter by Emery, they together deler- 
mined. in 17B6, the latitudes and longitudes 
of Briiawls, FroJikfort, Dresden, and Paris. 
BrUhl built (probably in 1787) a small ob- 
Mrvntory at his villa nt Harefield, and set 
UI>tbere,flboiit 1794,a two-foot astronomical 
Circle by Rnuudcn, one of the first instru- 
ineata of the kind made in Englnnd. He 
nns illtimat« with Herscli«l, and diligent in 
truuini'tiug the news nf bis and others' dis- 
cuvMIc* abroad through the medium of Bode's 
• Jalirbucli.' Perhaps the most signal benefit 
conftTred hybim upon science was hie tealouB 
adrnntwrnent of uuronometry, and patronage 
of Mud^ and Emmery. The realisation of 
thvir iniprovementa in watchmaking was 
1» due lo his help (see Mudge's letters 
IT72-S", included iu A Deteription 

of i/ie TimekFfper, London, 1799). He de- 
voted, moreover, considerable attention to 
political economy, and made a tour tlirough 
the remoter parts of England early in 1783 
for the purpose of iuveetii^ting the state of 
trade and agriculture. He wrote: 1, ' Ee- 
cherches sur divers Otgeta de YfU. 
Politique,' Dresden, 1761. 2. 'Three Re- 
gisters of ft Pocket Chronometer,' London, 
1786. S. 'Latitudes and liongitudes of 
several Places ascertained." London, 1780. 
4. ' Nouveau Journal du Chronomtitre,' fo!., 
London, 1790, 5. 'On the Investigntion of 
Aetronomical Circles,' London, 1794. trans- 
lated, with additions, by Von Zach in 
Hindenberg's ' Archiv der reinen uud ang»- 
waudieu Mftthumatik,' i. 257, Leipzig, 1795. 
0. ' A Register of Mr. Mudge's Tiroekeepera,' 
London, 1794. Contributions by him are to 
be found in Bode'a ' Astronomisches Jshr- 
buch' for 1790-4, 1797-9, and in suppl. 
vols. i. ii. iii., as well as in Gantler and 
Meissner'a ' Qnartal-Schrift ' (including es- 
Sttva on English finance), Leipzig. 1783-6. 
Appended to T. Mudge junior a ' Reply to 
Dr, Maskelyne '_ (1792) there is by bim ■ A 
short Explanation of the most, proper Me- 
thods of calculating a mean Daily Ral^ ; ' and 
he furnished Bergosse with a preface for his 
' Betrachtimgen iiber den thierischen Mag- 
neti^mus,' Dresden, 1790. 

[Ersch ondGruber'sAllgBm. Encycl. »iii,204; 
Von Zach's Allgeiu. geogr. Ephemeridun, iv. 
184. Woiinar, 1799; J. G. Mousel's Orlcbrtra 
Toutschliind, i. 4ST (5to Aiisgaho). LtiinRo, 
ITBG; Geot. Mag, Ixiix. 186; Pi^uendoi^s 
Eiog.-Lit. Handworterbnch • LaUiiile'* Bibl. 
Astf. p. 630.] A. M. C. 

(1778-18401, generally called BEir llRtrM- 
HELL, is said to have been grandson nf Wil- 
liam Brummell (d. 1770), a confidential 
servant of Mr. Charles Monsou, brother of 
the first Lord Monson. William Brummell 
occupied a bouse in Bury Street (Note* and 
Qtieriei, 1st series, ii. 2B4), where apart- 
ments were token by Charles Jenkinson, first 
earl of Liverpool. The bnau's father, also 
William Brummell, an intelligent boy, acl«d 
for some time as tir. Jenkinsoii's amanuensis; 
was in 1703 appointed to a clerkship in the 
treasury, and during the whole administra- 
tion from 1770 to 1782 was private secretarv 
to Lord North, liy whose favour he receiveil 
several lucrative appointments {Omt. Mag, 
Jxiv. 385). He furtnor increased his means 
by his marriage with Miss Richardson, daugh- 
ter of the keeper of the lolterv c)lKce. "The 
vounger William Brummell ilied in I79il, 
leaving C6,000/. to be divided eiiuiiUy among 



- •-.-- } .^ ..: I' .-i.Tizt-— "It- ^ »-iii^ liT'LTTii.T^ t: Hi*- 'ui frhmafTiKT^ bimwhen 

- :. v.. •■ — . * .'.:.- . - LTii innr.— i l- iik-i-n^-Lr-iurLrii* t- vl H^ rcee^red much 

"V-.-v.. -..--• >. _*-•. i-r VLr --'i:- -■ Z." n- lii-u-:' i*ii> ir'OL iJupLni. tiui "we* s-x-n inan- 

L-_:. V ■-..' - 1.--- . - - - ^»-i - if. TWr 17 Vi,ia. ■r_it-r :• il c fit'ir li. l^i": Id* f-^rsser friend, 

:.- ■*■' \ V.:- i: -.1 .. . -..i^ ir.M >3.!. ?vuL.:T»r— j u t- iiji;; Ti-irf i JLa.if rtLifw-fiyt r-Hanorer, 

r--'.it"'— L" . ::.-~. :_.• -l* z.r'tr 

:iir ij- :I:~'^!Tf-lr■v •!£ iLj»r>e«fiad s? brlpwas 

Ji- V u* -r- -,• -.'...;>• L'.i T-L- £^' v-i ;-t*L 11- f5-!rt*£. I»i ". ! >*=:i:. IS?*'''i»f''irLf am>inted 

-■.;--. '.• ? .- r --..T1.T1.- . 1:1 1"-*^ Zir -vLj 2crL-ii r-cj!L_ l* Cij"!-!-. & ?cnfir:;rr at>:)lished 

r*-. "---. •-"--. ..-r- . rr '-L :-j* lit Lbi :-- L.? "v-l bfm^r il IScS. Hif creditor? 

T •' .".L" •".:'•*-.:- LT.i "_rf~ 'i-T ir..^ !.■■ v ;-l-i4<*i ltil^I Lis.. lii£ Le-wiS ca«t into 

T--. -- • .:- ^i_:z_' --L." l:« l- -Lr --iTfr :' :_;* TIT-?- (1. \Llt lSf*T . ir':,T?*r 3t*rraiaTir»n and 

if ■-''': -f 1 szrrrux *r^.n. • ■ 'M-Tr ":»r-£fis hi? *piTiT. He 

?>-•- "c". - f 7.- - J r. TT-r ■■ LT^^-LT* -r "in.? '!.»:c Lr-sr r:lr*?«f-i tT*i FTijjlitd by his 

i-t'-i— -.1: ■--•.■ 7 •:_- ?r--.T ::' "'Vi^-i. -^Zi." fritii* •w.-'i l fZL.Lll iscr-irr- It: 1S37 he 

.1 " '■'-- ."-T-.-T-^---: "• — - L ^ czrr'rr >'^ijL *: fi'v «,r:.f :■: i^t^eciliTj: he held 

-.'-■--• ""■ r-*--u.--- -It "..•■1 1 -•.<tr«. '.'z Tti-Lr: ■=. t^-'ttiTj'T.*- ."u tI* l^esuTies and 

"ir iLiTT.i.*% : -^T :"--.> UL ".*-•' ZT — :*T'rIl :i.uir:j.-rf :f li-r :li ifiy*. S.vr all care of 

T"*-- •- T-r- ' L. L----iijL:- Ht -p-t* ^r:- ":_.•■ 7»rr^:- ^-rz,'^ Lii c*rr^.f^«ne*s and 

— ■•-ri '-'i-"L ' '.''-* Lii n !*>* TrT-^^i f_-.T'i.*.f L.* ItV:** :»=*.-.L^-r s? 1 >a:b?ome that 

ZT 'J. • . r—..- zir - ■ ^ i.rrT 1:*.=.- -z: i-* Lz. t--T=.iL-- .'■■■^i lirilr ^.r fr-.:ni f-">r lum. 

P".-.:r"*" :l« - .i ■.•.•'. . ill ij-rL-^rri ■B-.-.i AizL.^?- - tl* l: It--" '"'"iined f^r bim into 

-"-'-" -.-rjT:.-. - L.- •.i..^r. 7 t^-l'. l.ii— r'" &.*: "It lt-tI _z: f "ir F^'n Ss-vrUT. Caeo, whew 

".":«!»?» Lfr :i r. ?-rz=.nt".l. H*-.. lS+4 (ntw 

^ '■ " - ' r - -' ■ ': ■' ' -,\ ^"r"' -' r ■ " ^^^' T — '^ — -■ ' -'=*- "^ ^'* 1 S>I . -.Trri: w s Kcmisiscenees 

~'---^. a'.-.. -•- n :: :1«7 =.:•£•!-. Livii:^ l^i* . T«»r:»»T i Air«~llT"* Zn l^r.Wsnix- et de 

-' • ■ • -- .-.- ' -:..- T->- l.i fr--.: -It .t :-rzn=i*:l '.'sci. :>i5. F-cIwrp's Pelham 

J" ■ - .. . -.. -. :-> .-ii- - • "-— j-ir, *="•:•: f* fiLfTJ-r*--::* frta :"--: '::> : Erammrfl. 

.-: •*.-__- Pr .:z:zr.. '..: r. ■: ^- '-- -"-—i-"*-^- -- T?*Uv"i in L:»:trs novel 

-T .« - > 


BEUXJErS. TH'.'MAS ■ i. 13^^\. [See 

V.T :.:■. r». :l->5 BRr>T>ISH. J« 'HX JELLIAND «/. 

> r ■- '•.-■.-:■. Is, IT'*'' . :-r-. \/. wr^Trr. wa* c^n of xhx* Rev. 

.-.'.'. "1- '.- . .'.- r* i J ;.!! Br.-.r. i>h * Kv.ry >:. Eimur.'.is, Siitfolk. 

- I T*r V :: -;:ir-. H •■ '^" - ^ •.- .: .; .\i' -i s.: d: '.:> C "^Ur .r-^. Cambridge, 

I. :. if.-'.-r ^' .:.}.]-. L ri r.yr::. I»:kr sr..; wa* ?-r.: r wr':»!:;:\-r, >'H:.^r clar^Mcal 

" '' * •■ J. r:A.- v'.-v. M r-, I'y i:? irr ViV.i-:, i!:idrs: Sir. ■.:•.*< prizv'xan in 1773. 


< *■ 

. : ;. lir r:-:r.-:!! v.- ^^ r.vv-r -.vrivi- i.^r/.y thrvr.- ■. :lirr :ndlY:d'.iai-i evvr obtained 

> '' ■ i. - .-•■--. v.:.:.:i -.Vi* o:. .nirvrls-;-.! till •■.►• h:rhv>: h a 'iirs in tbv .<anu» year, 

•' ' ■' •'• ■■ :-: ::-!--r -.•:::. IIv wis r.:in:- Iv.KavcM' Chri-tV. in 1*^04: Alderson, 

'' '■■'•..■ : \ v •'. I.'- * :^- iv. r-.!. : Lil a jit: ■:* Ciiii-i. iu l'**^^ : and Smith, .^f Trinity, in 

*'■■ '. !* • .r..- ■ :* -\:/r.— : ::. bu* 'h^ dn»-o- l-^.Vi. Bnin-lish t-vk holv or«i».rs. but re- 

'■ '■■ * ■! ' :" \..r!i — '-ri ■'.' in lic.r" f; '■>!, im- maiTuyi in c '11'.*^:^ and pnM^evdt-d to the de- 

j. . .■;• •■'.:'-]/ -y^n ri'hvr thun wit. He jrir-^' ofM.A. in 177«.». He dit'd in colleee in 

'r.'.- :.■..;•.- 'ir.-l i;r:r--fil l»-TT».r-. ar.d was F'^bniary 17>ti. Hf i;; the amhnr of 'An 

•«''•'■ * . f.rj'I v-.i-r*' in "•ririm*rnral v-^r^e fi)r KWiry on a Family Tomb/ Cambridsro. 1783, 

|»-' ifi;- ri'lorn*:--!]-. Wi'li t}j»- prinC':* heat 4to. acO'.»mpanied by an Italian metrical 
1 ' ' I; :'l ;i fj i.irr-l. af^-oiinr- ot" th»' caii«t» of version by a friend of the author. The ori- 

'vl.i.i, •. :.fv : |,r'iWubly it wa- som** mor»?tlian einal Encrlish is n-prinieil in the * £uro]x*an 

''p!. •■;!!•. lir.:rj'— '>{' a -Jitiric tnufrn^. It was ; Ma.iraziue' for January 17w.», p. 49. 

■I 'i-jiiiivi .,{• .'iMi.N. I JnimmHll Jr-M hi^ own | |->^-g^ Monlhlv Mair. Julv 1817. pp.522, 623 : 

Ml ','1,1 .. HMtil ;r!iniMiMjrlow;i..s forced him to Cantabripienses" GnuUiati (1787). 59; Qit. of 

lb-llH. cMiinirv. On 10 May 1 Sir, he retired printed Books in Brit. Mus. under 'Elegy;* 

^'»<'jiliii', iind tln'r«', with sudi poor means a.<* 

'■'iiiUi iir.w \f' fibtain<'d, he rtickles.sly renewed \ 210*.] T. C. 

MS. Addit. 19166, f. 205 ; European Mag. iz. 49, 


(1806-1869), civil engineer, the only son of 
Sir M«rc I. Brunei [a. vA was bgm on 9 April 
1(<XS at i'ortamouth. He was educated first 
private schools, sad lawr in the coUece of 
nnri Qnntre at Paris, then celebrated for , 
its staJT of matheniBticat teachers. At a. ' 
Tcry early ase he evinced decided talent for I 
dravrior, aou when only fourteen employed 
liimsell in mokine on accurate plan of Ilove, 
near Brighton, Where he n'aa then at school. 
AfUr two years apent at Paris he returned 
to Bnglajid for bie practical training, lu 
1823 he entered his father's office, and at the 
age of seventeen took part in his operatioitd 
ftt the Thames Tunnel, where he was after' 
wards appointed resident engincpr, and there 
gained personal experience of nil hinda of 
-work. Brunei rendered his father great 
•aBiHtance in meeting the vatioua dieaaters 
which occurred in the course of the tunnel- 
ling operations. At an anxious time, in 
September 1BS6, he was actively engaged on 
the works for ninety-sis consecutive hours, 
with a few snatches of sleep in the tunnel. 
On the occasion of the first great irruption of 
river, Brunei, to save the life of a work- 
in danger of drowning, lowered himself 
into the shaft, then half full of water, and 
succeeded in bringing the man to the surface. 
One of Brunei's first great independent 
desiinia, executed in I82E), wim for a suspen- 
sion tiridge across the riverAvon.fromDurd- 
Itam Downe, Clifton, to the Leigh Woods. 
HiB firat plan was, on the advice of Telford, 
r»ect«d; but a second design, sent in in 
1631, was pronounced to be Ihe most mathe- i 
nuitically exact of all those tendered (among ' 
which was one by Telford himself), and was ' 
Accepted. Brunei was appointed engineer, I 
and the works were begun in 1836, but 
lOwinsto lack of funds were not completed in I 
liis liietinie. After his death the bridge was ! 
<n«oted nenrlv in accordance with bis original ' 
dcfligns, witli chains taken trom the old ' 
Bnngerford suspension bridge, constructed | 
fajr himself between thefeargIS41 andl845, i 
^d rnnoved in 1863 to make room for the ' 
during CrOM railway bridge. Brunei was 
appointed engineer to the Bristol Bocks, 
which he aRerwards carried out eitensi 

oimUar works at Plymouth, Briton I'erry, 
Brentford, and Milford Haven. In March 
1833 Drunel was appointed engineer to the 
QrMit Western railway, and in that capacity 
carried into ofTecthiBpunsforthe broad-gauge 
railway, a system which became the subject 
uf much controversy among the engineers of 
the day. Him work on this line established for 

him a high reputation in his profession. The 
viaducts at Hanwell and Chippenham, the 
Maidenhead and other masonry bridges, the 
Box tunnel, and the iron structures of the 
Chepstow and Saltash bridges on the Great 
Western line and its extensions, all exhibit 
boldness of conception, taste in design, and 
great skill in the use of materiaL He ob- 
tained a high reputation for his evidence 
given before the parliamentary committees 
on schemes of which he was engineer. He 
was employed to construct two railwavs in 
Italy, and to advise upon the Victorian lines 
in Australia and the Eastern Bengal railway. 
He adopted the system of atmospheric pro- 

Eulaionon the South Devon railway in 1844, 
ut it resulted in failure, The lost and 
greatest of his railway works was the Royal 
Albert bridge of the Cornwall railwav, cross- 
ing the river Tamar at Saltash. It lias two 
spaces of 455 feet each, and a central pier built 
on the rock 80 feel below high-water mark. 
It was opened in 1859. 

Brunei's greatest fame was obtained in the 
construction of ocean-going steamships of 
dimensions larger than any previously known. 
The object was in each case to enable them to 
carry coal sufficient for at least the outward 
voyage. InlSSethelargeatsteamvesselafloat 
did not exceed 208 feet in length. The Great 
Western, constructed bv him, far surpassed 
anvotherexistingsteamsiiipiD sine, measuring 
236 feet in length by 35 in breadth, with a dis- 
placement of 2,300 tons. She made her first 
voyage in 1838, and achieved a great success. 
She was the first steamship employed in a 
regular ocean service between tnis country 
and America, and accomplished the voyage in 
the then unprecedented time of fifteen days. 
In the construction of this vessel Brunei had 
the assistance of Mr. Paterson of Bristol as 
shipwright, and Jlessra. Maudslay & Field 
as makers of the engines. A series of obsetv 
vations upou screw propulsion, mode in the 
course of experimental voyages in the Archi- 
medes, convinced him of toe practicability of 
applying the system to laive eleamshipa. In 
1841 Brunei was commissioned bv the admi- 
ralty to conduct exjieriments which led to 
the adoption of the screw propeller in the 
navy in 1845. The Great Britain, an iron 
ship of dimensions far exceedingthoseof any 
vessel of the period, first designed by him for 
paddles, was the first large vessel in which 
the screw propeller was used. She made bet 
first voyage from Liverpool to New York in 
1845, and abundantlv aemonstrated her ex- 
cellence of design one) strength of hull, espe- 
cially when she was stranded on the coast of 
Ireland in 1846, and remained there a whole 
winter. After the launch of these vessels 

Brunei 144 Brunei 

Bninel was, in 1851, appointed consulting { nave of Westminster Abbey. Brunei's per- 
engineer to the Austndian Steam Navigation : sonal character was universallj esteemed. 
Company, and in this capacity recommended | Though undemonstrative and overworked, 
the construction of steamships of 5,000 tons he found time for many acts of generosity, 
burdf n, capable of making the voyage to [ AMiere his professional work was concerned 
Australia with only one stoppage for coaling, he exhibited an almost excessive indifference 
His suggest ion was not then adopted. Brunei s to public opinion. lie was a profound stu- 
crowning effort in shipbuilding was in the de- dent of engineering science, and possessed, 
sign of the Gruat Eastern, the largest steam- besides hi^h mathematical knowledge and 
ship yet built. The scheme for this vessel was readiness m applying it, great natural me- 
adoptedby the directors of the Eastern Steam chanical skill. Brunei's special objects of 
Navigation Company in 1852. Brunei was , study were problems connected with railway 
appointed their engineer. The work was begun ' traction and steam navigation. He devoted 
in December 185.*^, and the Great Eastern two years to completing the experiments of 
entered the wut»T on 31 Jan. 1858. The his father for testmg the application of com- 
delays and casualties attending her launch pressed carbonic acid gas as a motive power 
must be attributed to the novel and gigantic lor engines. He was a zealous promoter of 
character of ilie undertaking and the imper- the Great Exhibition of 1851. He was a 
feet calculations then applied to the problems member of the building committee, and chair- 
of friction. The experience of the Great man and reporter of the section of civil engi- 
Eastem prrjved the accuracy of Brunei's neering. Brunei was elected a fellow of the 
designs, and she affords a good example of lloyal Society in June 1830, and became a 
the double-sliin system of cohstruction, a de- member of most of the leading scientific so- 
vice unknown in previous shipbuilding. In cieties in London, and of many abroad. He 
many otlu^r respects the ship was admirably joined the Institution of Civil Engineers as 
constructed, and remains a strong and efficient an associat-e in January 1829, became a mem- 
vessel to tills day, although she has been sub- ber in 1837, was elected on the council 1845, 
jected to the severest strains in the work of : and from 1850 to the time of his death held 
laying submarine cables. Financially she the position of vice-president. He declined 
has bet-n a failure, except as a cable-carrying ' the office of president in 1858 from ill-health, 
ship. She was popular when carn'ing troops He frequently took part in discussions, but 
in 1801, aiul when taking passengers to Ame- contributed no pai)t^rs to the proceeding's, 
rica; but as a siuj^^lo and exceptional ship | Brunei received the degree of lion. D.C.L. 
has b»*«n comiiKTtnallv unsuccessful. Brunei i from the university of Oxford in 1857. In 
was restive unrlor nvstraint on invention, and ' July 1836 he married, and he left a widow, 
wasapiTsistent an«l out spoken opponent of the two sons and a daughter surviving him. 
l)atent laws. In a<iaition to the worksalready j [Proceedings of Inst, of Civil Engineers, vol. 
m.ution.'d, Hrun.-l devutt^d much attention six. memoir; Smiles's Life of Stephenson, p., 370; 
to tlu' improvt-mt-nt of large guns, and de- Encycl.Metropolitana; Encycl. Briton. 9th edit.; 
siffned a floating gun-carriag»i tor the attack Life of 1. K. I5runel, by his Son, 1870.] K. IL 
on Cronstadt in the Russian war in 1854. 

IL- also dL-i^rn»;d and superintended the con- I BRUNEL, SiE MARC TSAMBARD 
St ruction of tli»' hospital buildings at Ren- (1769-1849), civil engineer, was born ou 
kioi on the Dardanelles in 1855. The labour = '2^ April 17H9 at llacqueville, near Gisors, in 

and anxiety involved in the building and 

Normandy, where members of his familv had 

launch of tile Great Eastern proved too much fanned land for generations. He was de- 
for Brunei's physical powers, and he broke stined by his parents for the church, and 
down on theday of lior start on the trial trip, when only eight yt^ars old was sent to th« 
He was present, on 5 Sept. 1859, at the trial college of Gisors to begin the necessary clas- 
of the en;rin»'3 tin.' day before she left the ' sical studies, for which, however, he showed 
Thames, but his lu«altli had been failing him no inclination at any time. He already at 
for some time, and on this occasion he was ' that age evinced a marked taste for me- 
seiz«Ml wit h an attack of paralysis. Ten days | chanical pursuits and for drawing. At eleven 
later, on 15 Sept. 1S59, he died. He was ' years of age he was sent to the seminary of 
buried in Keiisal Green cemetery on 20 Sopt. i St. Nicaise at Rouen, connected with the 
At a met.'ting held in the following Noveni- | ecclesiastical college in that city, and there 
ber, under t he presidency of Lord Shelbume, ■ determined to qualify himself for the naiy. 
it was ri^solved to erect a public monument After some time devot-ed to the study of draw- 
to Brunei, and a statue was made by the late ing and hydrography, he obtained, through 
Baron Marochetti. A window was also the influence of the minister of marine — tne 
erected by his family to his memor}' in the ' Mar6chal de Castries — a nomination to the 

corvetlf! nntned after (liat minister. In this 
Teasel BtiiiikI sailed nn a cruise to the West 
Indies, Hti'l contiiiiutl to servu for six y-ars. 
At (tarting: he const meted a ijuadrant so 
occuratK ihat he tras fible t^ uhi it through- 
out his iiRViil career. In 1702 hia slii)) was 
Mtd off, Bud early in 1793 he returned to 
Puis, whi<;h ha aoon hiul to leov« in uonse- 
qui*tice <if liis open I'XpniaiKionB of loyiiliBt 
opinions. After somt- time spent at Rouen 
ia connidersble daof^r, ho obtained a pass- 

rirt for America, eailud from France on 
July, and Innded in New York on Sept. 
1793. Hure bs first deHnit«W adopted the 
piofflMiun of civil engineer and architect, and 
obtAini.'d liis first trnwigi-ment on tho survey 
of & l^rgi- tract of bind ntsar Lake Ont-orio. 
ffia next i<n;n>e«njent was on the sxavej of a 
liaft for a canal to connect the river Hudson 
withZikke Champlain. The superintendence 
of these operations was first placed in the 
haiids of luiother French refugee, but Brunei 
displayed such capacity as the dilHculties of 
th« nnderl aking increased, tliat the command 
wu resigned to him. Brunei now obtained 
Vkrinns commtseions, and he competed suc- 
CMSfully aifainst several professional archi- 
teeta in di^sU^is for the new House of As- 
Monbly at \Vashinglon. His plan, however, 
WIS oltimntely set a^e on g-ronnds of eco- 
nony. His was also the select<>d desi^ for 
tbe Bowery Tlieatre, New York, which he 
himMlf constructed. It was burnt down in 

Brunei was now appointed chief engineer 
of New York, and in that capacity was em- 
ployed tu I'rect on arsenal and cannon fouu- 
oiy, in whicli he introduced much new and 
ingenious machtneiy for casting and boring 
Onnancv; and shortly aflerwaras furnished 
nlana for the defences of the channel between 
Statmi Island and Iiong Island. He bad for 
■dine time been engaged In elaborating an 
idea for the application of machinery to the 
mBnufocttire of ships' blocks on a laiye scale, 
and he determined upon visiting Enghiud 
with lh<^ ribj>-ct of submitting his plans to 
(be Brilii'li pjvemment. Accordmgly he 
«ail»d from America on 30 Jan. 1799, and 
landiid in England in the following March. 
Sbcrtly after arriving in this country be was 
mamnd to Miss Sonhia Kingdom, a lady 
irbose acquaintance be had made in France 

SBvious to his deportuw for America. In 
ay 179!l Brunei look out his firiit pati'ntfor 
a wriliii); urid drawing machine smiilar in 
principle !•> the pantagraph, and about the 
game limt>lie invented a machine for winding 
cottnn ihrtrad, which was largely adopted in 
cotton fncioriei, but of which he neelected 
ty tbe benefit by patent. He also in- 

vented various other ingenious machines of 
minor importance, which brought littleprofit 
to himself beyond the testimony they ailorded 
of his mechanical skill. In the construction 
of the 'block machinery' he was fortunate 
enough to secure the co-operation of Henry 
Maudslsy, and having completed hia draw- 
ings and working models. Brunei in 1801 
took out a patent for his invention. He had 
introductions to Lord Spencer at the admi- 
ralty, and through bim th« plans were made 
known to Sir Samuel Bentham, then inspec- 
tor^^Qeral of naval works, who forwarded to 
tlie authoritiea Brunei's application for the 
substitution of his machinery for the more 
expensive manual labour then in use. After 
lot^ negotiations and delay the government 
ultimat«ly, in May 1803, adopted bis pro- 
posals, and he was directed to erect his ma- 
chinery at Portsmouth dockyard. In Hpit« of 
many hindrances, the machinery was com- 
pleted in 1800, The saving of kb-mr and 
expense effected by tbe adoption of Brunei's 
ingenious mechanism was enormous. The 
system consisted of forty-three machines exi^ 
cuting the various processes in the block 
manmacture, and by its iud operations which 
by the old method had required the uncertain 
labour of over one hundred men, could be 
carriedout with precision by ten. The blocks 
were better made than they bud ever been be- 
fore, and the estimated saving to the country 
in tbe first year after the machinery was in 
full working order was about 34, OOW. Brunei 
hod incurred great expense in carryingout bis 
plans, but his claims received taray recogni- 
tion fkim tlie government. In compensation, 
and as a reward for his invention, he ulti- 
mately received a sura of 17,000i. Between 
the years 1806 and 1912 Brunei was occu^ImI 
in perfecting various machines for savnng, 
cutting, and bending timber, as well aa one 
for cutting staves, and in 1810 he took out a 
patent for 'improvements in obtaining mo- 
tive power ' b<r means of an ingenious air- 
engine, but this invention appears to have 
had no practical results. About this time 
he erected sawmills of his own at Battersea, 
where many valuable operations in the work- 
ing of wood by machinery were for the first 
time introduced. In 1311 he was employed 
by the government to erect sawmills and other 
machinery of his own invention at Woolwich. 
In the following year be was entrusted 
with an order for carrying out improvements 
on a large sciile in tbe dockyard at Chathanii 
by which immense savins' was effected in 
the time and labour reqiuced for the trans- 
port and working of timber, and ui wliieh 
an iron railwav laid on longitudinal sleepers 
was intiodttcod by Brunei for the conveyance 

Brunei u'^ Brunei 

^r* *t.^ *.r.'^.- rVorr. ".11*% par of "ha y^rd r.-, di.'»ohAr2f-othL*t!»^br.'».an«iwTfcachenliberat«;«l 

;4r.-i*r..-. ff.* *.-o 'l^vi.^/1 <in<i ^r«^cT.»-fi ma- D^irin^r th** n»rxt t'lur v^ars Rrun*tl de«ign«*d 

rh.r,.rv f'lT* 'hr'- rK;»r.ir1iic?:ir»f of *hrjes. which iawmill.* t'nr she UlamL* of Trinidad and 

v.-:rt: -.irW.yf^fi f-iT i'ov<!mmftTir. for 'i.«- in r.h.5 B»;rbicti. H'*»?if-ct»HiimproTt*nienr."» in marine 

krrrr'- : '.** *K*' f>TS»r.*> r,f l-il^ involv»>d him «team-*njrinwa and paii«il»*-wh»?eL-. In l'S23 

in f..ri- 7 j.'tr.jriiAfy lo^j^ r,n hi* con*rart.a. he iuppli^^ plan.« tnr •iwina"-brid,z^« tor the 

fr. I "1 2 fJr jm-l mAfJA hi/« fir»t <ixf*rimr^nr.« dock« at Liv»»rp^-)ol. wher»=- fhrve vears later 

,n ■'**sirri n/iviyiMon on thft Tliam<r^ wif-h a he introdnwd th»? fl-iatinz landinsr-piers 

'loijM/-<i/'»ln;r rriarinft *:n6rin»f, and infer*wt»:d which haw «ince b«»»?n .*«? lars:»*ly extended. 

liirrM*'lf 8rfi;;ifiv in ^.'^taMi'^ihintr a lin»r of Hi.4 opinion wa.» taken on many of the en- 

vN-nrri'-r^ ♦o plv I'l'Tt-wt-^n Iy>ndon and Mar- (rineerinar project.* of the day; while he at 

/a**' 'J'.vo y*'»ira. ht^.r h»i pr'-vailftd up^>n the thia timt; wa-* pers^-verinsrly en8ra*ed in ex- 

ri;i-. V \/turf\ fo uf^/i^it hh pr'>|K>HalH for towing periment.*, in which h*- «icrificeil much timt* 

;,«-;t<«|j f,? wnr to ■•<-a by tli»: aid of •■teAm- and money, for the prrxluction nf a new mo- 

tii/v, tiw\ rnfult' at lii^own ••xp^;n?»*r a number tive powfr from th»^ vap«^ur of ffn>es liquefied 

'if *x[w;rirn»'nN din-ct'-d towards the cm- at a low temperafnn*. H»» constructed and 

i»rii/'f I'lii hf ^U'fiin v<?.Ha«'l« of .initablf* j^'iz*; patented a machine to carr}' out this principle, 

vntifi)t\': of lifn/liri(( heavy ^^'at, and carrrins^ but it had no practical succ»?9s. and the plan 

fill w't't-f^urv tfi:tir. Hut the navv boanl, was ultimatnlv abandone<L 
fiffir iM-arly '*lx months' d^'liVK-ration. n*- BnmelV energies were now almost exclu- 

vo|{«d ilii'ir ft/m'|itiincr^ anr! r»rpndiated the sively devoted to the constniction of the 

iridf-rMnity wliirh thf'V had pr^imiMed ISninel Thames tunnel. It U said to have origfinated 

for i!i«' «'V]i«'ri ■<!••* hi- Uivl incnrrf-d, on the in a plan propoHivl bv him in 1.>1S for esta- 

(rroriiiri tlini t fi(< uttfmpt WHH Moo chimerical blishm^ b(>tW(M>n ttie luinks of the Neva 

to Ik- Hi-rifHisly i'Mt«'rtain«'d.* About this communication independent of the floating 

film- ririiii»'l t'lfiK mit. patents for aevrral in- ice. In lSi>4, under th»' auspices of the Duke 

v«'iiii»»iirt tif iiiiiinr i m port a ncf, which mifi^ht of Wellington, a company was formed to 

liiiM- lii'nii^dii coMKidi'rablM profit, to him had carry out the scheme projwsinl by Brunei for 

hiv. roiiiiiifrciMl rnnilticH and opportnnitirs borinpf a tnnmd under the Tliames from 

)nt'i\ iiniiMiriifiiinfM to liin Hcientific ability. Uotherhithe to Wappinp. He sujjpested the 

III I'<1(» III- iriM'iit'd an ini^fnioiiH knittinjf excavation of a passnpe of a size to admit a 

fmirliiMi-, iind t\vi> v«*Mrs liitiT ]»at«*nt»'(l two double archway of full dimensiions at once. 

pn|iMnili»»ii ; of tinfnjl for pnr])osi'S of oriia- without the pn'liminary construction of a 

iiiiiiiiitiufi, w hicli biiil nn i>.\t.4>nsivi' applicii- driftway; and lu' utilised for this purpose an 

Ihhi. In I«ll) ho tooU out a palrnt for apparatu** for which he had taken out a patent 

mi|itnviriii'iitM ill Mli'protyp*' pl«t«'s for print- in IHlM. This consisted of a larpe s^hitdd 

iri|', Mini iiiT.«»MMlioMs wi'p' ♦'nti'H'd into with covering th»» total an^a to l>e excavated, and 

I III' |iiii|»ririiir« of till' ' Tiini's ' and tln» composed of twidve separate fnimes, com- 
■I'liimii' fill* the iiilopijoM of his invenlioTi. ])risinj^toiretluT thirty-six cells, in which the 

\ti MiTi'cimnl wMs eoiwduded witii tin- miners worked inde]MMulently of one another; 

• riniri/biii \\MssnbsiM|ni»Mt!y iibjindoTied. In the whole machine capable of bein^ forced 

Is M» III- w.'i : united ti» furnish designs for a forwardby screw p(^wera& the work ad vanceil. 

Imdj-i' ii\ir ili.» S,«iiii' lit Koueu, and in the The operations wi're In'pim at liotherhitheon 

■iiui> Mill- ]\r ]irr|i!iriMl plans for a timber lt> Feb. I f^iV), and, in the face of the enormous 

luidri* «»r S'M) fret sjuin to be thrown across ditHeulties that w.-re enc«uinteivd, were nor 

iIu'Nimi i\\ St. retersburi; ; but neitlier of tinally completed till the I'nil of 1S42. Panic- 

til.' e |»ii>|iM t •w.M'^i'Mrrled intot'xecution. llis anil strikes ti>ok place anii'ing the workmen. 

ill' ijii .. b.iwi vii". lor bridkTes to be erected In iJ^L*? an irruption of the river occurred. 

mill.' I Jiiud .if I»ourbon, to withstauvl tin* which wa< stop]>t'd by ba^r?' of clay. In 1>«"^ 

\i.d. Ill luim»:iue'. w bicli pn»vail there, were then« was another irruptiiMU anvl in AufifusT 

•i.rrp'.i'd 1»\ th,» Krench ir»>venimenT and of that year the w.>rks were sti>pped. and •h»- 

eunid Mii.» rfl.Tt. tunnel rtMuained brick»'d up f«"»r ^even years. 

In I '^11 linvn.'I'i sawmills at l^itt-Tsea Atter the reiuni]*: iiMi t^f the undertaking: 

\x.Mi- 11. ■■uK d."s(re\«'d by tire. Krom this rht-n' were. i!\ An^rus* and N neml^er IS^r 

nm.\o\\;!'.; i.» 'innMOial nn>:r.:in:\cemenMhe an«l March WW. 'hr'-e n'.o!^■ irruptions, an ; 

l'i...|.. ,iM ,m" •.!•' uuvl.TtM'xinc 'iieavl'.lN v'..- i: was not till Mir^'h l*^^* :h:\: the tvmn-: 

I I Ml. d. vif. '.;!.•:•. 1*» M.;i rr:'ii>.vo;irred,:ivnl lie was opened :> 'he p'-.bV.c. Bnmfl m^' 
\\nlo.'\\u ;•.:.« nvi>.Mi for J.ebi. Aft: r s,>!m» ihes.' di^H-tor* w::h ehar-cTrrisric tVnili'v 
uuMi'li^ Njsut MX t ..e Kiu»:*>l>»'nch he oVT.'.iutd of n^s^ninv'. and ]vr<e\'r'.'l in th-r work with 
l^^Mn tUi»;\»\.«vr.u*.en;..Ht :hoinstaUlV^'':*:r.any untirinjr eueriry. :h'^ -ttrain upon hi? 
u\iluont\.il tV;,e.J.s, a j;rani v>f 'mWV. f^r :he mind p^^vluv:'-^.■»n Jitrac'-x of pArial paraly>ti*. 

tnm wbich, howevor, he KCtyvemd suili- 
dentlj- to take piut in the opening' ceremony. 

After this, with the esception of a ulan 
for siackiiig timber 'm dockynrds, which he 
mtbmittMl to the admiralty, Britnel undertook 
no mor«i profeeaional work. In 1845 he whs 
n^in attacked by paraljBis, but lingered on 
for bur years. He died on 13 Dec. IMQ, in 
his eighty'fint year, snd on the ITtb of the 
same month was buried in Keneal Green 
cemetery. ' 

Brunei was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society in Match 1@U, and in 1832 waa 
made a vice-president under the presidency 
of the Duke of Sussex. In 1841, shortly ' 
before the completion of the Thames tunnel, 
he was knighted. Ue waa a corresponding 
member of the French Institute, and received 
in 1829 the order of tlie L*gioii d'Honneur. 
He was also elected a memW of ttie Royal 
Academy of Sciences of Stockholm, and of i 
Tarioua other scientific societies abroad. In ' 
1833 he became a member of the Institute 
of Civil Engineers, and constantly attended 
their meetings, and gave accounts of the pro- I 
greae of his works. He served some years | 
on the council, and aided the advancement of i 
the society by every means in his power. In ' 
1839 he was awarded the Telford silver I 
medal for his account of the 'shield' em- I 
ployed in the construction of the Thames 
tunnel. His communications to the society 
will be found in the published ' Proceedings,' 
tdIs. i. ii. iii. xiii. xvii. 

[PcMSHlinga Inst Civil Engineers, x. 78, ntid 
i. 6. S3, 33, 41. 48. 4S. $b, ii. 29. 80, iii. liii. 
xrij.; Beftlniah'B Memoir of the Life of Sir 
Hare I. Brunei] B. H. 

BRUNINQ, ANTHONY (1716-1776), 
jBBuit, eldest son of George Bruniiig of East 
Meon and Fojcfield, Hampshire, by his firat 
wife, Mnry, daughter of Christopher Bryon 
of Sutse!!, was bom on 7 Dec. 1716. He 
entered the Society of Jesus in 1733; be- 
Ctume a professed father in 17G1 ; laboured 
for aome years on the English mission j and 

w afterwards appointed professor of philo- 

tntered the Society of Jesus in 1756; served 
the mission of Southend, Snberton, Uamp- 
shire, for some years; and afterwards lived 
at East Hendrud, Berkshire, the seat of 
Thomas John Eyston, who hnd married his 
hnlf-sister, Mary'Bruning. Retiring to lale- 
worth, he died there on 3 .lune 1K02. Brun- 
ing published : 1. "The Divine (Economy of 
Chnst,'Ijondon, 1791, 8vo. 2. 'Itemarlcson 
the Rev. Josejili Beringtfin'a Examination of 
Events termed miraculous, as reported in 
Letters from Iluir, adilressed to the public,' 
London, 1796, ISino. 

[Oliver's Collections 3. J. 62 ; Folny's Re- 
oonis 3. J. v. 817, vii. 100; Backer's BibL daa 
Ecrivains da la Compagnie da J^ds (1869), 
ei3.] 1 C. 

BRITIirNE, ROBERT de, or MASJrnjo. 

[See MiNNTNG.] 

Brunning, rector ()f Semer in SuiTolk, was 
baptised on 8 Oct. 1633. He received his 
academical education at Jesus Ou liege, Cam- 
bridge, where he was admitted tu a feliow- 
ship on 5 May IGiS. He was ejected in 
16(t2, and became a nonconformist minister 
at Ipswich. The following is the account 
given of him by Calamy [Ejected Minutrn, 
li. <MS) : ' Mr. Benjamin Bnmning was fel- 
low of Jesus College, Cambridge; one of 
great uaefiiluess there, and of a general repu- 
tation in the university for his wit and Isam- 
ing. Ilewaaamanof largeanddeepthoughts, 
and his province required it ; he having the 
most judicious persons In the town and 
country, both ministers and people, for his 
audience.' He was author of the following 
A Sermon preached at an Elec- 
I of Parliament Men, in a Critical Time,' 
.lames iii. 17, 1000, ito. 3. ' Against Im- 
ond Conlbrmity, from the Second 



1776. He wrote manuscript 
Otatta,' ' De Deo," and ' De Ti 

rOIirai'sCaUocliaiuS. J. 62: Fol ay's Records 
S. ). T. 8ia, TiL BD ; Badters BibL des Ecrivaios 
de la Compngtiie de Jimis (1889), 813.] T. C. 

BRUNING, GEOliGE (173S-1802), 
jwuil, was the voungest son of George Brun- 
ing of East Meon and FonHeld, Hampshire, 
brlussecoiiit wife, Anne, daughter oflTiomas 
May of Itamsdale in the same county. He 
waa bora in llampeliiie on 19 Sept. 1738; 

[Clnttarbucl's Hartfordshirc, iii. 321 n ; Addii. 
MS. 6863 f. 177, Ifilflo f. 227 : Palmer's Nou- 
conforraists' MemorinI, iii. 271.] T. C. 



BRUHTON, GEORGE (1799-1836), 
Scottish lawyer and journalist, was born ou 
31 Jan. 1799,andwsa educated atthe Canon- 
gale High School, Edinburgh. Ho was ad- 
mitted a solicitor in 1831; and in the f«l- 
lowina year, with Mr. David Haig, brought 
out ' An Historical AocounC of the Senators 
of the College of Justice, from its Institu- 
tion in iiO£xxii,' 8vo, Etiinburgh and l<on- 
dun, 1633. This volume, which -wm at first 

Bninton 148 Bninton 

undertaken m a republication of the * Cata- in 1837 and 18a2. A French translation of 
logue of the Lords of Session,' prepared by i * Self-Control ' appeared in Ptois in 1829. 
Lord Hailes in 1767, with a continuation to j ALEXA2n>EB Brusttox, Mrs. Brimton's bio- 
the time of it.s issue, became a collection of ; grapher, was bom at Edinburgh in 1772, and 
short biographies. Brunton was a frequent • becime minister of Bolton in 1797, of the 
contributor to periodicals, and an advanced New Grerfriars, Edinburgh, in 1803, and of 
liberal. He established in 1834 a weekly . the Tron Chorch in 1809. He was professor 
Saturrlav newspaper called *The Patriot/ of oriental languages in the university of 
which was dropped upon his death (Taif* Edinburgh, and died 9 Feb. 1854. His works 
.E/in/yi/iyA 3f a^ffzi»^,Xovemberl 836 ). Brun- are: 'Sermons and Lectures,' Edinburgh, 
ton died on 2 June 1836, at Paris, whither he 181 8 ; * Persian Grammar,* Edinbuigh^ 1822. 
had gone in search of health. [The Biographical Memoir mentioned above; 

[Edinburgh AlmaDac. 1881-7; Caledonian ^°^"^ ?^ fJl^.^t^^'I^^'^F^?^ 
Mercorr.HJnne 1836; Oent.Ma^. July 1836; ~:":^.^"^i.5*^®' '• ^^' ^^^ ^*^T^ 
Taifs Edinbuigh Micazine, November 1836 • Magazine, v. 183.] W. I:. A. A. 

Irving'sDictionaryofEminentScotsmen, 1881.] I BRUNTON, WILLIAM (1777-1851), 

A. H. G. engineer and inventor, was eldest son of Ro- 

BRXmrON, Mis8 LOUISA. S^ • 5f7,,?T°*?' * J"***.!^^ '''"^A'f^f-r 
p ~ ~ Dalkeith, where he was bom on 26 May 1 / < 7. 

-I He studied mechanics in his father's shop and 

BRUNTON, MARY (1778-1818), no- : engineering under his grandfather, who was 
velist, was daughter of Colonel Thomas a collierv viewer in the neighbourhood. In 
Balfour of El wick. Her mother was the 1790 he commenced work in the fitting shops 
daughter of Colonel Ligonier. Mari' Bal- of the New Lanark cotton mills belon^^ng 
four was bom in the island of Barra, Orkney, to David Dale and Sir Richard Arkwright ; 
on 1 Nov. 1778. Her early education was but after five years, being attracted by the 
irregular, but the girl learned music, French, fame of the great works at Soho, he migrated 
and Italian. From her sixteenth to her to the south, and obtained em^oyment in 
twentieth year she managed her fathers 1796 with Boulton and Watt. He remained 
household. About 1798 she married the Rev. at Soho until he was made foreman and 
Alexander Brunton, and spttle<i in the par- superintendent of the engine manufactory, 
sonacre of Pk)lton, near Haddington. The Leaving Soho in 1818 he loined Mr. Jessops 
yountr couple studied together philosophy Butterley Works, and being deputed to re- 
and histor\-. In 18(K3 they went to live in present his master in many important mis- 
Edinburgh. In 1810 Mrs. Brunton's first sions he made the acquaintance of John 
novel, * i^'lf-Control,' was published: it was Kennie, Thomas Telford, and other eminent 
dedicated to .Foanna Buillie, and the circum- engineers. In 1S15 he became a partner in 
stance led to a pleasant and lifelong inter- and the mechanical manager of the Elagle 
course. The book had a marked success. A Foundrj-, liirmingham, where he remained 
second novel, * Discipline,' ap^vared in De- ten years, during which time he designed and 
eember 1814. In a letter to her brother, executed a great variety of important works, 
while acknowledging that she loved * money From 1825 to 1835 he appears to have been 
dearly,* she declares that her great purpose practising in London as a civil engineer, but 
had l>*en * to procure admission for the reli- quitting the metropolis at the latter date he 
gion of a sound mind and of the Bible where took a share in the Cwm Avon Tin Works, 
it cannot find access in any other form.' Glamorganshire, where he erected copper 
The repairing of the Tron Church in 1815 smelting furnaces and rolling mills. Hebe- 
pave Dr. Brunton and his wife an opportunity came connected with the Maesteg Works in 
for a visit to London and to the south-west the same countv, and with a brewerv at 
of Enjrland. She now projected a series of Neath in 1838 ; here a total failure ensued, 
domestic tales, and made considerable pro- and the savings of his life were lost. After 
gress with one called * Emmeline.' But after this he occasionally reappeared in his profes- 
givincT birth to a stillborn son on 7 Dec, sion, but was never again fully embarked in 
she was attacked bv fever, and died 19 Dec. business. He was a member of the Insti- 
1818. A life of >frs. Brunton, with selec- ; tution of Civil Engineers, but the date of 
tionsfrom her correspondence, her two novels, his admission has not been found. As a 
the unfinished story of *Emmeline/ and some ^ mechanical engineer his works were various 
other literarj' remains, were published by her and important; many of them were in the 
husband in 1819. * Self-Control ' and *Dis- adaptation of original and ingenious modes 

cipline' were republished in Bt»ntley's Stan- 
dard Novels in 1832, and in cheap editions 

of reducing and manufacturing metals, and 
the improvement of the machinery connected 



tberewjtb. In the introductina of sMarn na- 
vigstion he liad a large ihare ; he made some 
of the origiualeDgiiiea used ODthell umber and 
ibeTreut.uidGOtne of the earliest Dtt the Uer- 
eeVjineliuling those for the vessel which first 
pLtJd on the Liverpool ferries in 1814. He 
fitted out the Sir FrHncis Drake at Plymouth 
in I8S4, the fitet steamer that ever Ux>k a 
maa-of-varintow. UiscalcinerwHaused on 
the works ofmoatofthetin mines in Cornwall, 
as well «c at the silver ore worke in Mexico, 
nnd his fnn regulator wa« also found to be a 
most useful invention. At the Butterlej 
works he applied the principle of a rapid ro- 
lation of the mould in costiog iron pipes, and 
incurrwl great eipenae in securing a patent, 
onlj to find that a ioreigner, who used the same 
proceas in casting terra cotta, had recited in 
bis specifications that the same mode might 
be applied to metala. The most novel and 
ingenious of his inventions was the walking 
machine called the Steam Horse, which he 
made at Butierley in 1813, and which worked 
with a load up a gradient of 1 inS6 during all 
the winter of 1814 at the Newbottle colliery. 
Earlvin 1816, through some carelessness, this 
nucnine exploded, and most unfortunately 
Irilled thirteen persons (Wood, TreatUe on 
BaitRoai- ^ '"" ' 

In the 
many patents, but derived little 
bom them, although several of them came 
into general use. Latterly he turned his at- 
tention to the subject of improved ventilation 
for collieries, and sent modeJs of his inven- 
Uohb to the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park. 
He wag intimate with all the engineers of the 
older school, and was almost the last of that 
celebrated set of men. He died at the resi- 
dence of his son, William Bninton, at Cam- 
borne, Cornwall, o Oct. ISfil, having married, 
SOOct. 1810, AnneElizabeth Button, adopted 
daughter of John and Rebecca Dickinaou of 
Summer Hill, Birmingham. She died at 
Eagleabush, Neath, Glamorganshire, 1845, 
leaving sons, who have become well known 
aa engineers. 

[Minutes of Proceedinfn of Initlluiian of Ciril 
Engines, xl. 9J!-90 (18S2).] 6. C. B. 

Dominican friar, described as the author of a 
' Summa Theoiogiae.' and of certain ' Distinc- 
tionea'and'DelerminationeSj'is probablv, as 
Bchard suggested (^Script. Orii. Doinm. i. 
i&i A), identical with the better known John 
ds Bromyarde [q.v.] 

[UMton ap. Tunner'a BibL Brit., pnef.. 
pp ,__ ,, _, „.,_._ „.. ^ . . ^ -. 


Irish Franciscan, wag a native of the county 
of Clare. He became a Itecollecl friar and 
jubilate lecturer of divinilj in the Irish con- 
vent of the Holy Conception of the Blesswl 
Virgin at Prague. He wrote; 1, 'tEcodo- 
mia Minorities Schol«e Solamoiiis, Johannia 
DuRS Scoti, sive Universe Theologiie Scho- 
lasticn Manualis Summa,' Prague, 1063, 
8vo. 2. ' Corolla fEcodomiro Minoritiwe 
SchoIiE Salamonis, Doctoris subtilis ; siva 
bpeculativre,' Prague, 1864, 8vo. 
pugnaculum Catholicffi Veritatis, Pars pnnui 
IlistoricB, in quinque libros distributa,' 
Prague, 1668, 4to. In the fifth book be 
violently attacks Thomas Carve's " Lyra,' or 
annals of Ireland, in a chapter headed ' Be 
Carve seu Carraui errorlbus et imposluris.' 
This provoked from Carve the 'Enchiridion 
Apologetic um,' Nuremberg, 1670, 12mo. In 
answer to this a trad called the ' Anatomi- 
cum Examen Enchiridii ' was published at 
Prague in 1671, but whether this was written 
by Friar Cornelius O'Mollony, a relative uf 
Bruodine's, or by Bruodine himself under 
that name, as Carve believed, is uncertain 
l^ee Caevb, Thomas]. 4. ' Armamentarium 
Theologicum,' Prague, 4to. He is probably 
identical with the Antnnius Prodinua whose 
' Deacriptio Regni Hibemife, Sanctorum In- 
eulie, et de prima origine miserianim & mo- 
tuum in Anglia, Scotia, et llibemia, regnante 
Carolo primo rege ' was printed at Rome, 
I72I, 4to, under the editorship of the exiled 
son of Phelim O'Neill. 

[Ware^sWrilersof Ireland (Harris), 160,181; 
Komej'a Prof, to reprint of Oarvo't Itinerarium 
(I8Se), pp.)x,ii LowQdes's Bib!. Mho. (Bohn), 
296, 383, 1979,- Bibl. Orenrilliiina, i. ) 1», 676 ; 
Cut. Idb, Impress, in Bibl. Col. Triu. Dubl. 
(1864), i. 490, *ei.] T. C. 

BBUTTON, NICHOLAS (1780-1813), 
licutfuant-colonel, descended from the old 
Devonshire family of Brutton or Bniteton, 
entered the army as ensign in tbu 75th foot 
in 17B5, proceeded to India, served at the 
battle of Seedasseer in 1799, through the 
Mysore campaign as aide-de-camp Iji Colonel 
Hart, and led one of the storming parties 
at Seringapatam on 4 May 17i)9, when lie 
was severely wounded. He served through 
the campaign in Canara ; at the sie^- and 
oBGault of Jamalabad, and under Lura Lake 
through the campaigns of 1804-5. AtBhurt- 
pore he led a storming party, and ivas again 
severely wounded. lie excminced into the 
8th hussars, served in the Sikh country in 
1809 under General St. Le^er, and as bri- 
gade-major to General Wood in the Piudar- 
ree campaign, 181:^, 

Bnvynllys 150 Bryan 

(yn the breakln;^ out of the Nepal war he the Latin tTandation is also chiefly adopted 

proce^fded ah bTvvet-maior in command of from that edition. 

three troop* of thr ^th hiLMars, and led the [Hutdunss Doiaetdiire, 2nd edit. ii. 352, 853; 
aAHault on the fort of Kalunga at the head of Xichols's Dt. Anecd. W. 286 ; Nichols's Illiistr. 
one hundr*r<l dismounted troopers, and was of 375. liii. 629; Political State of Great 
a^in s^ verily wounded. He served a« bri- Britain, zxd. 344; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), 
ga/ie-maior at thf f-iege and capture of Hatt- 189^ ; Gradnati Cantabrigienses (1787), 60.} 
Thusif and in the Pindarree campaign of 1817 T. C. 
wa>» prrimote*! to a majority in the nth hus^ars. BRTAN, SiB FRAXCIS (A 1550), poet, 
and on tb»; r»^tum of that regiment to Europe, translator, soldier, and diplomatist, was the 
in 1H21, exchanged into the 11th hussars, with son of Sir Thomas Bryan, and grandson of 
which regiment he >er\'ed at the siege and Sir Thomas Bryan, chief justice of the corn- 
capture of Bhurtp<^;r*>. In 1 K30 he succeeded mon pleas from 1471 till his death in 1600 
to the lieutenant-Colonelcy and commanded (Foes, Judges). His Either was knighted by 
the 1 1 th husj^ar- unt il 1 '^37', when he sold out, Henry VH in 1497, was * knijzht ofme body ' 
and was succeeded by the Fat\ of Cardigan, at the opening of Henry A iH^s reig^, and 

Brut ton was pre>*?nt at the siege and repeated! v served on the commission of the 
capture of the ^ix rt rongest fortresses in India, peace for buckinffhamshire, where the family 
On leaving the Utli hussars he was pre- property was settled. Francis Bryan's mother 
rented by the ottic*-rs with a splendid piece was Margaret, daughter of Humphry Bour- 
of plate in testimony of their regard. He chier, and sister of John Bourchier, lord Ber- 
haa a pension f<^r liis wounds of 100/. a ners [q. v.] Lady Bryan was for a time go- 
year, and <iied in retirement at Bordeaux on vemess to the princesses Maiy and Elizabeth, 
1^6 March 1 M.3. and died in 1551-2 (cf. Madbeip, Expenges 

[War Office R<?cords ; United Service Maga- of the Princess Jfaiy, 210). Anne Bolevn is 

zine, mclxxiv. May 1843.] F. B. G. stated to have been his cousin ; but we Lave 

BRWYNLLYS, BEDO (Ji. 1450-1480), been unable to discover the exact genealc^cal 

a AVel^h iK>*.t, so named from his birthplace, ^o^^V^. Bryan s prommence in poEtiCT 

Bn^vnllys in Herefordshire. Man v poems ^a« mainlv due to the ^tingaflection which 

by him, cl.i.'flv <k1...s, are preserAed in the Henry MH conceived for him m early youth 
■\Vel.h School "MSS. now in the British Mu- . ^^^f""'^ believed to have been educated 

H^Mim, anri m-vtuI >hr,rt passages are printed f ^""^-^ ^^"^ ^""^l ^^ received his 

in Duvieh'. ^ Flor.^ Poetarum liritannicomm/ ^^st oAicial appointment, that of captain of 

]ir^'ynllvs mud*, the first collection of the the Mic-garet lionaventure^a ship m the re- 

IMjeniH of Dafvd.l ah (iwilym, but his coUec- tinueofNrTliomas Howard, aftervi'ards duke 

tion in Hiiid to hav.. been Lx in the ruin of op orfolk, the newly appointed admiral. In 

Itajrlan Castle, where it was preserved. , ))l ^,^"^ ,*?;5f ^^"??^^^« ^^i^ .^* ^^^^^"???,^ 

iw'U' • Ti- * e V ' ^ y\- ^ u (19 Apnl lolo), at Lltham (Chnstmas lol6), 

Williamss Diet, of hminent Welshmen: „«j «♦ o««««„.:'i ,>- r i i-ifv t> ^ ^ 

Wluu <^^u I \Tc< i> ;♦• u ^T 1 K AT andat Cjreenwich(/ Julvlol/ ),Brvantooka 

fish ocrnxji 3I.S>., JJriti^h Jluseum. I A. 31. i ■ ^ ^ \ • j -"i ^^«»» 

■■ I prominent part, and received very rich apixarel 



was instit uted to tlie rectory of Piddlehinton, i cember 1518 he was acting as * master of the 

])orsetsliire. on 10 Jan. 1722; and died on Toyles/ and storing Greenwich Park with 

April 1720, IJe published a sermon on ' *quickdeer/ In 1520 he attended Henry VIH 

the election of the lord mayor in 1718, and at the Field of the Cloth of Gold, and took 

juKt before his death ho had finished the part in the jousts there under the captaincy 

et Kinendatione.s, vt Indices accurst issimi/ ] Essex and Hertfordshire in 1523, and accom- 
T) vols., London, 172'$-9, 4to. This excel- panied AVolsey on his visit to Calais (9 July 
lent edition is adorntid with the heads of lo27), where he remained some days. A 

year later he escorted the papal envoy Cam- 

peggio, on his way to England from Orleans, 

■ to Calais. In November 1528 Bryan was 

sent to Komu by licnrj' to obtain the papal 
Honction for bis divorce front C&theriiie. 
1)17011 WHS eapeciollj instructed to induce 
the pope to withdraw from his friendHhip 
with toe oinperor, and to discover the in- 
■tractionB on^inall^ given to Cam^egEio. 
Much to lus disappointment, Brcan foiled in 
hit misaiiin. Soon ofter looTing Englond he 
hftd written to his cousin, Aune Boleyn, en- 
couraging her to look forward to the imme- 
diate remoral of all obatocles between her 
and the title of queen; but he subsequently- . 
(6 Hay 1529) had to confess to the king that ' 
notfajng would serve to gain the pope's con- 
•eat to Catherine's divorce. OnlOMoylflSS 
DrTan, wi th Sir Thomas Gu^e and Lord Vaux, 
presented to Queen CathBrine at Ampthill 
the aummous bidding her ujipeor before Arch- 
biabop Cronmor'B court at Dunstable, to show 
cause why the divorce should not proceed ; 
but the quf«n, who felt the presence ofBryaa, 
K ralative of Anne Boleyn, a new insult, in- 
formed the messengers that ehe did not ac- 
knowledge the court's competency. In 15S1 
Bryan wos sent as ambassador to France, 
wluther he was soon followed by Sir Nicholaji 
Uarew, bis sister's husband, and at the tJme | 
aa lealouB a chompiou of Anne Boleyn os { 
himself, Between May and Ausust 15S3 , 
Brran was travelling with 1 be DuKe of Nor- ' 
fcJlc in I'rauce seeking to prevent ah alliance I 
or even a meeting between the pope ond the 
king of France, and he was engaged in similor I 

Bryan during oil these years remained the 
king's permanent favourite. Throughout the 
reign almost all Henry's amusements were 
ahar^ in by him, ond he acquired on that 
account on unrivalled repulation for disso- ' 
lateness. Undoubtedly Brvan retained his 
place in the king's affection nv veryqueation- 
abla means. When the influence of the Bo- 
leyn family was decliningjBryon entered upon 

K eoQTunient quarrel with Lord Rochford, 


n his favourite's' eictc. In May 1536 Anne 

brothcp-in-luw by 

} king 1 

declaring himself 

Boleyn was charged with the olfencea for 
which she suS'ered on the scoflbld, and Crom- 1 
well — no doubt wiiliuut the knowledge of 
Henry ^^II — at first suspected Bryan ofi 
being one of the queen's accomplices. When | 
thactargHHWere&'iiig formulated, Cromwell, 
who hailno liking fi^r Itrynn, hastily sent for 
him tmai the cuuntiy ; but no further steps I 
were tiiken ogaiu.^l him,nn<l there is no ground I 
tor believing the su^picrion to have been well | 
foundttd. ft is clear that Bryan was very : 
anxioua lu aucuro tho queen's conviction ' 
IFsoUBE, ii. 8t»5, quoins from Cotton US. E. , 

ix. the deposition of the abbot of Wobum 
relating to an important conversation with 
ftryan on this subject), and he had the base- 
ness to undertake the oiBce of conveying to 
Jane Seymour, Anne's successor, the newB of 
Anne Boleyn's condemnotion (16 May 1536). 
A pension vacated bv one of Anne's ac- 
complices was promptlT bestowed on Bryan 
by the king. Cromwell, in writing of this 
circumstance to Gardiner and Wallop, colls 
Bryan ' the vicar of hell ' — a popular nick- 
name which his cruel indifference to the fate 
of his cousin Anne Boleyn proves that he 
well deserved. Bryan conspicuously oided 
the government in repressing the rebellion 
known as the Pilgrimage of Grace in October 
of the same year. On 15 Oct. 1537 he played 
aprominent port at the christening of Prince 
Edward (Stbtpb, Mem. 11. i. 4). In De- 
cember 1539 he was one of the king's house- 
hold deputed to meet Anne of Cleves near 
Calais on her way to England, and Hall, the 
chronicler.notes the splendour of his drees on 
the occasion. At the tuneral of Henry VIII, 
on 14 Feb. 1646-7, Biyou was assigned a 
chief place os 'master of the henchmen.' 

As n member of the privy council Bryan 
took port in public aflaira until the close of 
Henry Yin's reign, and at the beginning of 
Edward VI's reign he was given a large share 
of tlie lands which the dissolution of the 
monasteries had handed over to the crown. 
He fought, as a captain of light horse, under 
the Duke of Somerset at Musselburgh 27 Sept. 
1547,when he was created a kniebt banneret. 
Soon afterwards Bryan rendered the govern- 
ment a very curious service. In 1548 James 
Butler, ninth earlof Ormonde, an Irish noble, 
whose powerful influence was obnoxious to 
the government at Dublin, although there 
were no valid grounds for suspecting his 
loyalty, died in London of poison utider very 
suspicious circiunstances. Thereupon bis 
widow, Joan, daughter and heiress of Jamea 
FitaJohn Fiugerald, eleventh earl of Des- 
mond, sought to marry her relative, Gerald 
Fit^erald, the heir of the fifteenth earl of 
Desmond, To prevent this marriage, which 
would hove united the leading representatives 
of the two chieflrish noble houses, Bryan was 
induced to preter a suit to the lady himself. 
He had previously married fafter 1517) Phi- 
lippa, a rich heiress and widow of Sir John 
Iwescue (MoRAST, &k.t, ii, 117); but 
Bryan's first wife died some time after 1534, 
and in l.>t8he married the widowed countess. 
He was immediately nominated lord morshal 
of Ireland, and arrived inDublin with his wife 

November 1648. Sir Edward Bellingham, 




.v.*/.': ',?•:.*; y,.*\*:T :r.:l:-*:Lr^.*iid iVrllirig*^ ikrr 
■/. Jt- . .'.A '.;*: •/, . .V 4 re hi It. ^in Bi^IlinzliAzn^ d*r- 
fA.- ^ •*: f .- . a I.-r : 4 r- 'i Mi 1 r; I >&c. 1 •'riij' the I H !*h 
'y/ • J r. ': . 1 rt-/:r/'jrT. 1 .-^i J 5rj'ari> po w*:rf ul prosit ion 
^ V »: I *-/.-•. . f. ;? h . at lo ri -j 'J -ft icf:. |>end:nj? t he &r- 
r'vsil '/ ft r;ft ■JT 'lepj-r y. |{ Lit on 2 F»:b.'l ->41^><J 
iiryhn 'i.^'A *.-A'i'rZi',y hX Clonmel. A po?t- 
m ^rt <r.v. e X Jirr. : nAt ;'i n v.-a.i! onlered to 'iettrmin*? 
th^ ':4"i>*: of *itzn.'i\i^ but tbfc df/CtOTfi came to 
fiO ff.ore ^4t J ff&r-torj- condition than that he 
'Ji»:'J of srrief, a concIii.-ion unsupported bv 
ex t i- ma I e vi d enc^. .S i r J oh n A Hen, t he I rL«h 
f:\ihu('A\\'iTf v/ho wa^! pr*,'Tent at Bryan's death 
and at the autopsy, .-,tate.s that * he departed 
\t-ry '^/ff\\y.' Ko;/er A-!/:ham, in the * Schole- 
ma^t'-r,' l'V>^, wrife*j: *ivjme men Jjeing never 
^t old and .fci>«;nr by yeares will frtill be full of 
voiit hfull ry^nditioii.-, a>i was Svr F. Br\'an, and 
evennor*; woM have beneVf-fl. Mayor, p. 129). 

Hr\'hn, lik*' manv other of Henrv VIIFs 
r-ourtiern, int<'re-tKj himj^elf deeply m litera- 
ture, llfi iH proVjably the * Brian* to whom 
lirhfinun fr^j^jnirntly refers in hi* correspon- 
denrc an one of hirt admirrrrH in Kngland, and 
he wa«-. th*' intirrjute friend of the poets Wyatt 
unrl Surr»'V. Like them he wrote poetry, but ■ 
altlioijgh hrvan hud one* a high reputation 
«H a poet, liJH jKHitry i« now unfortunately 
undincovfrnble. ile weh an anonymous con- 
tributor to the *Soiig<*s and Sonettes written 
by th«j rv^'ht liouorabh' J ^ordeHenrv' Howard, | 
hit<r eiirl of Surrey, nnd otliers,' loo7, usually ■ 
known iiH * Tottj-I's Misc<.'llanv ; ' but it is im- 
jiOf.hibh* to rlislin^'ui.sli his work there from 
that of th«' otli«Tanr)nyiiiou8 writers. Of the 
Iiigli ("•ti-'-rn in wliich bin ])oetry was held in i 
thf sixt«'<'iith crenturv there is abundant evi- i 
di-ncc. NVyatt <le(li(!at«.*d a bitter satire to 
Jiryan on tli** conti'inptible ])rttct ices of court 
lift*; and while rallying liim on bis restless 
activity in jxilitics, speaks of his fine litorarv' 
taj«t»«. Drayton, in his * Heroicall Epistle' 
of t!ie Karl of Surn^v to the Ladv Geraldine 
(first ])ublif<b<'cl in \V)'2\\ but written much 
earlier), refers to 

sichmI I'rvjiii (whom tlio Muhch kept. 

And ill liis crndli' nu-kt him while ho slej)r); 

the])oet represents Br^-an as honouring Surrey 
* in sa(Te<l verses most divinely pen*d.' Simi- 
larly Drayton, in his 'Letter ... of Poets 
an<l Poesie,' is as enthusiastic in praise of 
Brvan as of Surrey and Wvatt, and distinctly 
states that he was a chief author 

< W th<»Ke siujill jKHins which the title bearo 
Of soii^H and sonnets — 

a n'fen»nce to * Tot t el's Miscellany. Francis 
Mer<»s, in his * PalladisTamia,' 1 o98, describes 
Bryan with many other famous |)oets as * the 
m«»st ])asKionate among us to bewail and be- 
moan tho complexities of love.' 

Bryan w^ &l^j a stodent of foreign lan- 
r-^i^r* and liteTa'^uB^. It is cl*nr that his 
uncle. J'-.'hn R. J.;rchirr. lord Bi^mrrs 'q. v.], 
D./n^uI:ed him al>ju* much of hii^ llterarv 
work. It wa* at Bryan's d^r^ire that Lord 
Bem*rr!> uEderri>:k hi^^translatioin of GuevaraV 
•Marca- Aurtliu** iL~>^>. Guevara, the 
founder of Euphuism, was apparently Bryan'^a 
&vourite author. Nut content with sugvest- 
me and editing hi« uncle's translation of one 
of the famous Spanish writer's books, he him- 
self translated aninht-r through the French. 
It tir&t appeared anonymously ii\ 1*>4^ under 
the title of * A Dispraise of the Life of a 
Counier and a Commendacion of the Life of 
a Labour\-n£r Man.' London ( by lierthelet), 
August L'Vl^. In this form the work is of ex- 
cessive rarity. In 1 575 * T. Tymme, minister/ 
reprinted the bixik as * A Lookin&r-glasse for 
the C ourte, composed in the Castilion tongue 
by the Lorde Anthony of Gue\arra, Bishop 
of Mondonent and Cronicler to the Emperor 
Charles, and out of Castilion drawne into 
Frenche by Anthony Alaygre. and out of the 
Frenche tongue into Englishe by Sir Frauncis 
Briant, Knight, one of the priuye chamber in 
the raygii of K. Henrv the evght.' The editor 
added a ])o<?m in praise of tSie ICnglish trans- 
lator. A great many of Bryan's letters are 
printed in Brewer and Gairdncr's * Letters 
and Papers of the Reign of Henrv* VIII.' 
Three interesting manuscript letters are in 
the British Museum (Cotton [MS. Vitell. B. 
X. 7:3, 77 ; and Harl. MS. 1>JHJ, f. IH). 

f Nott's edition of Surrey and Wyatt's Poems : 
Brewer and Gairrlner's Ix'tters antl Papers of 
llcnrj' VI 11. 1509-35; Kjiner's Fanlera, xiv. 
380 ; Brewer's Keign of Benrj' VJII, e<l. Gaird- 
ner, 1884, vol. ii. ; Arch}eoh)gia, xxvi. 426 et seq. ; 
Chronicle of Calais (Camden S>c.) ; CoUins's 
IVenige. ed. Brydges, ix. 98; Lo<lge's Pwrage of 
Ireland, i. 71, 26»> ; MctCidfe's Ikxik of Knights, 
29, 220; Hunter's MS. Chorus Vatum (Add. MS. 
24490, ff. 104-5); Friedmann's Anne Boleyn ; 
Cttl. State Papers (Foreign), 1509-35 ; Cal. State 
Paj>or8 (Irish). 1509-73; Ilazlitt's Bibliogra- 
phical HandlM>ok; Wood's Athena? Oxon. (Bliss), 
i. 109-70; Bagwell's Ireland under the Tudors 
(1885).] S. L. L. 

BRYAN, JOHN (d. lo4r,), logician, was 
born in London, and educated at Eton, whence 
he was elected, in 1510, to King's College, 
Cambridge (B.A. 1515. M.A. 1518). He 
gained the reputation of being one of the 
most leanu'd men af his time in the Greek 
and Latin tongues. For two years ht» was 
ordinar>' reader of logic in the iiublic schools, 
and in his lectures he wholly disregarded the 
knotty subtleties of the realists and nomi- 
nalists who then disturlnnl the university 
with their frivolous altercations. This di»- 



plflosed many, but recDUvmeuded him lo ihe 
nolicv of Erumus, wiici liipblj extols liis 
learuiuK. He was iustituted lo the rectorv 
nf ShHlon--lk>neUa, Essex, in 16^8, and died 
■boui UcKiber 1546, He wrote a hislory ol 
Frstiee, hut it does not apppat to hiiva been 

[Add. M8. 53l4.f. 166; Xeweoart'B Beperto- 
riuin. ir. fias ; Knight's Life of Erasmua, 148; 
Cuuper's Atiitnie Cantftb. i. 87.] T. C. 

BRYAN, JOHN, D.D. (J. I(i76), ejected 
mitUHtvr, wtia educated st Emtumiie] College, 
Gftmbridg«, and held the rector; uf Barford, 

time." Brynn wa« a studpnt lo (lie last, -very 
rendy in controversy, and occasionally an 
eilempore preacher. He wns fond of Oeorge 
Herbert'spoems, and himself wrote verse. A 
tithe of hiB income he dbtributed in charity. 
He died at an advanced age on 4 Maiatt 
1676-6. His funeral sermon, by Wnn]ey,i8 
a verv jrenerouB tribute lo hia merits. 

He left three sons: ( 1 ) John, M.A., vicar of 
Holy CroBB (the abbey church), Slirtn-sbury, 
16-yJ: minister of 8t. Chad's, Shrewsbury, 
27 March 1659; ejected 16(12; minister of 
the presbyterian congregation meeting in 
neat Warwici, worth 140(. a year, but left High Street, Sbrewebuiy ; died on SI Aug. 
it to go to Coventry, as vicar of Ttinity 1699 ; buried in St. Chad's chureliyard. 
Church, in 1644. The living wbb worth ft)/', (2) Samuel, fellow of Petfrhoiise, vicar of 
lo which the city agreed to add 20/. Brjan Allesley, Warwickshire; ejecled in 1662; 
was sppoinled by 'power of the parliament," imprisoned six monlba in ^Vnrwiek gaol for 
and was not cordially welcomed bv the preaching at Bimiingham : household chap- 
vestiy. lu laUi Rryan, assisted byO^iah , lain at Belfast Caatle to -Arthur, first enrl of 

Grew. D.D, [q. v.], 

lie uispHiation 

^ _, of St. Michaers, 

held a public dispiiIatioD on infant baptism 
Trinity Church with Uaneerd KnoUys, the 
baptist. Though Coventry was a stronghold 
of Puritanism, it was not so well content as 
were some of its preaeliers to witness the 
snbveraion of the monarchy. Bryan, at th< 
«nd of 1648, touched upon this dissatisfac- 
tion with the course which events were tak- 
ing in a sermon which was printed. The 
v[»tTyin 1647 agreed to raise his stipend. 
1663 and 16&4 his services wet^ eonsht hy 
'the towne of Shrewsbury,' and the churcli- 
wardens bestirred tbemselves to keep him. 
But the oitiiens were remiss in discharging 
their very moderate promises for the support 
ef their clergy. Nevertheless, the punlan 
preaehen remained at their posts until the 
Act of Uniformity ejected tnem in 1662. 
Bcyan took very much the same viewas Baxter 
onlhequeatiou of conformity. To ministerial 
conbrmity he had ten objections, but he was 
willing to pnictise lay conformity and did so. 
Bishop Hacket tried to overcome his scruples, 
and offered him a month lo consider, beyond 
the time allowed by the acl; but Bn'sn'gave 
up hia vioanige. and was succeedeiJ by Na- 
thaniel Wanlev, of the ' Wonders of the Little 
World' (167t<). Biyun continued to preach 
whenerer and wherever lie had liberty to do 
M ; and In conjunction with Grew he founded 
aimsbyteiian congregation, which met, (rom 
ls73, in licensed rooms. Btyanalsomadehim- 
aelf very useful in edurating students for Ihe 
ministry, and though the dissenting academy 
as a ivcognis*-'d institution datea from Kichanl 
^nnkland (wh(«« academy at Bsthmel was 
opened in 1670), yet Calamy tells us of Bryan 
that ' theri' went out of his house more 
won tiy D)inisiets into Ihe church of God than 
iIVu many collegee in the university in tliat 

Donegal (who left him 50/. a yeiir for foiur 
years, besides his salary, in his will, dated 
I" March 1674); died out of his mind, ac- 
cording to Calamy. (3) Noah, fellow of 
Pelerhouse ; ejected from n living ot Stafford 
in 1662; accoiding to Calsniy, Iwcamechap- 
lain to the Earl of Donegal, 'and died about 
1667, but it seems likely that Calamj has 
confused him with his brother, 

Bryan was succeeded as prt-sbyterian mi- 
nister at Coventry by his tirolher Gervase 
(or Jarvis), appointed to the rectory of Old 
Swin ford, Worcestershire, in 16&S ; ejected 
1662; lived at BirmiDehnm till 167o, died 
at Coventry on 27 Dec. iCen, and was buried 
in Trinity Church. The liberlv to meet in 
licensed rooms was withdrawn in 1682 ; but 
in ie«7, after James's declaration for liberty 
of conscience, Grew and Gennee Bryan re- 
assembled their congregation in St. Nicho- 
las Halt, commonly called Leather Hall. 
Bryan published: 1. 'Tlie Vertuous Daugh- 
ter,' 1640, 4to (sermon, Prov- x\s\. 29, at St. 
Slaiy's, Warwick, at funeral, on 14 April 
1636, of Cicely, daughter iif Sir Thomas 
Puckering; at end is 'her epitaph by the 
author' in verse). 2. 'A Discovery of the 
probable Sin causing this great Judgement 
of Hftin and Waters, vii. our Discontentment 
with our present Government, and inordinate 
desire of our Kiiig,' 1647, 4to (sermon,! Sam. 
xii. 16-20, at Coventry, on 23 Dec. 1646, 
being the day of public humiliatiun ; dedica- 
tion issued ' from my sludv in Coi entry' on 
20 Dec. 1II46). 3. ■ The Warwickshire Mi- 
nisters' Testimony to the Trueth of Jesus 
Christ, and to the Sob-mn League and Cove- 
nant; as also against the errtnirs, heresies, 
and blnsphemieeof these times. Btid the tole- 
mtinn of them; sent in n letter to the Mi- 
nisters of London, aubscribera of the former 




testimony/ 1648, 4to (signed by Bryan, Grew, 
and John Herring as ministers of Uoventry). 

4. ' A Publick Disputation sundry dayes at 
Killingworth [Kemlworth] in Warwickshire 
between John Bryan, &c. and John Onley, 
pastor of a church at Lawford, upon this 
question. Whether the parbhes of this nation 
generally be true churches. Wherein are 
nine arguments alleged in proof of the affirma- 
tive of the question, with the answer of I. O. 
thereunto, toother with Dr. Ji.'s reply, &c.* 
1655, 4to (this discussion was criticised in 
'Animadversions upon a Disputation, &c.,' 
1658, 4to, by J. Ley, prebendary of Chester). 

5. * Dwelling with (jod, the interest and duty 
of believers, opened in eight sermons,' 1670, 
8yo (epistle to the reader by Richard Baxter). 

6. Prefatory letter to * Sermon,' 2 Cor. v. 20, 
by S. Gardner, 1672, 4to. 7. * Harvest- 
Home : being the summe of certain sermons 
upon Job 5, 26, one whereof was preached 
at the funeral of Mr. Ob. Musson, an aged 
godly minister of the Gospel, in the Royally 
licensed rooms in Coventry ; the other since 
continued upon the subject. By J. B., D.D., 
late pastor of the Holy Trinity in that ancient 
and honourable city. The first part being 
a preparation of the com for the sickle. The 
latter will be the reaping, shocking and inn- 
ing of that com wliicli is so fitted, I-iondon, 
printed for the author, 1(174, 4to (this little 
volume of verse is very scarce ; the British 
Museum has two copies, both with authors 
corrections : ' (.)b.' on the title-page is cor- 
rected to * Rich.' ^Kicliurd Musson was ejected 
from tlie rectory of Church Langton, Leices- 
tershire] ; the pn'face says the author has 
presumed to send his l)ook * to some of his 
noble and most wort liv friends :* he introduces, 
from 1 Pet. i. 4, tliree j)erliaps unique words : — 

a kingilom that 
Is apthartal [aphthart^il MS. corr.], amiantal, 
Amarantall — ). 

[Calamy's Account, 1713, pp. 646, 629,735, 
743, 771: Continuation, 1723, pp. 850, 893; 
Monthly Re jx)s. 1819, p. 600; Sihree and Cas- 
ton's lndepcn«lfncv in Warwickshire, 1855, pp. 
27, 29 scq.; BtnnVHi>t. of JJclfast, 1877, pp. 719 
soq, ; Wanlty's Ms. Diary in British Mus<'uni ; 
manuscript oxtnicts from corporation records, 
Coventry, also from burial register and cburch- 
wartlens* accounts of Trinity parish, per Rev. 
F. M. Beaumont ; Cole's MS. Athena' Cantiib.] 

A. G. 

BRYAN, MAllGAKET {fi. ISlo), 
natural ])hilosoi)lier, a })eautiful and talented 
schoolmistress, was the wife of a Mr. Bryan. 
In 1707 she published in 4to, by subscription, 
a * Compendious System of Astronomy, with 
n portrait of liers^lf and two daughters ^^& a 
frontispiece, the whole engraved by Nutter 

from a miniature by Samuel Shelley. Mn. 
Br}'an dedicated her book to her pupils. The 
lectures of which the book oonBisted had been 
praised by Charles Hutton, then at Wool- 
wich (Preface, p. xi). An 8vo edition of the 
work was issued later. In 1806 Mrs. Bryan 
published, also by subscrintion, and in 4to, 
' Lectures on Natural Phiioeophy * (thirteen 
lectures on hydrostatics, optics, pneumatics, 
acoustics), with a portrait of the authoress, 
engraved by Heath, after a painting by T. 
Kearsley; and there is a notice in it that 
' Mrs. Bryan educates yoimg ladies at Bryan 
House, Blackheath.' In 1815 Mrs. Brvan 
produced an ' Astronomical and Geographical 
Class Book for Schools,' a thin 8vo. 

' Conversations on Chemistry,' published 
anonymously in 1806, is also ascribed to her 
by Watt {Bihl Brit) and in the *Biog. Diet, 
of Living Authors' (1816). Mrs. Bryan's 
school appears to have been situated at one 
time at Blackheath, at another at 27 Lower 
Cadogan Place, near Hyde Park Comer, and 
lastly at Margate. 

[Mrs. Bryan's Works.] J. H. 

BRYAN, MATTHEW {d. 1699), Jaco- 
bite preacher, son of Robert Bryan of Liminff- 
ton, Somerset, sometime minister of St.Mary^, 
Newington, Surrey, was bom at Limington, 
])ecame a semi-commoner of Magdalen Hall, 
Oxford, in 1665, and left the university with- 
out taking a degree in arts. After holding a 
benefice in the diocese of Bath and Wells 
for about ten years, he was appointed to his 
father's old liv mg, St. Mary's,^ ewington, and 
to the afternoon lectureship at St. Michael's, 
Crooked Lane. His living was sequestered 
for debt in 1684. A sermon preachea by him 
at Newington and at St. Michael's (:?6 Oct. 
and 2 Nov. of the same year) on 2 Cor. v. 11 
was said to contain reflections on the king's 
courts of justice, and an accusation was laid 
against him before the dean of arches. In 
order to vindicate himself he printed this 
sermon, which certainly does not appear to 
contain any such reflections, with a dedica- 
tion, dated 10 Dec. 1684, to Dr. Peter Mews, 
bisliop of Winchester, formerly his diocesan 
in Somerset. The archbishop was satisfied 
that the charge against him was groundless, 
and it was quashed accordingly. In July 
1685 Bryan accumulated the degrees of civil 
law at Oxford. Refusing to take the oaths 
on tlie accession of William and Mary, he lost 
j his preferment, and became the minister of 
I a Jacobite congregation meeting in St. Dun- 
stan's Court, Fleet Street. This brought him 
into trouble several times. On 1 Jan. 1693 
his meeting was discovered, the names of his 
congregation, consisting of about a hundred 

in St. Dunstan's-in-tlie-Weet. Ilia works 
ore: 'Tbe Cerloint; of the future Judement' 
(llie sermon referred to nbove), 1685; 'A 
Persuusion to tliu stricter Ub«ervance of the 
lord's DaT.' a. Bermoii, 1686; 'St. Paul's 
Triumph in hi» Snffi-rin^/ a. Bermon, 1692. 
In the dedicntion of thie discourse lie de- 
scribes himself he M.B. Indignusf'vT^ 0>i.lifrti 
ditXifiii nit iTvyiioaHiivt,fr6bahiy in reference 
to bis suD'erings us a Jacobite preacher, the 
•fnnon itself being on Hpb. iv. 1. lie also 
wrote two copies of verses printed in Ellis 
Waller's translation of the 'Encheiridton'of 
Epict«tus into English veise. ITll'i, and re- 
vublisbed Sir Humphrey Ljnd's ' Account of 
Bertram the Priest,' 11)86. 

I Wood's Alhenn Ozon. (Bliss), ii, BOa, iv. 770, 
Lite, cxiv; Littlrell's RelaMoD, ii. SSB, iii. I ; 
Cox'i Liltimturo of the Ssbbuth, ii. SI ; Bryan's 
Certunty of tbe future Judgment and his St. 
Paul's TriQEoph.] W. H. 

BRYAN, MICHAEL (1757-1891), eon- 
ooisseuT, was bom at Newcastle-on-Tyne on 
9 April 1757, and was educated at tbe gram- 
mar school of that town under Dr. Moyce. 
In 1781 he first visited London, whence he 
accompanied his elder brother to Flanders, 
where he became acquainted with, and after- 
wards married, tbe sister of the Earl of 
Shrewsbury. In Flanders he continued to 
reside, with the exception of occasional visits 
to England, until 179D, when he finally left 
tbe Low Countries and settled in London. In 
1793 or 1794 Bryan again went to the con- 
tinent in search of fine pictures. Among 
other places he visited Holland, and ni~ 
mainetT there until on order arrived from the 
French government to stop all the English 
then resident there. He was, among many 
others, detained at Rotterdam. It was here 
that lie met M. L'Abord. In 1798 Brian 
I tpplied to by L'Abord for his advice and 

the other the infant St. John with a Iamb. 

the Orleans collection of pictures. 
DiuiucRted the circumstance to the Duke of 
Bridgewater, and his grace authorised him to 
treatfor their purchase. After a negotiation 
of thrw weeks, the duke, with the Marquis 
of Stalford, then Lord Gower, and the Earl 
of Caclialif, became the purchnsera, ut tbe 
priw of 48,SO0f. In 1801 Bryan obtained, 
through the medium of the Duke of Uridge- 
wnler, the king's permission to visit Paris 
for the purpose of selecting from the cabi' 
net of H. Uobit such objects of art as he 
might dcvm worthy of bringing to England. 
Among other fine pictures, lie lirought from 
Pari* IW'i hy Murillo, the one representing 
i&Iatit Christ u the Uood Shepherd, and 

he remained until 1811. In 1^12 Bryan 
arain visited London, end commenced his 
' BiogTHphicnl and Critical Dictionary of 
Painters and Engravers,' 2 vols. (to. The 
first part appeared in Hay 1813, and con- 
cluded in 1813. Another edition appeared 
in 1849, and Mr. R. E, Graves is bnntnnc 
out in parts a new and thotiiughly revised 
edition (1886). In 1818 he connected him- 
self in some picture speculations, which 
, proved a failure. Un 14 Feb. 18-21 he was 
' seixed with a severe paralytic stroke, and 
died on 21 March following. 

[Lilemry RBietif, 1S21, p, 137 ; Magazine of 
the Fine Acts, i. 37; MS. notes in BriLinh Mu- 
seum.] L. F. 

BRYANT, IIE>;RY (1721-1799), bota- 
nist, was bom in 1721, educated at St, John's 
College, Cambridge, graduated B.A. in 1749, 
and proceeded M.A. iu 17ISS. He entered the 
church, but took iii> botonv about 17&4, after 
the death of his wile. He is said to have been 
a man of great acutenesa and attainments in 
mathematics. From Nom'ich he was pre- 
sented to the vicarage of Langbam in lf'38, 
removing afterwards to Heydon, and thence 
to the rectjiry of Colby, where he died on 
4 June 1799. He was a brother of Charles 
Bryant, author of 'Flora diietelica,'&c., who 
di*!d shortly before him. He was the author 
I of ' A particular Ennuin,' into the Cause 
of that Disease in Wheat commonly called 
Brand," Norwich, 1784, 8vo. 

[Sir J. E. Smith in Trsni. Linn. Soc vii. 
(1804), 267-300 ; Genl. Mag. kii. ( 17B0), pt, i. 
532.] B.U.J. 

BRYANT, JACOB (1716-1804), anti- 

Suary, was born in 1715 at Plymouth, where 
is father was on officer in the customs, but 
before his seventh year was removed to 
Chatham. The Rev. Samuel Thornton of 
Luddesdon, near Kncheater, was his first 
schoolmaster, and in 1T30 he waa at Eton. 
Elected to King's College, Cambridge, in 1786, 
and he became a fellow of his college. Hewas 
first private tutor to Sir Thomas Stapylton, 
and then to the Marquis of filondford, after- 
wards duke of Morlboroiieh, and his brother. 
Lord Charles Riiencer. In 175B he was an- 
pointed secretary to the Uuke uf Marlbnmuaii, 
master-«eneral of ordnance, and went -Willi 
him to Germany, where the latter died while 
commander-in-chief. At the same time Bry- 
ant held an office in the ordnance depurlment 
worth 1,400/. n year. Mr. Helheringtr'ii wade 
him his eseculor with s legacy of SfiOOL, and 




the Marlboroujjh family allowed him 1,000/. ; joinder the same year. WhenTyrwhitt issued 
a year, pive him ro<im8 at Blenheim, and the I his work ' The Poems sujppoeed to have been 

use' of the famoun library. He twice refused 
the mastership of the Charterhouse, althouf^h 
once actually elected. His first work was * Oh- 

written at Bristol by Tnomas Rowley and 
others,' Bryant, assisted by Dr. Glyim of 
King*8 College, Cambridge, followed with his 

servations and Knquiries relating to various . * Obfier\*ations on the Poems of Thomas Kow- 
{mrts of Ancient Histor}', . . . the Wind ! ley in which the Authenticity of those Poems 

4to ; and vol. iii. 1776, 4to. His research is , translated into French by Dr. Maty ; the 

remarkable, but he had no knowledge of 
oriental languages, and his system of etymo- 
log\' was iiuerile and mish^ailing. The third 

!•'. • •• l^i 11*11*1 C\f\T 

second by Dr. Cole, prebendarv of West- 
minster, and the French by Dr. butens. In 
1 785 a paper ' On the Zingara or G vpsev Lan- 

edition,insixvols. 8vo,wa8i)ubiishedinl807. guage' was read by Brj-ant to tlie' Royal 

John Wesley ]mblisluHl an aobreviat ion of the Society, and printed in the seventh volume of 

first two vols, of the 4to edition. Richardson, ' * Archieologia/ He next published, without 




Apology,' &c., of which only a few copies were 

Ermted for literar\' friends, Bryant sustained 
is opinions, whereupon Richardson revised 
the (lissertation on languages prefixed to the 
dictionary, and added a second ]mrt : * Fur- 

8vo; third edition, Cambridge, 1810, 8vo. 
This work was wTitten at the instigation of the 
Dowager Countess Pembroke, daughter of his 
patron, and the profits were given to the hos- 
pital for 8mall]K)x and inoculation. Then fol- 

ther Kenlarks on tlie N<*w Analysis of An- lowed 'Observations on a controverted ]m.s- 
cient Mythology,' kc.y Oxford, 177S, 8vo. 
Bryant also wrote a paniplilet in answer 
to Wyttenbach, his Amst«*rdam antagonist, 
about the same time. His account of the 


Apamean medal being disjMited in tlie * Gen- 
tleman's Magazine,' lie dolended himself by 
publishing 'A Vindication of the Anamiean 
MfdaU and of tlie lns(Tii)tion No)?;,' L<mdon, 
177r). 4to. Kckhel, the great mt^dallist, u]>- I 

re in Justyn Martyr; also upon the Wor>hip 
Angels,' I^mdon, 1 793, 4to ; * Observations 
upon the Plagues inflict e<l u|>on the Eg>'p- 
tians,' with map^, Ixmdon, 1794, 8vo. p]>.440. 
Professor Dalzel's publication in 1 7V)4 (»f M. 
Chevalier's * Description of the Plain of Troy * 
elicited Br}-ant's fearless work, * Observations 
ui)on a Treatise . . . (on) the Plain of Troy,' 
hton, 1795, 4to, and 'A Dissert a 

at ion con- 

held his views, but Daines Harrington and ' cerning the W'ar of Troy' (?179(>), 4to, p]). 
others St rcmglv op])osed him at the Society | 19(i; second edition, corrected, with his name, 
of Anticiuaries {Arch(P.o1o(fia, ii.) In 1775, | I-.<md<m, 1799, 4to. Br\'ant contended that 
four vears after the deatli of his friend, Mr. no such war was ever undertaken, and no such 
Robert Wood, he edited, * with his improved , city as tlie Phrygian Troy ever exist tnl ; but he 

thoughts,'* An Essay on the Original Oenius 
and Writings of Homer, with a Comparative 
View of the Troade,' London, 4to. The 
first edition, of seven copies only, 
superb folio, privately printed 


was a 
1 7(59. 

won no c(mverts,andwas attacked on all sides 
by such men as Dr. Vincent, Gilbert Wake- 
field, Falconer, and Morritt. In 17iK» li»» pub- 
lished *An Expostulation addresstnl to the 
l^ritish Critic,' Eton, 4to, mistaking his an- 
l^rvant i)uhli>ihed in 17^*7, without his name, j tag(mist Vincent for Wakefield, and for the 
*Vindici:e Flaviame: a Vindicati<m of the ■ first time losing his temper and using strong 
Testimony of J«)sephus conceniing Jesus I and unjustifiable language. His next work, 
Christ,' L(mdon, 8vo: second edition, with :* The Sentiments of Philo-Jiidneus concerning 
author's name, London, 1 78(), Svo. This work the Logos or Word of God,' Cambridge, 1 797, 
converted even Dr. Priestlev to his opinions. 8vo, pp. 290, is full of fanciful 8])eculation 
In 177?< he published * A Farther Illustration , which detracted from his fame. In addition 




Ilowver'9 'Miscellnneoiia TrucW/ 1785, Jto ; ' 
nnd llis literary lubourS closed with 'OljBer- ! 
vatioiiB ii{>on snme PiiKSH|i;e9 in Scripture' I 
('reUiina M B«lanni, Jcnbus, Samsoa, tinil I 
Jonah), London, 1803, 4to. It. ia apparent, j 
however, flKioi the prefnce to Fabers ' Mys- 
teries of the Cobiri,' IHM, 8vo, tbnt Brj-ant [ 
had written n kind of supplement to his ' Ana- I 
Usis of Ancient Mytbologr,' a work on the I 
Qods of Ore«ce and liome, which, in n letter 
Faber, he «aid, ' ma^ pnggibly be published | 
IM bis death/ but hm executom have never i 


prodnwd the work. Some of his humorous 

Cms BK found in periodicals of his lime, 
«re of little interest except as ejtamples 
of flegnnl Latin and Greek verse. 

Bryant, who was never married, had re- 
sided a inag time before hia death at Onien- 
ham.inFamh&mRoyal, near Windsor, 'Tliere 
the kinf{ nnd queen often visited him, and the 
former possea hours alone with him enjoying 
his conversation. A few months before bis 
eod come he said to bis nephew, ' All I have 



lion of truth, and all I have contended for I 
myself have believed.' While reaching- a book 
from a shelf he hurt his leg, mortification set 
in, and he died 14 Nov. Id(M. Mis remains 
were interred in his own parish church, be- 
neath the seat he had occupied there, and a 
monument was erected to liia memory near 
th« same. 

In person he was a delicately formed man 
of low Btutiire ; late in life he was of seden- 
tary habits, but in his younger days he was 
very a^le and fond of field sports, and once 
by swimming saved the life of Barnard, after- 
wards provost erf Eton. To the last he was 
attached tohia dogs, and kept thirteen spaniels 
tt a time. He was temperate, courteous, and 
Kaneroiis. His conversation was veiy pleas- 
tng and instructive, with a vein of quiet hu- 
mour. There are many pleasant anecdotes 
of li im in Madame d'Arblay's ' Diary and Let- 
ters.' In his lifetime his curious collection 
of Cantons went I o the Marquis of Blandford, 
and many Taluable books were sent from his 
library to King George III. The classical 
part o"f his lihrarv was bequeathed to Kiiur's 
Collie, Cambridge ; 2,000/. to the Society (or 
IVipagating the Gospel, 1,000/. to snper- 
umuUed ooUegers of Eton School, 600/. to 
thepoor of Fnmham Royal, &c. 

TLo Enelish portrait prefixed to the octavo 
etiilinn of^his work on ancient mythology is 
from a drawing bv the liev, J. Bearblock, 
taken in IHOI. All literary authorities, and 
bis rounimient, oive the year of his birth as 
nbovi^, but in the Eton 'register-book he ia 
MitCTed as ' 12 years old in 17-30.' 

nJTyant'a Works; Nichola'sLit. Anecd. i.G7Z, 

iii. T. 42, 84, UB, 61S,ir. 318. 6US. 667, v. 381, 
viii. 112, 139, 318. US. 427. fi08. 631, 6*0, oS8, 
614. 68S, a. 198. 290, 677. 714; Nichols's Lit. 
IlluM. ii. 681.11!. 133.218. 773. vi. 36,219.670, 
vii. 401. 40*. 469; Gent. Mag. zlvili. 210. S2fi; 
NewMonthlyMag. i. 327: Archieologia, iv. 316, 
331, 347, vii. 387; Cole's MS3., Brit. Has. 
vols. n. ixiii. ; Mjirtin's Privataly Prinlsd 
Books, 86 1 Mme. d'Arblay's Diaiy, 184G, iii. 
in. 328, 323. 375. 401.] J. W.-G. 

BKYCE, Sib ALEXANDER {d. 1832), 

major-general and colonel-commandant 
royal engineers, entered the Roval Mili- 
tarv Academy. Woolwich, as a cadet on 
7 Oct. 1782, and paued out as a second 
lieutenant, royal artiUery, on 25 Aug. 1787. 
In the aut umn of that year he was employed 
with Captain (afterwards Major-genend) 
W. Mudge in carrying out General Roy'e 
system of triangulation for connecting the 
meridians of Greenwich and Paris, and in 
the measurement of a ' base of verification ' 
in Romney Marsh, part icul are of which will 
be found in 'Phil. Trans." 1790. Bryce was 
transferred from the royal artillery to the 
royal en^neers in Marcli 1789, anci became 
a captain in the latter corps in 1794. After 
serving some years in North .\merica and 
the Mediterranean, he found himself senior 
engineer officer with the army sent to Egypt 
under Sir Ralph Abercromby, in which pi>si- 
tion be was present at the landing, in the 
battles before Alexandria, and nt the sur- 
render of Cairo, and directed the siege opera- 
tions at Aboukir, Fort Marabout, and Alex- 
andria. For hie services in B^^t he received 
the brevet rank of major and permission to 
wear the insignia of the Ottoman order of 
the Crescent. Subsequently, as colonel, he 
Berved some years in Sicily, In the descent 
on Calabria he commanded a detachment of 
Sir John Stuart's army that captured Dami- 
enti, nnd was commanding engineer in the 
expedition to the bay of Naples in 1809 
and in the defence of Sicilv against Murat 
(BuHBUKT, Aarnih'i'e). In 1814 he received 
the rank of brigadier-general, and was ap- 
pointed president of a commission to report 
on the restoration of the fortresses in the 
Netherlands. He became a major-general 
in 1825, and in 1829 was appoiDtecl inspector- 
general of fortifications, a post he was hold- 
ing at the time of his decease. Bryce, who 
was much esteemed in private life as well 
as professionally, died, after a tew hours' 
illness, at his residence, Hanover Terrace, 
Regent's Park, on 4 Oct. 1833. 

[Kane's List of OfSeew R. An. (Woolwich, 
1869); Phil. Trans.1790: Atinonl Army Lists ; 
Wilson's Eipwlilion to K^ypt (London, 1803); 
Bnnbury'a Narrative of CBrtatn Poffiagca in the 





late War (London, 18^2). pp. 329 et seq. ; Papers 
on subjects connected with the corps of R. En- 
gineers, iii. 411 ; Gent. Mag. (cii.) li. 474.1 

H. M. C. 

BRYCE, DAATD (1803-1876), architect, 
bom on 3 April 1803, was the son of a builder 
in good business in E^dinburgh. Educated at 
the high school there, the aptitude for draw- 
ing which he earlv displayed induced his 
father to devote him to tne profession of 
architecture, and to give him a thorough 
practical training in his own office, from which 
ne passed to that of William Bum, then the 
leaoing architect in Edinburgh, whose partner 
he soon afterwards became. The partner- 
ship was dissolved on Bum's removal to 
London in 1844, and Bryce succeeded to a 
very large and increasing practice, to which 
he clevoted himself with tlie enthusiasm of 
an artistic temperament and untiring energy 
and perseverance. In the course of a busy 
and suceessful career, which was actively 
continued almost down to his death, he at- 
tained the foremost place in his profession in 
Scotland, and designed important works in 
most of the principal towns of that country. 
Bryce worked in all styles, and at first chiefly 
in the so-called Palladian and Italian Kenais- 
sancc, but he soon devoted himself more ex- 
clusively to the Gothic, particularly that 
variety of it known as Scottish Baronial, 
of which In* b^^came latterly the most dis- 
tinpuishod and tlio ablest exponent. It was 
in tills style tlint liis greatest successes were 
achieved, particularly in the erection and 
alteration of mansion houses throughout the 
country-, of which at least fifty testify to 
his sound judGrment in planning, as well as 
to his a]»preciation of its opportunities for 
picturesque elVects. The best of his public 
tjuildinps in this style are probablv Fettes 
College and the Koyal Infirmary in Edin- 
burgh ; while the buildings of the Bank of 
Scotland, which so largely contribute to 
the beauty of the outline of the Old Town 
of Edinburgh, exhibit him at his best in 
the Italian style. His fame is, however, 
mainly du»* to his ability in reviving the 
picturesque French Gothic, now naturalised 
in Scotland under the name of Baronial ; and, 
to quote from the annual report of the 
lioyal Scottish Academy in the year of his 
death, * there is no doubt that his name will 
long be honourably associated with much 
that is best and most characteristic in the 
domt^st ic architecture of later times.' Bryce 
was a man of varied accomplishments, and, I 
though somewhat rough in manner, of a genial 
and warm nature, which procured him the 
esteem of a large circle of friends. In the 
year 1835 he was elected an associate of the 

Royal Scottish Academy, and in the follow- 
ing year became an academician. He was 
also a fellow of the Royal Institute of British 
Architects, of the Architectural Lustitute of 
Scotland, of the Royal Society of Edinbuwh, 
and officiated for several years as grand archi- 
tect to the Grand Lodge oiTMasons m Scotland. 
At his death, which occurred on 7 May 1876, 
after a short illness from bronchitis, he left 
many important works in course of erection, 
which have since been completed under the 
superintendence of his nephew, who had been 
for some years his partner, and who suc- 
ceeded to his business. He died unmarried. 
Bryce attained a large and lucrative practice 
long before the days of competitions, and he 
is only known to have produced one compe- 
titive design — ^for the Albert Memorial in 
Edinburgh. His idea was to erect a sort of 
peel tower or keen in the castle, containing 
a large vaulted cnamber, in which a statue 
of the prince should be placed. Perhaps if 
he had been the successful candidate he might 
have added another attraction to the town he 
has done so much to adorn. A full list of 
his works is given in the * Builder,' 27 May 
1876, p. 608. 

[Builder, vol. xxxiv. (1876); Architect. voL 
XV. (1876); Scotsman (12 May 1876); Forty- 
ninth Annual Report of Council of the Royal 
Scottish Academy (1876).] a. W. B. 

BRYCE, JAMES, the elder (1767-1857), 
divine, was bom at Airdrie in Lanarkshire 
5 Dec. 1767. He was the son of John Bryce, 
descended from a family of small landowners 
settled at Dechmont in that county, and of 
Robina Allan, whose family, originally pos- 
sessed of considerable property near Airorie, 
had lost most of it in the troubles of the 
seventeenth century, in which they had es- 
poused the covenanting cause. 

The son was educated at the university of 
Glasgow, and in 1795 was ordained minister 
of the Scottish Antiburgher Secession (Church. 
He was accused before the synod of latitudi- 
narianism because he had minimised the dif- 
ference between his own and other denomi- 
nations of christians, had condemned tht» 
extreme assumption of power by the clergy, 
and had argued that the dogmatic creeds of 
the church received too much respect as com- 
pared with the scriptures. He was suspended 
for two years, and when restored to his func- 
tions, feeling some indignation at the intole- 
rant spirit which then reigned in Scotland, 
he accepted an invitation to visit Ireland, 
where he ultimately settled in 1805 as minis- 
ter of the antiburgher congregation at Killaig 
in county Londonderrv. At this time the 
ministers of the antiburgher and burgher 
bodies in Ulster had been offered a share in 

ihi' rrffiam donum, «n aonual eudowmaDt paid 
br tlie lunl'lieutenaiit to Ilie preabyt«rian ini- 
nislun (aboli«hKd in 1809). ThLs Iwd been 
dislributedaAAfrwirifVwithoiit condilinnsi it 
WM now for political rewons proposed prently 
to inereaae its aiuoucT, but to require the 
redpient to first take the oath of nllegiance, 
and to ^ve the lord-lie utennnt an absolute 
vetoonitubestowsL The ministers of Bryce's 
denomination vehemently denounced these 
t«nns, but when thej found that the stipend 
could not Vie otherwise obtabed, they sub- 
mitted and took it. He alone stood firm, hold- 
ing that the requirements were dishonouring 
to Christ oi the supreme head of the church, 
and tendtid to enslave a minister of religion 
Aod to degrade his office. Although separated 
thereby from hia fellow-ministers, and unsup- 
portod by the parent church in Scotland, he 
maintained his principles, nnd thus, as others 
gradually gathered round him, became the 
lounderofa branch of the presbyterian church 
which took the name of the Associate Pres- 
bytery of Ireland. This body waa ultimately 
uuit^ with Ibe Scottish united presbyterian 
church, wluch had by that time come to adopt 
pimilarvievi-sof spintuol independence. Mr. 
Bryce was n man of originality and literary 
culture, but he published little except several 
statemenliofhiscuae and position intheqite«- 
tionjustdeacribed. He died at Killaig . at the 
age of ninety, 34 Apiil 1837, having preached 
twice on the sabbath pret-eding his de-ath. 
[InforniBlioH from the fmnilj.] 

BHYOE, JAMES, the younger (1806- 
1S77), schooimoster iitid geologist, was the 
third: sen of James Bryce (1767-1857) [q.v.] 
Mid of Catherine Annan of Auchtermuchty 
in I^lfesliire, and was bom at Killaig, near 
CWiMtine, 23 Oct. 1806. He whs educated 
lint by his bther and eldest brother (the Rev. 
Dr.Bfyce,«tillliving),and afterwards at the 
muvarnty of 01as|ji>w, where he graduated 
B.A. in 1828, harmg highly distinguished 
himself in cloasical studies. He had intended 
to study for the bar, but, finding this beyond 
his meaua, adopted the profession of teaching, 
and became mathematical master in the Bel- 
fast Aeadnmy.afoundation school of consider- 
able nore in ITster. In \Bm he married 
Margaret, dniighterof James TouugofAbbey- 
rillB, county Antrim, and in 1840 waa ap- 
pointed to the high school of Glasgow, the 
undent public grammar school of that city, 
and h«:ld this ofEce till his resignation m 
1874. He was a brilliant and siicceMf^il 
tfiocher both of matbeinutics and geography, 
but his special interest lay in the study of 
natural history. He devoted himself to geo- 
logical resuarchM, first in the north of Ire- 

land, and afterwarrlsin Scotland and northern 
England. Hebeganinl&34towriteandpul>- 
and chalh beds in Antrim (the first appeared in 
the ' Philosophical Magazine ' for that year I, 
and these having attracted the notice of Sir 
R. Murchison and Sir C, Lvell led to his 
election as a fellow of the Geological Societies 
ofLoadon and Dublin. His more important 
papers ("among which may be found tlie first 
complete investigation and description of the 
structure of the Giant's Causeway) appeared 
in tlie ' Transactions ' of the London society, 
others in the 'Proceedings' of the Natural 
History Society of Belfast and of the Philo- 
sophical Society of Glasgow, of which he 
was more than once president. He also 
wrote 'A Treatise on Algebra,' which went 
through several editions, an introduction to 
' Mathematical Astronomy and Geography.' 
' A Cyclopfedia of Geographv.' and a booK on 
'Arran and the other Clydp Ishinds,' witli 
special reference to their geology and anti- 
quities. He was a warm advocate of the 
more general introduction into schools of the 
teaching of natural history sa well as natural 
science, and set tbeexample of giving teaching 
voluntarily in these subjecta,for which there 
was in hia daynoregular provision in the high 
schools of Scotland. In 1868 he received 
from his university, in the reform of which 
he hod borne a leading part, the honorary 
degree of LL.D. After resigning his post 
at Ghtsgow, be settled in Edinburgh, and 
published hia later contributions to geology 
in the ' Transactions of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh.' He was a keen and accurate 
observer,aDd, having an ardent love of nature 
and great physical activity, continued his 
field work in the highlands of Scotland with 
unflagging zeal to the end of his life. While 
examining a remnrkable mass of eruptiva 
granite at Inverfarigaig,on the shores of Looh 
Ness, he disturbed some loose stones by tbi^ 
strokes of his hammer, and caused the blocks 
above to fall on liira, killing him i 

f, but in the ^1 enjoym 
as wfU as physical powers. 
[lEfomintion from the family.] 

writer, sonofJolmBrydall, of Jesus College, 
Cambridge, and of St. Allmn's Hall, Oxford, 
and of the Rolls, a captain in the regiment 
of foot raised for the king's service by the 
Inns of Court, and a famous master of pike- 
exercise, was a native of Somerset. He en- 
tered Queen's College, Oxford, as a commoner 
in 16ol, proceeded B,A., entered Lincoln's 
Inn, and became seivetary to Sir Harbottle 



Orimatmi, mnater of the mils. He published 
thirty-^ix trentiwa, cliiefly on law, among 
which are; 1. 'Speculum Juris Anrlicanl, 

r a View of the Laws of Enffland? 1673. 

. ' Jus Sigilli, or the Law of England touch- 
ing the Four Principal Seals/ 1673. 3. 'Jiw 
Iiafurinia, or the Law of EitKlnnd relating' 
to the Nobility and Gentry/ 1873, 1675. 
4. 'Jus CriminiR, or the Law toucbitig cer- 
tain Pleas of the Crown," 187H. G, ' Camera 
BecJs, or a Short View of London . . , 
collected out of Law and History,' 1677. 
6l ' Decus et Tutomen, or a Prospect of the 
Laws of Enaland,' 1679. 7. ' A Letter to a 
Friend,'ontherOTalauthfirity,1679. a 'The 
Clergy vindicated,' 1679. 9. ' Summua An- 
glijB Seneschallus, a Survey of the Lord Tliich 
, Steward,' 1680. lO. ' JuraCoronio, His Ufa- 
jesty's Roynl Rights asserted against Papal 
Usurpations . . .' 1680. 11. 'A Letter to 
a Friend on Sovereignty," 1681 . 1 2. ' A New 
Year's Gift for the Anti-PrerogatiTie Men 
. . . wherein ... is discussed . . . the 
Earl of Danbigh's pardon,' 1682. 

the Convevnncer/ 1697. 15. ' Non Compos 
Mentis.or the Law relating to Natural Fools, 
Had Folks, and Lunatic Persons,' 1700. 
16. ' Lex Spuriorum, or the Law relating to 
Bastardy,' 1703. 17. 'A Declaration of the 
Divers I'reheminences . . . allowed , . . 
«nlo the Firstborn among Hia Mjjestj'a Sub- 
jects the Temporal Lords in Parliament,' 
1701. He also left thliij other treatises in 
;rijit. He gava several of hie own 
stises and some booia to the libraries 
tf IJncolu'e Inn and the Middle Temple. 
[Wood's Athene (ed. Bliss), iv. 6111 ; Coder's 
pHist. Dii^t. vol i. ; Chalmers's Biog. Diet. vii. 
I ill : Cut. of the Tracts of Law ... by John 
Brydnll (1711), "p- RawliuBon MSS. 4to. " "~" 

BRYDGES, GREY, fifth Lohd Chandob 
(1579P-1621), bom about 1579, was the son 
of William, the fourth lord, fcy his wife, 
Mary, daughter of Sir Owen ^pton, heu- 
tenant of the Tower [see Betdobs.Sib Joan]. 
His father died ou 18 Nov. 1602, and his 
mother on 23 Oct. 1624 (Ltsons, ^iiirotia, 
iii. 41)0). He and his family were friendly 
with the Earl of Esaei. A cousin, F.liaabeth. 
the daughter of his uncle Giles, third In i 
has been identified with the fair Mrs. Bti<.l_ 
to whom Essex showed so much attentl 

government &r enouKh implicated 
conspiracy to prevent his sitting on tbeooit»> 
mission nmrainted to try the («rl, Ilis son. 
Grey Brydges, was, however, siispticted of 
immediate complicity, and was sent to llie 
Fleet prison with Cuffe and others aft*r the 
insurrection (Lodge, lUuetratiom, iiu 120), I 
but he waa soon released. He siu^uoeded hia 
father in the barony(ISNov. 1«02). attended 
Jamuj Fs parliament ( 19 March 1 603-4 1, was 
made knight of the Bath when Prince CbarUa 
was created duke of York (Jnniiary 1604-6), , 
visited Uxfbrd with James I and was grant«j' 
the degree of M.A. (30 Aug. IttOS], and at- 
tended Prince Henry's funeral in 1B12. In 
nil the court masques and toumamenia 
Chandostookanacdvepart. It wns reportsd 
at court on Sept. 1613 that a duel was to 
be fought by Cnsndos and tho king's !••' 
vouri te. Lord Hay, afterwards Viscouut Don- 
caster and Earl of Carlisle. <Mt! July 1600 
he was appointed keeper of Ditton Fuk, 
Buckinghamshire, for life. In 1610 he ww 
appointed one of the officers under Sir Ed- 
ward Cecil in command of an exmdltion to- 
the Low Countries (Ntwt/ntn Clena^mtS,. 
1611). The emperors forces weps bMiegiDK 
Juljers, and the English had combined wm 
Holland and France to prot«;t th« town. 
Lord Herbert of Cherbury waa Chandoi^f 
companion through thiscampaign. Cfaandos 
lodg^ at Juliers with Sir Horace Vere, but 
does not seem to have taken much part in 
the lighting (Lobd Hbbbsht, Autohiogrmta, 
ed.S.L.Lee,pp.ll2-13). On 27 AprilTeH 
Lord Salisbu^ (Sii' Robert Cecil) stayed «it)i 
Chondos at Ditton on his journey to fiUl^ 
where he died on 2-t May following. Ob 
23 July of the some year Chandos viettcd 
Spa for hia health. On 14 July 1616 than 
was some talk of making hint pr«sident of 
"Wales, and on 8 Nov. 1617 he wa* appoinUd 
to receive the Muscovit« ambassadnn ihon in 
England. His health was still &tliiw, uil 
after a trial in Ifilfi f.fthi-i wiilir^of NTwpn- 

f to the poor, and came up to London 
with Kn extmordinarily elnborntc relinue. 
nil liberality gained for iiim the title of 
'king of tie Cotswolds.' There are vary 
many ro&renctH in the ' State Papers ' to a 
family quairei which Chaodos inherited from 
hia father, and which reflects little credit on 
hia character. His first eouain, Elizaheth, 
to whom reference has already heen made, 
appesra to have claimed Sudclev and other 
ports of the Chandos property as tlie daughter 
Uid coheireM of Qiles, the third lord. In 
hJa father's lifetime Orey Brydges assaulted 
th«i lady's representative at a conference 
held to settle the dispute (June 1602). In 
the following Octoher it was proposed that 
Orey should many Elizabeth, hut finally, in 
December, when he had become fifth lord 
Chandoa, it was stated that the controversy 
had been otherwise 'compounded.' Imme- 
diately after James Ps accession Elizaheth 
tnairied Sir John Kennedy, one of the king's 
Scotch attendants. Chandos appears to have 
>pposed the match, and it was rumoured 
jariy in 1604 that Kennedy hada wife living 
a Scotland. But James I wrote to Chandos 
(19 Feb, 1603-4) entreating him to overlook 
Sif John's errow because of his own love for 
hij attendant, Elizabeth apparently left her 
husbandond desired tohave the matter legally 
examined, but as late as 1<}09 the lawfulness 
«f the marriage bad not been decided upon. 
Lord Ohandofl declined to aid his cousin, and 
she died deserted and in poverty in October 

Horace Walpole credits Ghandos with the 
anthorahip of an anonymous collection of 
' ' hly interest ing essays, entitled ' Hone 
" ecivs,' 1630, published by Edwajd 

(Ae Cajvndwh Family, 1708') state, however, 
thftt Oilbert Cavendish, eldest son of the 
Brat earl of Devonshire, was the author of 
tlw work. Frotn some topical references the 
book would appear to have beeu written 
nbout 1615. Several copies are extant vrith 
thn name of Lord Ohondoa inscribed on 
tho litle-pam- in Mventeenth-century hand- 
wrltinz. Wond ulules that Gilbert Oaven- 
dUh 'Vi--^ ■ ■'■ - ■■! ' '^ - " ■■-' =tvle of 
the !■■ ■ill that 

Hal. 'I 


to decide the [(uestion finally with the scanty 
evidence at our disposal- 
Grey Brydges's eldest son, Oeobse, who 
became siAth Lord Oamsos, was a sturdy 
royalist, fought bravely at the first battle of 
Newbury, and afterwords in the west of Eng- 
land (see Wishbodsne's BibUothtca Gtocea- 
treruit), Hepaidalargefinetotheparliament 
at the close of the war, killed Henry CompUtn 
in a duel at Putney on IS May 1053, was i 

tried and found guilty of manslaughter after / 

a long imprisonment, 17 May 1654. He died / 

of smallpox in February IU54~6, and was / 

buried at Siideley. He married first Susan, j 

daughter of Henry, earl of Jllanchester, by / 
whom he bad three dau^ters, and secondly / 
Jane, daughter of John savage, earl Rivers, 
by whom he hod three daughters. His 
brother William succeeded him as seventh 
lord Chandos, 

[Stale Pnptir CoIendHn (Dom,), 1600-21 ; 
Nichols's Progrewes of James I ; BnrkB's Eitinot 
Peerage ; Uogdale's Baronage ; Brydges'a Peers 
of the Ketgn of James 1, vol, i. i Wood's Fasti 
(Bliaa); Notes and Queriea, 2ad aer, viii. 13. 
Sib ser. v. 303, 352 ; Walpole's Royal and Noble 
Authors (Park); Coopar Willyoms's Hist, of 
Sodeley Csstte.] S. L L. 

(1764-1847), diplomatist and author, waa 
the son of Harford Jones of Presteign, by 
Winifred, daughter of Richard Hooper of 
the Whittern, Herefordshire, and was bom 
on U Jan. 1764. In commemoration of his 
descent, through his maternal grandmother, 
trom the family of Brydges of Old Colwall, 
Herefordshire, he assumed, bv royal sign 
manual dated 4 May IH'36, the additional 
name of Brydees. Early in life he entered 
the service of the East India Company, and, 
acquiring great proficiency in the oriental 
languages, he was appointed envoy extrsr 
ordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the 
court of Persia, where he remained four years, 
from 1807 to 1811. On 9 Oct. 1807 be was 
created a baronet. On hia return from Persia 

Company, and resigned his connection with it. 

Throughout life he cherished a warm intflrest 

in the welfare Imth of the Peraiona and the — -"- 

natives of India. In 183.3 he published 'The 

Uynastv of the Eajars, translated from the 

ongina! Persian manuscript ; ' in the follow- 

i,,^ ■,..,(>. -An Account of Hia Majesty's 

■'■ ' ■ ' the Court of Persia in the years 

, which is added a brief history 

i.iiiibyi' and in 1838 a ' Letter on 

. ■I'lat'' of British Interests and 

Mrc'ssed to the Marquis 

' ', lie pleaded the ci 

BrsdjCes :^^ Br>-dges 

of ".Lr Lz.T^r? : >. '.:.r .- u '.-.-'.-.-t ': :iit tj^t >p7^t9cz:iiziir Pope bespatteriiiff the dake^s 

c: _r: . : l.rr:: . r» .-.-'lz ULl^'. IzzL.l C-.-zriifcTT. :-:tb:-L T^ite indicn&zitlv denied tne report in 

■z-rz. ■:zL. r^ ■': - :•. L. y . : j.- 1:- \i.-. • - ^si ^ t.- i .vrrr • : G«t. Svumed bv his friend W illiam 

\-rr'.. I- :•...: .'? u Lr\.L'.'i^':^.'Zi'. T.'i C'.'.'jLr:i '^. x/.Eai published in the news- 

Ls. s. ;•:.-. r -i.-trr'^: ir. ::.- t1:«:-.. - .-.■:.: ?'^-.^ .:' Tit^trr? .{ lir dsT. He denied it also in his 

iSiir. :riL.rv. r^'i.rTr ir f.-v.r.ivi & lol.:-.-!^ Tr.Tt:-e .'-:.rr<e#T»DmdencetoLiOpdOxfopd,Carvll, 

i^>:•: ii- . . n kr «- l* :":.t 0-^y O.u: v.'*.-:^ tisi A£r:.ii Hill (5>ee Elwix's Pope, vi. 830, 

*»=. -■' -' .'- In '. It r:->:.^v.l V:.r 'i.-zi.njrr iv. 444.1-..:. i*iiii?; Aabos Hill's H orfar, L 

^■rr>r . : 1 • C L rr. n Tit -- .-. : :> :t . : . i.: : rl t"* ; lt £ Hpiftif to Arhutkm*t. v. 375). He 
Ir. 1 <>_ ir ■» if r-sr TT. i ". T. . v - „- ; ..1. r, t"'- -::<»rr:c«£ s i^offlpHment to Chandos in the 

tTu^-lr .c :ir • characters of Men,' first pub- 

iire:-^:\ fUrrvtr;. x^t i.-i t: i-* s-=-a: 

!.;.■- li -. - -• » .'V c ^v ■■ , -.1-* jT.'..'!::.^* Chaa dot IS beloved at Sight. 

ii'ViTi'rr . : S.r }ir-_ry •■ ::. kn .;i:. . :' N-.w- 1~ >-.:;? :: j^nala inapplicable details, there 

l&r.i Park. r....k.::*:iar_*i.>. z^i.:. »:£. w ;: .tai: ':»r r.: £.vjbT that Pope took some hints 

R -iTr ^Vi.: : . — *i . : tit Wi:::- — . Hr r:- fr. ^iCir.::::^ aui should have anticipated the 

f:rl>i:r7. ir Lii . :.-. > :. ^r. '. :w \u:^:.'.-. r> sry '..."*:.;-. ThrTV is. however, no reason to 

''"r-i".. M ..'. 1.^ >=: :■?. xx^ . >r . Ar: i;/. *-V?-'^ •-*" hr had received any &vour8 

Kr j-.f: t T. '. ixx X. 2: . M : t : > ,' . irr.i r : iV vil -^ =^ Oiin £ . «fw A i^fosal to answer the charge 

Tv-^ . . •<• « ' -=■•.-•.:■ TV. ■;!"£ iivr :»-rn Inciter than a denial which 

ri:ii7 f.:r: :-.r:hrr.e^i the ceneral belief. The 

BRYDGES. JaMKS. drs: Pvky i y;.r.: :« £.*.!-.:>!Sts.'. -n Mr. Court hope's intro- 

Ch \Ni». * « I'.T"- 1744 . trl£-. ?: *^r. .>: J iru: *. .*.u.': . :: : : :h- • F.yi<:le to Burlin^on ' (Pope, 

eiri'i - ~-i L'is:'-•i:■^ --' S.:it".-.y . wdi* K r:: /\'-r:>j* J*', -v,*. iii. l^l-ii\ AXarburton, in 

f5 JskT.. I'^'X Hi? :i:i-:Twaf >cr.: ?.* sinV***- i -.Tr :^ :hr edition of 1751, stated that 

5^1 :r i: C :>:.-.:::::: 7' •. Ir. ':iW\ ir.£ £:-.■£ >.=:-. ;: P^>.*> linos werv fulfilled by the 

16 *!*o". 17 1-*. Ti-: s.r- w-^s t'.tvv.'i iiitnirnr spit-Ay £:>A;pi arance of Canons — thus, by 

fi-r tLr t\*.v ■. :' Hr> :';.-: :ii l'V>. akvI >a: :?t &r. :•££ .T-r^i^i:, confirming the application 

thr ?ci:r.r: 5 .scv .:r.::. :.:-. A».Vt >*■.:: .^: iTt-^r^". I. w:.-..^:. ::•: cvt-.t^i. 

wLvr. 1 • '-'• "i7U h-. w;.s .rti:-.l V <,- .::•.: Is:".*:. ir.i.* 'Tv-r through Great Britain' 

W .'.' !. iT-i r.-:'. .! C..r:...r\ ".. « »:: ;^'. A: r.". 17i" . .--.s.t.'.t* :::e rfiplrT.dour? o{ Canons 

17'/.j iv -.V .- .-•.-*.•..: M:-T..:> . tCir:...:'. :: .:: :-. ni:* wiuh rfC;iV: Timon's villa. He 

an: !•--:• ' • : ^" '• -■ !'• -7'.C i-: ^v:i^ :.•> s:.y> :i.-i: ::.t:\ wirt' li\> persKms in family 

» . ... I *. .» » -• ' — ■■ ■ • - ..■■■• 
." • ■ . . ■ » 

:'::.•.:.;;■. P vr :•"'.< 11:1*. that there were not 

..r.'.c: "v\ :. i iv '.•'..: ;iy.:".". 17*.-. ".'A' :••.* . ii::.i <Ay> ihat the choir enter- 

If. .:r:''. '•...: i.- w*. •.'.::: i:i > .■..".£:!■.«: a >j".'. '.*.- :...:*i.*. ::-.-'.i-. •. yvtv i;:»y a: dinntT. A poem 

'ill l.'i^- ii' '--»>-■- -'■"• ^'•*-*' l- '-fT^^-i^-. :»- • c..'.'.-. .: '0^ :»::.•..•>; ^T. rboVijiion' (by Gilaon\ 

>--^ ;!i -.i!. ■*'-•-- '^■-■>^'" -.'ly '^v > '^.;v.'.!. r.>" w:i- v.:\ "..-:.-. £ ir. 1717. and another, on the 

-V."-.- -•'-'.-':, in C.iV'iiV.-:: ^iV-»^-■ T-.v s:i:i:- -■..:■■%•:. '^v S. Humphrevs. in 172S. 

l-^< wa- iirc ri'.iv.v.- £ uj- n b-.iyir.i: :i-.' li.-ir.Av-i *;.: i:;:o dit^.oulties by speculative 

]»"k- ■* ' •rzii.::.!-'"^ '• i— in S:. .T:in>.*"s ir.v-.j-:u:tr.:s.:iii£ in 17.!>4 Swift, in his versus 

>: , n,'.- T^ •-.. ar^-Livo wvr-.' '.n'.v- 'Vt .: ;;'.;d v^n ' :!;•.• dn'Kv and the doan.* savs that * all 

tI.. T*-'"" T«v-n:-rs Pur.:::ii un I lV».i-.;i\i. hv c:: bv :r.v.:d is l.^?; bv stvks.' He ac- 

( »r.- ' i' • ti*.- 5i-'i*-*i li^^* •ui-.T;:::- ir. I'nclanl ' cuv. s C!:ar.d.\-i 'f noc^vtinc an old friend on 

w-i- ir-^'-ir.:*. 1 :• -■.ip-riiittr. 1 '.l:v f\ptn>v>. Ko-.^niinj'iHvluki'd.' He had a?ked Chandos 

wliici/ a.-v -:i:d r ■ litiv.- iimo.;nT».- 1 to ->A\UV;*. i ol A;:*:. 1 7M ^ :j prt^srul some Irish records 

-M-xjiiil-r Pilfickwi-ll 'ij. V." laid •u: i\w ^ar- i"«^r:u; -.'.y l"olon;:Ln*: to L.^nl Clarendon ^lord- 

d-n--.' T;.- ^.' wa- a majiiitloeiit ch:ij»vl, in liov.:-n:;n: in l«>N^i to the university of 

whidi Wit- in:»iiit;iiiJvd a i'.'M ch»ir. llandvl The failure oi the riHjiiest probably 

MK-nT t^vi y»-ar^ at Can"n> : h'.- comp>c-d annoyed him. Swift, in his ' Characters of 

•••veiiiv antlieiu- i'^t ihr* service, and there t he Court oi Queen Anne/ had called Chandos 

a v^rv worthv irfUileman. but a cfroat corn- 

produced hi- fir-1 Kiijli>horat-^ri'». * Ksth^r." * a v».ry worthy irfn?leman. but a j: 

III I JiM-'rinli* r 1 7-i] P' -pe published lii> • Epistle pli'T with ever\- court .' 

v, Lord JJiirlinL'^ 'u/ in which orrurs tin- In April 17lM the duke w.hs 





1097, to Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas Lake 
of Canons ; eecoiidly, to Coasaindra, daughter 
of Sir K, WiUoughby ; and thirdly, to Ljdia 
CatharinB, dau^tu of John Vauliaitem, 
widow of Sir Thomas Davall, M.P. He died 
9 Atig. 1744. He was buried under a gor- 
geous cnonument at Stanmore Porra, in the 
church which he had rebuilt in 1715. 

The house was sold by auction for tlie ma- 
terials on the duke's death. One William 
HalleC {Gent. Mag. lii. 45) built a bouse 
with some of them on the vaull-s of the old 
one. The stai rcase was re-erecled in Chester- 
field House, and the statue of George 1 helped, 
till 1873, to make Leicester Square hideous. 

Chandos was succeeded in the dukedom by 
his second son, Henry, five sons having died 
before bim. The second duke married Mary 
Bruce, who died 14 Aug. 1738, and in 1T44 
Anne Wells. The story is told that he 
bought her from her former husband, a bru- 
tal oetler at Newbury, who happened to be 
offering her for sale as the duke was passing 
througti the town (JVahu and Quenet, 4lb 
aer. vi. 179). 

[Collina's pMrage (1779), ii- 137-9; Haw- 
kina'a History of Music, p. S32 ; Lysous's Eavi- 
lODB of London, ii. 670-3; Thurno's Enviroiia 
of London {1876). pp. 72-*.] L 8. 

BRYDGES, Sitt JOHN, first B*kon 
Ohajhos (1490P-1556), eldest son of Sir 
Oiles Brydgea or BruE^ (d. 1511>of Cober- 
ley, Qloucestersbire, by Isabel Baynbam, is 
oUted to have been bom about 1490, but the 
dAle was probably earlier. He was descended 
frmn the Giles Bridges who married Alice, the 
daughter and coheiress of Sir John Chandos 
(d. 1430), the last male representative in the 
directlineoftheancientChandosfamily, He 
was Icnj riited in France in 15 13 ; accompanied 
Henry Vm to Calais in October 1632, when i 
Henry visited Francis I ; was with Henry Vlll 
at Boulogne in 1533; was appointed constable 
of SudeleyCastle, Gloucestershire, in 1538 ; 
attended Henry VHI as a groom of the 
privy chamber when the king received Anne 
of CleTes in 1639; was at Boulogne in 1644, 
when he was appointed deputy-gOTemor of 
the city; and in 1549 was fighting there 
against the French. He was a rigid catbo- 
lie, and on Mary's accewion became lieute- 
nant of the Tower of London. Tlirough the 
flrsl half of Mary's reirn he took an active 
port in pahlic aflairs. In February 1553-4 
ne WM engaged in repressing Wyatt's rebel- 
lion, and, after vainly attempting to obtain 
an order from the queen to fire the Tower 
gnns on the insurgents who hod gathered 
on the Southwark tide of the river, himself 
directed the gunikers (o begin the attack. It 

was thus that Wyatt was induced to leave 
his position and march on London by way of 
Kingston. OnSFeb.Wyatt was placed in the 
custody of Brydges, who handled him some- 
what roughly. Bn'dges attended his pri- 
soner Loify Jane Grey to the scaffold on 
12 Feb., and was so charmed by her gentle- 
ness as to beg her to give him some memorial 
of her in writing, she grants the request 
by inscribing a very pathetic farewell to liim 
in an Engliah prayer-book, which is now in 
the British Museum (Harl. MS. 2342), On 

18 March the Princess Elixabetb was placed 
in his keeping, but she was removed on 

19 May in consequence of the lenience which 
he displByed towards her (Burnet, JiWomui- 
Hon, ed. Pocock, ii. 680). On 8 Apnl 1654 
Brydffes wae created lord Chandos of Sudeley. 
Ten days later he made arrangements for the 
execution of Wyatt, and in the following 
June resigned the lieutenancy of the Tower 
to his brother Sir Thomas, whom Bishop Rid- 
ley and other prisonera of the time mention 
as frequenting Sir John's table and aiding 
him in hisdutiesduringthe previous months 
of the year. In February 1564r-5 Mary ad- 
dressed an autograph order to Chandos to 
superintend the execution of Bishop Hooper 
at Gloucester (Wood, Letteri of Illuttnom 
Ladies, tii. 2S2-5), and on 91 March 1555-0 
he is stated by Foxe to have been present at 
Oxford at the death of Cranmer, but the evi- 
dence of an eyewitness of the execution makes 
it clear that Chandos's brother Sir Thomas 
took his place there. Chandos died at Sude- 
ley Castle 12 April 1556, and was buried 
with heraldic ceremony on 3 May in Sudelay 
Church (MiCHrs, Diary, Camd. Soc. pp. 133, 
366). He married Elizabeth, daugliter of 
Edward, lord Grey of Wilton, wTio died 
29 Dec. 1669, and was buried (3 Jan. 1559- 
1560) in Jesus Chape], afterwards St. Faith's, 
in St. Paul's Cathedral. An epitaph in Eng- 
lish verse, printed by Stow, was engraved on 
her tomb (Stow, Sarney, ed. Strype, iii. 146), 

Edmust), the eldest surviving son, suc- 
ceeded t^i lie title ; married Dorothy, daugh- 
ter of Lord Bray; served in France in 
Henry VHTs reign; fought at Musselburgh 
under Somerset ^ Sept. 1547, when he was 
created a knight banneret, andat St.Quentin 
in 1556; became K.G. 17 June 15T3, and 
died 11 Sept. 1673. George Gascoigne wrote 
a poem in praise of his eldest daughter, 
Katherine (TVrey Ballad*, 1765, ii. 150). 
OiLES, son ofEdnund, bom in I647,beCBme 
third lord Chandos ; was M.P. forGloucester- 
shire 101572; entertained Queen Eliiabeth in 
1592 at Sudeley, where the queen had viaited 
his wife 4 Aug. 1574 ; married Lady Fraocea 
Clinton, and died 21 Feb. 1593-L His wife 
K 2 




lived till 1623, and was buried at Cheynevs. 
Giles died without issue, and was succeeded 
as fourth lord Chandos bv his brother Wil- 
liam, the father of Grey firydps fq. v.] 

Sib Thomas Bbtdges, the first lord Chan- 
dos's brother, and his successor in the lieute- 
nancy of the Tower, was in 1648 steward 
of the hundred of Chadlington and of the 
royal manors of Burford and Minster Lovell, 
and keeper of the forest of Whichwood and 
of the parks of Lonffley and Gombury. Ed- 
ward Vl granted him many abbey lands. 
He resided at Comburv, and was buried at 
Chadlington in 1559. llis son Thomas was 
drowned off London Bridge on 10 Aug. 1553 
(Machtw, Diary, p. 41 ; Stow, Chronicle), 
KiCHARD, another brother of the first lord 
Chandos, was knighted at Mary's coronation 
(2 Oct. 1553) ; was sheriff of Berkshire in 
1555-6, and, as one of the commissioners for 
the trial of Julius or Josceline Palmer at 
Newbury (16 July 1556), made * a pntle 
offer' to the prisoner of meat, drink, books, 
and 10/. yearly if he would live with him 
and renounce his errors. Palmer declined the 
offer, and suffered at the stake. Sir Richard 
died in September 1558. 

[Dogdale's Baronage ; Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII, ed. Brewer and Gairdner; CaL 
State Papers, Dom. 1547-90; SirS. E.Brydges's 
Stemmata Illustmta, p. 09 ; Cooper Willyams's 
History of Sudeley Custle, 1790; Chronicle of 
Calais (Camd. Soc.), pp. 42, 176. 177; Machyn's 
Diary (Camd. Soc), jxissim ; Chronicle of Queen 
Jane and Queen Mary, pp. 18, 53, 57, 76 : Wrio- 
thosley's Chron. (Camd. Soc); Froude\s History 
of p:ngland; Nichols's Progresses of Eliz. i. 543, 
iii. 136.] " T T 

S. L. \j. 

(1762-1837), editor of early English litera- 
ture and genealogist , was born at the manor- 
house of Wootton, situated between Canter- 
bury and Dover, on 30 Nov. 1762, and was 
the second son of Edward Brydges (or 
Bridges) of Wootton, by Jemima, daughter of 
William Egerton, hL.D., prebendary of Can- 
terbury and chancellor of Hereford, lie was 
educated at Maidstone School, at tlie King's 
School, Canterbur>', and (from October 1780 
till Christmas 1782) at Queens' College, Cam- 
bridge. On leaving the university he was 
entered of the Middle Temple, and was called 
to the bar in November 1787. lie never, 
however, practised, and retired in 1792 to 
Denton Court, a seat which he had purchased 
near his birthplace in Kent. From his boy- 
hood Brydges had had a passion for reading, 
and had sacrificed his degree at college by 
* giving himself up to English poetry.' His 
first literary venture was made in March 
1785, when he published a volume of poems, 

among which the earliest pieces are some 
sonnets dated 1782. A fourth and much en- 
larged edition of his miscellaneous poetry 
appeared in 1807. The volume of 17o6 was 
coldly received, and Brydges continued to be 
much disheartened, even though his novels, 
« Mar^ de Clifford ' (1792) and * Arthur Fiti- 
albini' (1 798), obtained some popularity. He 
was bv nature shy and proud, yet morbidly 
sensitive and egotistic, and being tormented 
by an extraordinary thirst for literary fame, 
he was unhappily led to mistake his delight 
in reading great works of literature for an 
evidence of his capacity to produce similar 
works himself. From the extremely naive 
self-portraiture of his rambling but interest- 
ing *• Autobiof^phy,' there can be no doubt 
that he imagined himself a poet and a man 
of genius. His poetry, however, is of the 
most mediocre description, recalling the dull- 
est efforts of Bowles or Thomas Warton. Of 
his useful labours as a bibliographer and 
editor he is inclined to speak with contempt: 
* These were unworthy pursuits . . . they 
overlaid the fire of my bosom . . . they sup- 
pressed in me that self-confidence without 
which nothing great can be done, and bound 
my enthusiastic spirits in chains. The fire 
smouldered within, and made me discon- 
tented and unhappy.' Indulging in this ama- 
bills insaniaj he easily persuaded himself that 
his failure as an author was due to the mis- 
direction r)f his own energies, and especially 
to the jealous machinations of enemies hos- 
, tile to his fame. At Denton he got on badly 
with his neighbours, * the book-hat ing squires,* 
and was embarrassed in his money affairs; 
vet his life there between the vears 1797 and 
1810 was not altogether unhappy, and was 

Productive of much literary work. He pro- 
uced, among other books, an edition of Ed- 
ward Phillips's * Theatrum Poetarum Angli- 
' canorum' (18(X)), with large additions; and 
began in 1806 a new and augmented edition 
of Collins's * Peerage of England,* a work 
which was eventually published in 1812 in 
nine volumes, 8vo. In 1805-9 he published 
j the ten volumes of his * Censura Literaria, 
; containing Titles, Abstracts, and Opinions of 
; old English Books, with original Disquisi- 
1 tions, Articles of Biography, and other Lite- 
I rary Antiquities.* 

in 1789 Brydges*s taste for genealogy was 
turned to practical account, for in October of 
that year he persuaded his elder brother, the 
! llev. Edward Tymewell Brydges, to put for- 
I ward his claim to the baiony of Cnandos. 
The case came on for hearing before the com- 
mittee of privileges of the House of Lords 
on 1 June 1790, and more than twenty-six 
hearings took place at intervals. New evi- 

deoce was broughl forward from tim? 
lime, and the mntt^r was not fiDallj eettl^ 
tilJ June 1803, when a majority of the lords 
recolved that the claim to tbe title and 
dignity of liornn Cbandos had not been 
mode out. Uryd^s, who was the moving 
spirit on tht.' cUimiint's side, wai greatly 
mortified, and never ceased to maintain in 
his writings that tha claim wasiust. He in- 
serted a rpecial account of the Ohandoa case 
in hia edition of Collins's " Peerage,' and in 
1831 wrote his ' Lex Teme, a Discussion of 
the Law of England regarding- Claims of in- 
herit*ble Right* of Peerage,' to prove that 
hv the common law be was not bound to 
abide by the peers' decision, which did not 
ta3te &om him the right to resort lo a legal 
trial by jury. The Brjdges, however, never 
actually appealed to the law courts, though 
Egerton, iJter the death of his brother, was 
■ccuMonied to style himself ' Per legem 
teme, Baron Chandos of Sudeley.' The 
Chandos oase was in 1834 made the subject 
of a thorough investigation by Mr. G. F. 
Beltz, Lancaster herald, who in his book 
relating to it conclusively proves that the 
claim ivBa not well founded. John Brydges, 
first baron Chandos [q.v.] (created by patent 
in 16&4), had three eons, Edmimd, Charles, 
and Anthony. After bis death the barony 
desoendedtohiseldeat son, Edmund.ond then 
to the heirs male of Edmund, On the failure 
of that line, the barony passed to the heirs 
male of Charles, second eon of the fir»t Lord . 
Chandos, and this line became extinct in i 

deacendant of Anthony, the third son of the 
first boron Chandos. He traced buck hia 
descent through the Bridges of Wootlon to a 
certain Edward Bridges of Maidstone (bap- 
tised 25 March 1603), who was, according to 
the claimant's contention, the grandson of 
AnlbonyBrydges.the third son ofthe original 
Bmoh Chandofl. The connection of Edward 
Bridges of Maidstone with Anthony Brydges 
-wBB^Owe ver, strt-nuouelydeniedby'theciaim- 
Ult'a opponents, and was certainly not satis- 
bctorily proved by him. The counsel for the 
crown showed, moreover, that there were good 
grounds for believing that the claimant was 
really descendedfrom an obscure family of yeo- 
men of the name a( Bridges who had lived at 
Uorbledown, near Canierburv, and who were 

Juit^iuiconnected witli the Chandos family. 
t was further suggested by the crown — and, 
according to Mr. BelK, not without good 
reason— ihal there had been foul play with 
parish regiiitrnt and otbnr documents in order 
to support ibe claim. No distinct attempt, 
~~~ ~ tttoiwfl-beeD made to bring 

home the charge of falsificaiiou to any par- 
ticular person. In 1808, five years rft«r 
the decision of the Chandos case, Egerton 
Bnrdges accepted with considerable gratifi- 
cation the knighthood of the Swedish order 
of St. Joachim. He henceforword wrote 
after bis name the letters K.J., styling him- 
self ' Sir,' though of course without heraldic 
propriety. He was not created an English 
baronet till 1814. 

In October ISIO Brydges removed from 
Denton lo Lee Priory at Ickham, near Can- 
terbury, the residence of hia eldest son. In 
1812 he was elected M.P.for Maidstone, and 
sat in parliament till 1818. He seldom 
spoke in tlie house, though he took an active 
part in connection with the poor laws and 
the Copvright Bill. During this period be 
managed to find time for a good deal of lite- 
rary work. In 1813 a private printing press 
had been eatoblished at Lee Priory by a com- 
positor and a pressman (Johnson and Wai^ 
wick). Brydges engaged to provide 'copy' 
gratuitously, and the printers undertook to 
pay all expenses, making what profits they 
could. The editions of the various works 
issued from the press were purposely limited 
to a small number of copies, and were sold 
by the printers to book-collectors at high 
prices. In spite of these arrangements, con- 
siderable expenses were iucurred by Brydges 
and his son, though the press was not finally 
given up till about. December 1823. A list 
of the boolra printed at Lee Priory Press 
will be found in Lowndes's ' Bibliographer'fl 
Manual' (vi. 218-25). By the works— 
chiefly reprints — produced at the press under 
his editorship, Brydges justly claims to have 
rendered a service to the students of old 
English literature, particularly literature of 
the Elixabelhan period. Among his produc- 
tions were many rare and interesting tracts, 
especially poetical, which bad hilherto been 
unknown, or only accessible to rich collec- 
tors, 'such OB poems of Nicholas Breton 
and William Browne, Raleigh and Margaret, 
ducheissof Newcastle, Davison's "Rhapsody," 
Robert Greene's "Groatsworth of Wit," Lord 
Brook's " Life of Sir Philip Sydney," and the 
Duchess of Newcastle's " Autobuwraphy."' 
Brydgee's chief bibliographical works at this 
period of his life were tne four volumes of 
the 'British Bibliographer' (1810-14), 

Characters of Old Books in Englisli Lite- 
rature revived' (4 vols, 1814-16). He also 
compiled 'Excerpta Tudoriana, or Extract* 
from Elizabethan Literature with a criti- 
cal Preface' (2 vols. 1814-18), and wrotea 
of original easft^ called ' The li;lvHt 

Br\"don 166 Biydone 

AVanarrtr' .->.".*w l^U>-l^ . isi & p.xai *rnin^ in India with vurioufi regiment-s, 

c&llt-ii 'IVrtra^i.* Brlush and native, in the course of which 

Frcm Jur.r l^l^ BrvA^t^ liAtsJ fr.T:rt;v >rn:cv he was sent on escort dutVt first with 

abi\^ :;*.! ihv :i3i-. .^:' h.* isATi:, w;:h :Lr tbrc.'^mmander-in-chief, Sir Heniy Fane, and 

ak'lir tXcxpTion oi a \>:: :.^ Kr.i:.ani froni a frw months afterguards with the govemor- 

Junr l^'iy* !.' ».V: Ur iM^*^. Ir. hi* • lUv^.- i:v:^.rral. Lord Auckland, to the court of Ban- 

leciicn* 01 F rsijr. Travt'.' i- v;*i^ l>Jo' br ;i: Sinrh at Lahore, he was de8]>atched in 

has fixrn an aoiv.m: of Li* n:.^^tiavii:> and Is^in medical charge of a regiment of native 

opinion^^ ::'.iilo;i: Novt-aibtr i>-4. Hflivi-d infintn" to Afghanistan, 

principally a: l^-. n^va. aj-^iArtr.::)- :ii ,:rtA:vr On iLe fatal retreat from Cabul, Brydon, 

peacr of mind, ftn.i wa.* *: .1". a**: :\ v'. y {'rM::^Yv! wi:h n\e other British officers, managed to 

in writ in*:. An: r.;: hi? b:M: >cra','hiv*Al work* f>oa}v &« far us Fattehabad. In the neigh- 

of thi* }»fn xi art his * !«> L::t r^-rlA' ' ^o vols. K^urh^x^i x\{ this place his companions were 

Nax'Iv*. ll.«n:v, litr.vva. iM'l - .hi* * Poiy- all siain. and he alone, wounded, and wellnigh 

ani hrA L: br-.Tir.i: \" v: lis: i .Tuin.* •- ni\ a, 1 M*i\ ex!:aii>: r^l by hunirer and fat igue, reached Jel- 

and • Ciuirlia,' liirava, ISiVx l-aTt-r or., in lalabad. th^n hfld bv a British and native 

1S>1. hf i»uKi*hvv. :h'.' ' l-Akt- o: in!u\a.' a f.>r^v miiier the command of Sir BobertSale. 

blank vcT>'.' jj-x-m in s-'Vi-n Kv^k^ : tht- * Ani::>- He ferv i*vl in the sul»sequent defence of Jella- 

Gvnrvan Criiical Joiirnar tor ls>l ; • \jt\ lal^svl durinj: its siege bvthe army of Akhbar 

Tfmt* ilsU^. and his Kv>k en:i:lf\l 'T\\v Khan. and. returning to Cabul with Sir George 

Autobi«.»fcn".iphy. Times, t^pinions. and C ^n- Toll vk's army of retribution, accompanied it 

temp«-*rariv> oi* Sir Fj^-rton l»r>o.a:y'> ' i- v,*!*. l\aok to Indi.H. Fifteen years later the mu- 

ISiii. 11 V dird at Canijvjicni', Oro> Jean, tiny of the Benjral army found Brydon at 

near GvUt-va. .-n > Sfpt. IsC. Lucknow. where it was his lot again to serve 

lir}-dt:r*>va* Twice marrird: iirs: toFiiw- with a U-Ieairuered pirris<in, and where he 

beth. dau*:h!vr r-t thi- Kov. William mjo>as was severely wounde^l in the course of the 

Bvrchf. of tht' Hlack Friars. Cant trbury. by sieije. In a general order issued bv Lord 

wliom hf had two sons anvl thrtv dauchTt-rs; Cannin*: on the defence of Lucknow, Brydon 

and s».tvindly to Mary. davighitT of the llrv. was re1ern»d to in terms of special laudation. 

^Villiam ll.»l'inv.ui. nvtor o{ Hurtifld. Bt-rk- In the loUowinir year he was appointed u 

shir", by wh »:ii hv hii-l M-vrral s^Ml^ and 0. »ni]»an! on .»f i he l>atli. and retired from the 

daivh*'-r>. His ».'^t >.'n. Th^n".:i< Harr? :* liulian son iiv in l>">i*. The latter years of 

Bn^ij»-> i.'f L'-- TriTv ». I n:vrrd ill- anr.y. liis liiV wrro ]»assed in Sootland, where in 

and (li—l U'l'- T' hi> faTlit-r. who w:is suiWi'drd iN'l* lie ^.'int'd ihe Hiirhland ritles militia 

in his litlf bv hi^ s».v.Mid son thv his lirs: rei: i men :. unv called the i^rd Imttalion Sea- 

wih'i. .T'jLn AVilliam Kjorton T»ryd»:e^. wlio I'l^rli vlKike o{ Albany's^) Highlanders. He 

.«ierv».d in th-lVninsular war.and .l;fvH"»Feb. ilied a: ^^ i-^ttieUl. in tlie county of Boss, on 

IS')**, aj-'.-d **r. H»' was nnniarried. and his L\^ March l>r;<. his healtli having been pre- 

hall-br« ilher. F. Hanl-'V Head Hrylces. bi^ \iously niurli impaired by the results of the 

cam*.* the third barourt [Ann. /u^*;. 1*^"». c. wound rcivived at Lucknow. 

;i^9; 0\nt. Marj. March 1S">S. p. ;UJl. [Kayes History of the War in Afghanistan, 

[Br^-djt-V AufliM::r;iphy. 2 v..'.!.. 1SH4 toaoh r>r.i ^--llt. 1>74. p.oVJ : I'alcuita Uazetti\ 8 Dee. 

vol. ooT-.tHii> a poi-lrai: of tlio author^ ; l'oilin>"s l^o7 ; lainily j apors.] A. J. A. 
rc^-rai^e it K:ii:l:ind (o»i. l>ryd:jr»">\ vi. 704-40; 

Jieltz-; A i:. view ...f the Chan.h.s IVeracre Caso BBYDOXE, PATKICK (1741 M818), 

(lS:i4,: (nnt. Mag. November lS;i7. l-r tne traveller and author, was In^rn in Ber>vick- 

ti-.esof Lryo.:... s vvry numen.usyitni^ ^,^.^, .^j^^,,^^ ^^^^ ,1,. . ^^.-^.^^ ^^ excellent 

of which art- i;oci-*sirilv i xcauiea trom this , . .. ^, • •^- » 1 

arli.le.H.-eLown.Ks>15iblio^rr.ti.h,.rs Manual, i. ^-^^^i^^-^^^^" "j ^>ne "t the unnvrsities, and 

and vi. fAj-i-tnaixV 218-20. and tho llrit. Mas. W"^^ ^^ ^'l\V* ^*'*'",^^'^ ? short time m 

(•^^1 AV. AV. ^"*' »rmy. Ihe Mudy of eKH.*tricity, to 

. which the discoveries of Dr. Franklin had 

BBYDON, AVU.LIAM (I'^^^-l^'"'*^. »i rtH?ciitly attracted attention, (HH'upied liim 

Fur^»*on in th».* Hi-npral army, was descriKh'd as a young man. and he travelled through 

from a Sc-oti-h b<»rd»*r family, oiu- meml»er of Switzrrlantl, niakinp experiment s in con- 

wliidi liad distiriijruishHd hinis».'lf as pmvoM m-ction witli this branch of science. In 

of Ilumfrit'xlurin^rasiecff^of tliat t«>wn.whih» 1707 or 17i)*^, soon after his nnurn from 

anotht^r, wIk) fanned his own land, had horsed Switzerland, he went abroad again with Mr. 

atro^-)]) of cavalry for the Pretender. He was Beckford «>f .Somerlv and two others as tra- 
b«»m in London 1:» Oct. I^*ll, and entered _ veiling preceptor. In 1770 he made a tour 

the Hervice of tin? Fast India Company as with these gentlemen through Sicily and 

an astiisst ant-surgeon in October iSJo. After 

Malta, the former island being but little 

Imowii to travellera of thiit lime. This tour 
forms the subject of his book, 'A Tour 
through Sicily and Malta, in a Series of 
Letters to William B«ckford, Esq., of So- 
merly in SiiffoUi,' publiahed in 1773. It was 
fjtTOaTBbly reviewed (.Von/A/y S«vieta, xlii.), 
and so well received by the reading public, 
that it went throui|h seven or eight editions 
in England in bisliletime, and wm also trans- 
Inted into French and German IBrit. Mia. 
Cat.) In It^, nine yeara after ita publica- 
tion, Count Borch published a volume of 
' Letters toaen'e as Supplement to the Voyage 
in Sicily and Malta of Mr. Brydone.' And 
the writer of his biography in the ' Annual 
Biography' says : ' It may be fairly doubted, 
After the lapse of near fifty eventful years, 
whether there be any publication of n similar 
kind eo deserving at notice u the one now 
undfi consideration.' Having returned to 
England in 1771, he was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society in the end of 1772 or 
beginning of 1773 (PMl. Tram.) He was 
alao a V.K.S. of Edinburgh and a F.S.A. 
Besides his book, he wrote occasional papers, 
chiefly on electricity, which were published 
in the ' Philosophical Tmnsactions. He held 
the appointment of comptroller of the stamp 
oIKce. The latter part of his life was spent 
in retirement, and ne died, on 19 June 1818, 
■it Lennel House, Berwickshire. 

BBYDSON, THOMAS (1800-1 8o5),poet , 
was bom in Gla«gt>w in 1801). After coia- 
pleting courses of study at the universities of 
Qlasgow and Edinburgh he became a licen- 
tiate of the established church of Scotland. 
He officiated oa assistant successively in the 
MiddleChurch,Greenock,inObftn,and in Kil- 
malcolm, and in 1830 was ordained minister of 
Xisvem Chapel, near Faislev. In 1843 he was 
prwented lu the parish of Kilmalcolm, where 
Le remained till nia death, which, after some 
year* of impaired health, took place suddeuly, 
^ Jan. 1^>5. He was the author of two 
voltuns* of verse, the one, under the title of 
' Poems,' published in 18^, and theothcr. on- 
titled'Heturesof thePa*t,'inl832. Healso 
contributed to the ' Edinburgh Literary Jour- 
nal,' the 'Republic of Letters,' a OWgow 
publication, and several of the London an- 
nuala. His verses manifest true appreciation 
«if the varied beauties of pastoral scenery, and, 
thongb simple and unpretentious, have the 
charm of 

Muliim Rcottiih Minstrel, iv. 172; 6rant-WU 
son's FuM aud Poelrr of Scotland, ii. 3Be.] 

T. F. H. 

BRYER, IIENHY (rf, 17WI), engraver, 
was a pupil of William W'ynnu Ryland, in 
partnership with whom he for some years 
carried on an extensive printselling business 
in Cornhill; but, owing chietlv to Ryland's 
ej[travagance,tlie firm became bankrupt, In 
1762 Bryer gained the Society of .\rts pre- 
mium for a large plate representing 'Mars 
and Venus discovered by Vulcan.' He ei- 
hibited at the Society of Artists between 
1765 and 1774, and engraved several plates 
afler Angelica Kauffmann. In 1T78, when 
living in bt. Martin's Lane, Bryer published 
' Aglaia bound by Cupid,' from (he original 
picture by Angelica Kauffmann. 

fRedgrare-s Dictionary i>f Artiala (1878); 
M^. Dotes in Britisli Museum.] L. F. 


THOMAS, U.I>. (d. 1390>, fellow of Merton 
College, Oxford, is chiefly known in connec- 
tion with the proceedings against, Wycliffe's 
followers taken al the council of Hlackfrinra 
in London in 1382. He.apjieared before the 
council at its second session, 12 June, in 
eompanv with Rygge, the chnncfllor of the 
university, to answer, as it seems, certain 
charges which were to be brought against 
Ilygge by Peter Stokes, the archbiwjop's agent 
at Oxford. The chatgo in which Bryghtwell 
was implicated was one of favouring Repyng- 
dcin, anotoriousWycliffite; buthisnctionwas 
inail jirobahility due rather tojealousv of the 
nrchbishup'a intrusion into academical affairs 
than to pers<iual aympathy with llepyngdon'e 
opinions. Bryghtwell gave his assent to the 
condemnation of Wyclifie's doctrine as de- 
clared by the councu, and does not appear 
to have again exposed himself to any similar 
accusation. Indeed, in this very year (1382) 
he was appointed dean of the college of 
Newark at Leicester (Nichols, Hittiuy qf 
the County of Lricetter, i. S^). In 1388 be 
was granted the prebend of Holbom in Si. 
Paul's Cathedral (Xn Ne\-b, Fiuli.ed. Hardy, 
ii. 392), and perhaps before this date be 
possessed the prebend of Leicester St. Mar- 
garet ia Lincoln Cathedral, which he held 
at the time of his death (^NiCHOlii, i. r>6l). 
Nor had he at all relinquished bis connec- 
tion with Oxford ; be was elected chancellor 
of the univereity in May 1388 (^^''ool>, Fatti 
O.ron.p. 33; cf. AssTEr. Munimentti Aaade- 
mica, II. 795) in succession to Iub old friend 
I Robert Rygge, and retained the ofhcu in the 
following year. He died in 1390. 

[Wood's Hist, ond Aniiq. of the Univ. of 
OzTord, i. 183 ; l''Bttci<ruli ZisnaJoruni, fi. Shirley 
I )>p. 38S. 2U7-30S.1 R. L. P. 


1 68 


BRYNE, ALBERTUS (1621 P-1 (569?), 
organist and composer, was bom about the 
year 1621, and was educated by John Tom- 
kins, organist of St. Paul's. It was pro- 
bably on the death of the latter that Bryne 
succeeded him as organist of the cathedral, 
a post he seems to have held throughout 
the reign of Charles I. At the restoration 
Bryne petitioned Charles 11 for the post of 
organist at AVhitehall Chapel. In this docu- 
ment he stated that *yo' Ma*'*» late Royall 
ifather of blessed memory was pleased in 
his life time to make choyce of yo' pet icon' 
to bee Organist of the Cathedral! Church of 
S' Paule, London, in which said place hee j 
was by yo*" said late Royall tfather confirmi>d | 
when yo' pet' was but about the age of 17 ' 
yeares, And since then liath soe industriously 
practised that science that hee hath yery 
much augmented his skill and knowledge 
thert»in.' This petition st>ems to haye been 
answered by his being reinstated as or^nist 
at St. Paul's, whert^ he n^niained iintd the 
tire of l^ndon. After this Bmie was or- 
gan ii>t of Westminster A))bey. "there are no 
nvonls of thes«' apix>intments extant ateither 
the cathedral or the abbey, but it is believed 
that Bryne remained organist at the latter 
church until 1(><>1>, when he was succeeded 
by l>r. John Blow 'q.v.1 It has been stated 
that \io died in tliis year, and was buried in 
tho cloisters of \Vostniinr:ter Abl>ey, but the 
burial registtM's do not contain his name. A 
morning and evrning service (^in G major) by . 
Hryne is found in several nianuscrij)t col- 
lections; the words of anthems by him are . 
in (^lilVord's 'l>ivino S«Tvioos and Anthems | 
usually sung in His Majesties Chapp^ll,' and 
in tin* Oxfortl Music School Collection are 
.several dances. &c., by him, besides two ; 
' grounds," oiii» for the organ, and the other ' 
for tlie or^an or harpsichord. The Christ 
Chureh Collection contains a copy of his ser- 
vice, aiul an instrumental saraband and air. ,' 
His nanu' is sometimes siK^lt Brian, Brj*an, | 
lirine. or Hn»vn. 

I Marl. .AIS.' 78.S8; liiijoloys Musical Bio-' 
frmphy. i. 1S7; riit^onrs l>iviii«» Services, &c. 
(inr.l vA.)- Uoai.Lib., Wo.h1. li» D (4\No. 106; ' 
('«t:»lo^'.ur.s of Miusio Sohoiil aiul Ch. Ch. Collec- 
tions. ,stati» PajMMs ^Clias. 11. Dom. ii. 91); in- 
f(M-ii\ati(in fn»m Miss r»ra»lley and tlu* Rev. W. 
Sparnu^ SimpMHi.] * W. B. S. 

HHYNRNKIiL. See BkinkxeuJ 

( //. loVl hiin. |H^«'t, translator, and Irish 
oHieial, is stated to have Ihhmi the son of *a 
natural Italian,' but of his early life nothing 
ilefinite is Known, lie was generally believed 
lo ha\e relations in Flori'nce, where he cer- 

tainly had many correspondents. He matri- 
culated as a pensioner of Trinity College, 
Cambrid^, 27 April 1559, but left the uni- 
yersity without proceeding to a de^^ree. On 
7 April 1571 Burghley was informed that 
Bryskett was temporarily filling the office of 
clerk of the council in Ireland under Sir 
Henry Sidney. Before 1572 he had become 
the intimate friend of Sir Henry Sidney's 
son, Philip Sidney, and he was young Sidn^s 
companion on a three years' continental tour 
through Germany, Italy, and Poland (1572- 
1 575). In 1577 he became clerk of the chan- 
cery for the faculties in Ireland, an office in 
which he was succeeded by Spenser. Afte> 
wards (1582) he receiyed mm Lord Grey de 
Wilton the appointment of secretary of the 
Munster council. About the same time he 
made the acquaintance of the poet Spenser, 
Lord Grey's secretary, and Spenser relieyed 
the tedium of official life by teaching his 
new friend Greek. Bryskett remain^ in 
Munster for many years. In 1594 he sought 
to be reappointed clerk of the Irish council, 
but failing to obtain that post he was granted 
the ' clerkship of the casualties ' in the fol- 
lowing year. In 1600 Sir Robert Cecil wrote 
to Sir George Carew in his behalf, and de- 
scribed him as ' an ancient seryitor of the 
realm of Ireland, and now employed by her 
majesty beyond the seas.' He had an in- 
terest in the abbey of Bridgetown, which 
Cecil asked Carew to secure to him. In 1606 
he was reputed to hold large estates in Ihibhn, 
Cavan, and Cork. He is stated to have been 
alive in 1611. 

Brv'skett is more interesting as the friend 
of Sidney and Spenser than as an Irish 
official. His chief original literary work 
was a translation from the Italian of Bap- 
tista Giraldo*s philosophical treatise, which 
he entitled, * A discourse of Civill Life, con- 
taining the Kthike Part of Morall Philoso- 
pliie.' It was not published till 1606, but 
was certainly written full twenty years 
earlier. (There are two editions, both dated 
KKX) — one printed for W. Aspley and the 
ot her for Kd. Blount.) The book is dedicated 
to Lord Grey, and opens with an introduc- 
tion which 18 of unique interest in English 
literature. Brj'skett describes a party of 
friends met at his cottage near Dublin, among 
whom were l)r. Long, archbishop of Armagh, 
Captain Christoi>her Carleil, Captain Thomas 
Xorris, Captain "Warham St. Leger, and 
Mr. Edmund Spenser, * once your lordship s 
secretary.* In the course of conversation 
Bryskett says that he envies * the happinesse 
of the Italians ' who haye popularised moral 
nhilosophy by translating and explaining 
Plato ana Anstotle in their own language. . 




He eipiesKs s wish that Bneliali writers 
would follow the Italian eiample. Addrew- 
tng Spenser, Birskett entreate tlie poet to 
turn hia great knowledge of philoaophy to 
such account, and as a beginning t^ give 
them a philoso|ihicBl lectum on the spot. 
Spenser oeclinea to comply with the request 
on the ground that he had already under- 
taken the * Faerie Qaeene,' ' a work tending 
to the same effect;' and finally the poet in- 
Tilefl BryBkett to read to the company hig 
own traoslatiou of Giraldo, which Bryskett 
wQlingly con&ents to do. Bryskett includes 
in the puhliahed work a fen remarks made 
hj Spenser in the course of the readin/ 
various philosophical prohlems discuaaei 
the book. 

Soon after Sidney's death, in T586, SpeL.. . . 
collected A series of elegies under the title of 
Astpophel.' To this collection, which was 
published with ' Colin Clout come home 
■nin' in 1595, Bryskett contributed two 
We^es, One of his poems is entitled ' A 
PastorsU ^Eclogue,' and is signed with his 
initials ; the ot£er is called ' The Moumiog 
Muse of Thestylis.' These two pieces were 
I entered in the Stationers' Register ru ' The 
liloaniing Muses of Lod. Bryskett t'pon the 
deaths ol the most noble sir Philip Sydney, 
knight,' and licensed to the printer, John 
Wdfe, on 23 Aug. 1587, Bat they do not 
appear to have been published separately. 

In Spenser's collected sonnets, ' Amoretli 
i*nd Epithalamion' (1&95), the one numbered 
.S3 is addressed to Bn-skett. Spetiser here 
molc^rises to bis friend for his delay in com- 
pleting the 'Faerie Qiieene.' 

J Sir Robert Cecil's Lottera (Camd. Soc.). ISO 
note; Fox Bourne's Lifo of Sir Philip 
SidoeyjTudd'H Spenser; Kitson's Eaglish Pneta; 
Bp«D*Fr'B Works (rd. Grosart), 1BBS: Cols MS. 
Athene Cnniab. ; Cal. lrii>h State rapcrs.I 

S. L. L. 
IWW), medical writer, began his profvasioniU 
Btodies St Edinburgh and continued them at 
IGIugow, where he took his doctor's degree 
I'wid WM admitted a member of the Faculty 
(Cf Physicians and Surgeons. He also be- 
icune a fellow of the Koyal College of Phy- 
Imcuirs, London. He entered the navy as | 
lusiBtant-curgpon in 1 627. and was promoted I 
Uo the rank of surgeon in 1836, deputy in- 
Upaelnr-geneniJ in 1864, and inspector-general 
iin 1855. In January IBfU, on the retire- 
tment of Sir John Liddell, he was appointed 
tdirector-gcniral of the medical department of I 
nhe navv, trom which post he ictired on 
PC April I88B. He was appointed honorary I 
"■hysician to the queen in 1869, and subse- I 
iiu was mode a companion of the | 

order of the Bath. He was also a fellow il 
the Royal Society. His death took placo ■ 
Barnes, Surrey, on 12 Dec. 1869. He WW 
the author ot a treatise on 'The Cliniate 
and Diseases of the African Station,' and 
of ' An Account of the Origin, Spread, and 
Decline of the Epidemic Fevers of Sierra 
Leone,' London, 1849, 6vo. For a long time 
he was the head of the department of naval 
medical statistics, and lie compiled the 
' Statistical Reports on the Health of the 
Navy.' He also contributed a 
article ' On Medicine and Medical Statii*'^ 
ties ' to the ' Admiralty Slanual of Scieutifio fl 

[I^Dcet. IS Dec. 18Se, p. BOO ; Britisli Mednfl 
calJuuraal, 18 Dec. 1869, p. BTO; Cut. uf FrinUd'^ 
Books iu Brit. MuB.; Times, IS Dm. 1889.1 ■ 
T. C. 

BRYSON, JAMES (1730P-I7961, IrUh 
presbyterian minister, sod of John Dryson, 
who died at Holywood, co. Down, on 23Nov. 
1788, aged 1 according to his tombstone) 103 
years, is said to have belonged to a family 
originally connected with co. Donegal. His 
first sermon was preached ot Newtownards, 
CO. Down, 26 April. 1760. He was licensed 
by the Armagh presbytery at Clare, co. Ar- 
magh,' 1 June 1762. After preaching for 
over a year at Banbridge in L63-4 he was 
ordained minister of Lisburn by Bangor pres- 
bytery on 7 June 1704, subscribing a cautious 
fonnukry, in general approval of the West- 
minster Confession. lie soon acquired the 
repute of an able preacher. A new meeting- 
house, built for him, was opened IS May 
1766. While it was buildine the use of the 
cathedral church was granteu to his congre- 
gation between church hours. In 1773 he 
accepted a call to the second congregation 
of Belfast, stipulating that the congregation 
should retain its connection with the general 
^nod, a tie which then demanded no express 
dogmatic bond. In 1778 be was elected 
moderator of the general synod which met 

Lurgsn. Bryeon was a treemason, and 
frequently preached before lodges, both in 
his own and other meeting-houses, and in 
churches of the establishment. His printed 
sermon of 24 June 1782 was preach e<l before 
' the Orange Lodge of Belfast, No. 257." Th« 
existing Orange Society, an offshoot of ma- 
sonry, first appears as a distinct institution 
inl79S. Some scandal arose respecting Bry- 
son's private life. It dues not appear that 
the matter came before the church courts, 
hut BrjBon retired from the second congre- 
gation, taking witli him a followinir. His 
friends set about building a small meet^ 
ing-house for lum iti Donegal Street, and 




during its erection, for about two years and | 
eight months, he was allowed to preach in [ 
the parish church. It does not appear that . 
his ministry continued to flourish, for on | 
29 Nov. 1/95 he notes: *A regiment of, 
Highlanders present, and very few more.' 
He died on Monday, 3 Oct. 1796. His poi^ 
trait was bequeathed by his last surviving 
daughter to the fourth congregation. He 
was twice married. 

Bryson published 'Sermons on several 
important subjects,' Belfast, 1778, 8vo (de- 
dicated to his cousin, William Bryson [q. v.] 
(the subscription list is of much local interest); 
and some other single sermons. Thirteen 
volumes of his manuscript sermons (vol. x. 
is missing) were deposited by his grandson 
Joseph (son of an apothecary) in the Antrim 
Presbytery Library, now at Queen's College, 

[Belfast Newsletter, 22 Jan. 1790, 3 Oct. 
1796, 3 Jan. 1800; Witherow's Hist, and Lit. 
MemorialH of Presbyterianism in Ireland, 2nd8er. 
1880, pp. 141 sq. ; Christian Unitarian, 1866, p. 
337; DiHciple (Belfast), 1883, p. 114; parish 
pugister, Belfast; memoranda on fly-leaves of 
BryHon'sSennuns; manuscript minutes of Antrim 
Presbytery ; tombstone at Holywood ; informa- 
tion from Rev. C. J. M'Alester, Holywood.l 

A. G. 

BRYSON, ^VILLIAM (1730-1815), Irish 
pri'sbytcrian minister, said to have come of 
a Donegal family, Ixjcamo minister of the 
nonsubseribing ccmgrepation at Antrim in 
August 17()4. Wit hout the pulpit reputation 
of liis cousin James [q. v.], he was a man of 
more influence in matters theological. He 
adopted Arinn Christology and rejected the 
tenets of original sin and imputed righteous- 
ness. The ground he took was that of a 
strong script uralist, and he upheld sabbath 
observance, eternal punishments, and Satanic 
agency, l^ryson, though a member of the 
outcast Antrim presbytery, was, as his manu- 
scripts show, a frequent j>reacher in neigh- 
bouring congi'egations of the general ayncxl. 
His first j>u})lication was a funeral discourse 
for a distinguished minister of the synod. At 
the time of the rebellion in 1798 Brvson was 
a staunch loyalist, in this, as in other matters, 
following the lead of his co-presbyter, Bruce 
of Belfast. In September 1809 his age and 
infirmities rendered him desirous of resign- 
ing liis pastorate, but as his people could not 
agree upon a successor, he did not do so till 
November 1810. lie died on 6 May 1815, 
in his eighty-sixth year. He is said to have 
b*Hjn buried at Antrim, but his name is not on 
the family tombstone. In the vestry of the 
First Presbvterian Church, Belfast, Jiangs a 
likeness of liryson, copied by his son Patrick 


from a silhouette taken in his fortjr-ttztli 
year. When about that a^ he married a 
daughter of Alexander Madame, M. A., minia- 
ter at Antrim, 1742-69, and granddaughtar 
of John Abernethy [q. v.], by whom he had 
six children. Bis daughters kept school at 
Antrim for many years. 

Bryson published: 1. 'The Practice of 
Righteousness, productive of happiness both 
at present and for ever,' Bel&st, 1782, 8yo 
(funeral sermon, Isaiah xxxii. 17, at Gnimlin, 
28 July, for Thomas Crawford, ordained at 
Cnmilm, 1723, or early in 1724). 2. 'The 
Duty of Searching the Scriptures,' &c., Bel- 
fast, 1786, 8vo (sermon, John v. 39, at ordi- 
nation in Ikillyclare, 9 Feb. 1785, of Futt 
Marshall, died 23 Oct. 1813, aged 58). 
3. I Funeral Sermon for Rev. Robert Sin^ 
clair of Lame ' (said to have been published, 
but not known J Sinclair died on 20 Feb. 
1795, aged 70). 

[Belfast Newsletter, 9 Hay 1816; Witherow's 
Hist, and Lit. Memorials of Presbyterianism in 
Ireland, 2nd ser. 1880, pp. 256 sq.; Christiaii 
Unitarian. Septeml)6r 1864, p. 276 ; Disciple 
(Belfast), January 1881, pp. 14 sq., 1883, p. 39; 
Brysou's manuscript sermons, in the possession 
of the present writer; manuscript minutes of 
Antrim Presbytery ; tombstone at Antrim ; pri- 
vate information.] A. O. 

BUC or BUCK, Sir GEORGE (d. 1623), 
historian, poet, aud master of the revels, was 
descended from a good family which had for- 
merly held large estates in Yorkshire and Suf- 
folk. For takingthe side of King Richard III 
at the battle of Bosworth Field his ancestors 
were deprived of most of t heir possessions, and, 
had not a powerful member of the Howard 
family interceded on their behalf, would have 
lost everything. Tliese facts we learn from the 
dedicatory epistle to King James I prefixed 
to *AA*NI2 nOAY2TE*AN02 : an EcW 
treating of Crownes and of Garlandes, and 
to whom of right they ajmertaine. Addressed 
and consecrated to the King's Maiestie. By 
G. B., Knight; 1605, 4to. The dedicatory 
epistle is followed by an engraved genealo- 
gical table (dated 1602) of the royal line of 
England from Egbert to the Empress Ma- 
tilda, mother of Henry II. After the epistle 
comes a * Preface or Argument of tliis poesy,* 
consist ing of seven leaves. The * Iik,'log,* con- 
taiuing fifty-seven eight-line stanzas, written 
in the form of a dialogue between Damaetas, 
a woodman, aud Silenus, the prophet of the 
shepherds, is an explanation of the nature 
and pn^jK'rties of trees. Collier, in his * Bi- 
bliogra])liical Catalogue' (i. 93-5), describes 
a co])y of this poem containing a poetical in- 
scription to Lord f^llesmere, from which in- 
scription it would appear that Lord Ellesmere 

o Sir John Fiiiehilcrd chief 
' finrice of the comnioii plea*', wns published 
in 1636 under the title of 'Tht QreBl. Pliui- 
tBgenet. Or a Continved Svccewion of that 
Ruypll Name from Henrf the Secuud to our 
Sacred SovtraJnie Kiug Charles, By Geo, 
BuclifOunl.' Ailerthepref)u»come£a«eci>tid 
titlu-pace, ' An Eclog treating of Crownea,' 
&C. Whoever this ' Geo. Bmi, Oeiit.,' may 
have been, h» did not scniple lo claim the 
BUthorEhip of the ' Eclog:,' aud afterwords of 
the 'Histon,-ofthe Life and Reign of Richard 
theThird,'writtenbySirGeorireHue. Corser 
•ayathat at ihetimeof ihe publicalioo of (he 
' £clogue ' the author was twenty-three yeArs 
of age ; but there appears to be no fouocktion 
fortius statement, 'ihe ' G.BucIte ' who pre- 
fixed^ complimentary quatonain loWulwm's 
' 'Bcurofuradia ' about 1582 was not imprO' 
bably Sir George Due, Two persotis of the 
name of Buclic accompanied the Cadii hxdd- 
dition in 1690 ; one a Captain John Bucke, 
and the other a j^ntlemnn adventurer, George 
Bucke, whom it would be safe to ideati^ 
with Sir George Buc. In Howos's ' Stow ' 
(1615), p. 776, col. a, we rend that ' Georre 
Bucke was deiSpBtched by the lords generalB 
to hermajeslie Co make relation of that which 
hid passed in the annie since the fleetua de- 
puture from Ihe bay of Cadiz.' The instruc- 
tions given him on that occasion are contained 
in ■ Otho; E. in. 319 (Cottonian MS8.) In 
1601 Bue was sent to Sir Francis Vere at 
Middleburgh, with instructions from Sir Ito- 
bert Cecil. Two copies of these instructions 
' Cotton. MS. Galba; D. xii. 322, and 
tht> second copy is signed ' Vera Oo^ia, G, 
Buc.' in Ihe unmistakabla handwriting of 
Sir George Buc. On 13 July 1603, the day 
before the corniiatiou, Buc was kiiigLteU by 
Junes. On 21 June 1603 he received the 
iwereionary grant of ihe mastership of the 
reveU(G</. State Papfri,Tk>m. Seriee,1603- 
leiO, p, 16). ColUer statM that in 1610 he 
assumed the office as successor to Edmund 
IVney, who died in the October of that year 
(Ei^L Dram. Lifltid 1^.1 360). tVsome 
time proviouslv he had acted as Tylney's Je- 

IT publication ; but on S9 Juno 
1607 we find Tylnev lief nsing ' Cupid's Vfiilt- 
lif^' (Abbbb, TranseripU, m. 333, 354). 
In spte of Collier's slatement (for which no 
•Ulnbrity is given) it would seem that Tyluey 
had bvea superseded bv Buc in the autumn 
of 160^ fnr on 4 Oct. ol that vear Bliddleton'a 
'A Mad World, my Mastere,' was licensed 
for publication by Buc's deputy (tA^. p. 3t)l ). 
.it ii imjiiubBlile'lluit there would have been 

two deputies. From Sir Henrr Herbert's 
' Register ' we learn that Buc's office books, 
which wnuld Lave had tbu deepest interest 
for students of the drama, were consumed by 
lire. Chalmers, In his 'Supplemental Apology' 
(108-207), ^ves a list of the plays licensed 
for publication by Buc. Among the ' Slate 
Papers,' under date 6 Sept. 1610, is a docu- 
ment signed by Buc, licensing three men to 
' shew a strange lion brought to do strange 
things, as turning an on to be roast^,' &c. 
There is also preserved among the'Stale Pa- 
pers 'a letter of Buc's, dated 10 July 1615, 
to John Packer, secretary to Lord-chnmber- 
lain Somerset, allowing Samuel Daniel to ap- 
point a company of youths toperform come- 
dies and tragedies at Bristol. Tbewriterends 
by saying that be has received no stipend since 
18 Dec., and begs forpayment of arrears. In a 
letter to Sir Dudley Carleton, dated SO March 
1620, Chamberlain writes: ' Old Sir George 
Buck, master of Ihe revels, has gone mad' 
^Cal. State Papen,Tlom. Series, 1619-23, p. 
3&1). Two years afterwards Buc had become 
too injinn to discharge his duties, and on 
3 Ma^ 1622 a patent was made out appoint- 
ing Sir John Astley master of the revels. On 
22 May he was formally superseded in a privy 
seal (extant in the Chaptei^house, Westmin- 
ster), which directed Ibat as Buc, ' by reason 
of sickness and indlsposilion of body where- 
with it had pleased Ood to visit him, was be- 
come disabled and insufficient to undergo and 
perform' his duties, the office had been con- 
ferred on Sir John Astley. From Sir Henry 
Herbert's ' Register ' it appears that Buc died 
on 22 Sept. 1623. 

Sir George Buc is the author of ' The Third 
Universitie of England, or a Treatise of the 
Foundations of all the Golledges, Avncient 
Schooles of Priviledge, and of Iloi-ses of 
Leamiog- and Lilwrnll Arte, within and aboi-t 
the most famovtt Cittie of London,' a treatise 
appended lo Howt-s's edition of Stow's ' An- 
nales ' (1615). In this work the author men- 
tions a treatise which he had written on'The 
Art of Revels,' of which no copy is now known. 
The 'HistoiTof the Life and Reign of Richard 
the Third. Composed in five Bookes,' was 
isaued in 1646, fol., a« the work of ' George 
Buck, Esq.' A cbarrvd fragroent of a manu- 
script copy of this work, in the handwriting 
of Sir George Buc, is presen-ed among the 
Cottonian MSS. (Tib. E. x.) In this manu- 
script tho history was described as ' gathered 
and written by Sir Gieorge Buc, Knight, master 
of the King's office of the Revels and one of 
the gentlemen of his msiestie's pri\7 cliunber, 
corrected and amended in every page.' The 
leaf colli nining ibis passnoie is not now in tba 
Koauuscripti hutsotlustit^isgivcDiDSiiuth's 




'Caulofpie of tho Cotton. MSS.' There is 
prewirved in the manuscript a portion of the 
dedication to * the most ilTustnous Lord, pre- 
mier C(jut« of this realme, erl of Arundale/ 
&c., dated from * the king^s office of the Revels, 
Peters IIUl, the . . . of . . . 1619/ An ad- 
vertisement to the reader (in the manuscript 
copy) informs us that the ' argument and suo- 

I'ect of tliis discours or story was at the first 
)ut a cliapter, sc. the thirteenth chapter of 
tho tliinl book of a rude work of myne en- 
t itle<l **The Baron, or the Magazin of Honour." ' 
No copy of * The Baron ' is known to exist. 
It is not improbable that manv of Buc\s works 
periHhed in the tlames whicli consumed his 
office books, and that Tib. E. x. was scorched 
on that occasion. Tlie history attempts to 
prove tliat Kichard III was a virtuous prince 
and innocent of the crimes imputed to him, 
and must be regard(Kl to some extent as an 
antici])ation of Horace AValpole's " Historic 
Doubts." ' P]ttrlv in the present century a 
certain Charles Yarnold announced his in- 
tention of issuing a new edition of the his- 
tory * from tho original manuscript of Sir 
G(jorge Buck.' The manuscript referred to 
by Yarnold, and Yamold's collections towards 
tin 5 new edition (of which only a few sheets 
were printcnl), are in the British Museum, 
nuinben^d Kg. MSS. ±2U)-±2'20. Yamold's 
cr)ll(!ctions are of litth* value, and it is cer- 
tain tliat Ilia mjinuscTii)t is not in the hand- 
writ iug of Sir Cit'orge Biic. Additional MS. 
'27-\'J'2 contains t lie first two books of the his- 
tory. Tliti Grorge Buck who had the impu- 
dence to issue the work as his own dedicated 
the printe<l cr>py to Philip, earl of Pembroke. 
In 1710 Buc's history was included in the 
first- volume of Keiinet's * Complete History 
of l']nglaiul.* Caindrn, in his * Britannia ' 
(imI. I()b7, p. ()()8), s|M*aks of Buc as a man of 
distinguished learning ' qui niulta in historiis 
observavit et candide imi)ertiit.' Some letters 
of Buc's to Sir Ivobert Cotton are preservf^d 
in 'Cottonian MS. Jul. Csesur,' iii. ;i;}, li>8. 
Among ll(»ber's manuscripts was sold an un- 
dated ([uarto, ]>p. 524, whicli was described in 
* Biblioth. Ileber.' (pt. xi. No. i)8) as a poem 
of Sir Gt^orge Bucr. The title is * The famous 
History of Saint George, T^ngland's Brave 
Champion. Translated into verse and en- 
lardged . . . By G. B.' Corser gives a full 
description of this work, and clearly shows 
that it could not have been written bv Buc, 
as it contains allusions to events which hap- 
pened long after his death. 

[Ghulnierb's Supplementiil Apolog\', pp. 198- 
207; Ritson's Bihliog. Poet. pp. 146-7; Collier's 
English Dramatic Lit. (2nd ed.), i. 360. 402-6 ; 
Corser's Collectanea; Cottonian MSS., Galba I), 
xii. 322, Otho E. ix. 319, Tib. E. x. ; Stow's An- 

nales (ed. Howes), 1615, p. 776 ; CaL of St«to 
Papers, Dom. Series, 1608-10, pp. 16, 681, 1619- 
1623, p. 364 ; Arbor's TranscripU, iii. 888, 854, 
891 ; Nichols's Progresses of Jamas I, i. 215.1 


BUCER> MARTm (1491-1661), protee- 
t-ant divine, was bom of humble parents at 
Schlettstadt in Lower Alsaoe. The proper 
spelling of his name is undoabtedly Butzer; 
tnis form is employed by himself, and ordi- 
narily by his Qerman contemporaries, except 
when they latinise his name into.Buoeros 
^cf. the jest related by Melchiob Adax, Vita 
Bucerif 105, which also explains the Latin 
equivalents Emunctor and Aretinus Felinus ; 
in Greek he called himself Bovnjpor). In his 
fifteenth year he was, against his will, placed 
as a novice in the Dominican monastery in his 
native town, and he remained a monk till 1521. 
At Heidelberg, where he studied Ghreek and 
Hebrew, he in April 1518 had an opportunity 
of hearing Luther dispute on the donna of 
free-will ; a correspondence ensued, and Bucer 
began to long for emancipation. He became 
acquainted with several leading humanists, 
and was more especially patronised by Capito. 
Soon he thought it prudent to take refuge, 
first in some other sequestered spot, and then 
in Franz von Sickingen's castle, the Ebem- 
bnrg, near Creuznach, where at this time 
Hutten and many other fugitives enjoyed 
the knight's hospitality. But through skilful 
aid he ultimately found no grreat difficulty 
in obtaining a papal brief, in consequence of 
which he was on 29 April 1521 declared free 
from his monastic vows, though of course he 
still remained a priest. In an inter^new at 
Oppenheim on 13 April 1521 he had tried to 
induce Lather to divert his course from the 
diet of Worms to the Kbemburg, but failed, 
and Bucer had thereu]K>n loyally accompanied 
the reformer on his dangerous journey. Im- 
mediately after (])ossibly even l)efore) his libe- 
ration from his vows, Bucer entered the ser^'ice 
of the Count (afterwards Elector) Palatine 
Frederick (II) ; but he soon felt ill at ease, 
especially among the dissipations of Niimberg, 
In Mav 1522 he obtained his dismisstil, and 
entered upon the incumbency of Landstuhl, 
Sickingen's barony, near Kaiserslautem (Mel- 
chior Adam's account of this part of Bucer's 
life is confused). Soon after his establishment 
h»Te he was married to Elisabeth Pallass 
(Scii?:nkbl), or Silbereisen (Bau.m), who had 
for twelve years been the inmate of a nimnerv, 
but who made him an excellent wife. Bucer*8 
marriage is memorable as one of the earliest 
marriages of ordained priests among the re- 
formers ; it was followed bv Bugenhagen's in 
1522, Zwingli's in 1524, and Luther's in 1525. 
From Landstuhl Bucer, at Sickingen*8 sug- 

already uolorioue. In October 1524 the 
images were removed out of Bucer'e church, 
null St. Aurelia's wonder-working grave was 
closed ; and in the following month Bucer, 
while giving an account to Luther of tha 
simple reformed worship in iiee at Strosfr- 
haif, requested in the name of his brethren 
a more explicit statement of Luther's dogma 
concerning the eucliarist. Probably Bucer 
had been alienated from the Lutheran view 
on tltis bead through the influence of Hodius 
(Rode, of IttrecUt), who visited him about 
this time (Kostlin, i. 717 ; cf. Bioit, 304-fi). 
Luther's reply was hia 'Address to all Chris- 
StrassbuTg,' warning ihem against 
iof Carlstadt. SoonafterthisBueer, 
with Capito and Zell, bravely attempted in 
aperBonal interview to persuade a large bnnd 

insurrectionary iwaaants t 

o journeys in I particular set on fool 
n, falling into tion of prolestanttsi 
iieril in the Nelherlands. Soon, however, he { were the anabaptists who took refuge in the 
is gtioeroitely dismissed by hts patron, and city and Carlstadt, whose dispute with Luther 
passing through Weissenburg tn Lower 
AI»u« acceptud an invitation from Motherer, 
pUBOQ in that town, to fill the post of 
preacher at his church. Here he in a series 
of sermons advanced Lutheran views, and 
recommended the study of the German Bible. 
Great excitement ensued, and both Motherer 
and Bucer, having declined to appear before 
the Bisluw of Speier, were excoinniunicat«d 
by him. Bucer hereupon made a public pro- 
fession of Ids doctrine, but linally both he 
and his friend, with their wives, were obliged 
to fly to Strassburg, where they arrived at 
the end of April 1523, and at first took reftige 
in the bouse of Bucer's father, now a oitixen 
of the t«wn, 

In Strassburg the reformation had many 
eympatliisers, and Matthew Zell was already 
preaching ' the gospel ' to the people in the 
nare of the minster. Capito, who bad recently 
assumed a dignified ecclesiastical position in 
the tity, still observed a hesitating attitude. 
Bucer's arrival and bold announcement of his 
marriage to the spiritual authorities therefore 
crealea much interest, and be was at first only 
allowed to lecture, as it were, privately in 
Zell's house. As a cit iien's son, however, he 
was protected by the town council against the 
bishop, who demanded hissurrender, and was 
allowed to plead his cause both by word '' 
mouth and in writing. His lectures on t 
New Testament, some of which he gave in t 
cathedral, were numerously attended, and 
December l-')23 he was appointed a salaried 
daily lecturer on the scriptures. He was 
now one of the seven preachers recognised at 
Straasburg an the representatives of the ■ 

of the tiJormation. Jacob Sturm, ir 

town council, and Capito, who had by this 

tine declared focthe reformation, were, with 

Bucer and Zell, its chief promoters. In March 

I&24 the bishop eECommimicated several mar- 
ried priests, among whom, however, there ic 

no mention of Bucer ; and in the same month 

tile guild of gardeners, whose religioi 

wore of an advanced character, elected him 

priest at 8t. Aurelia's, a parsonage in Capi 

provoetsbip. Though much drawntoZwuiK-, 

be continued for a time to maintain an inde- 

]>endeat attitndn as to the use of ima^ and 

pictures, and his view of the eucbaniit was 

not as yet whoUj' divergent from Luther's. 

But tiie difficulties of the Straesburg re- 
formers incniasad as tlie city became the re- 
fuge of victims of religious persecution. Both 

Capita and Buct-r showed ho«jitalitytoFrench 

nnu Italian refugees, through whom Bucer in 

The hardest and moat thankiess task of 
Bucer's life began when in 1526 tha conflict 
between Luther and Zwingli which turned 
mainly, though not altogether, on the eucha- 
I declared Itself. The St rasshurg preachers, 
who distinctly placed themselves on the side 
of the Swiss reformer, were roughly handled 
byMelanchthon,andaarca«ticallv criticised by 
the Erasmians, against whom Bucer did his 
best to defend bis position. Luther, havuig 
in November declined a friendly overture 
from the Strassburgers, was further irritatod 
by obaer\'alions on the eucharist introduced 
bv Bucer into hie Lai in translation of Luther's 
' Church Postil '( 152o), and Lilt her's follower, 
Bugenhagen, had a similar grievance against 
the same translator's version of his ' Commen- 
tary on tbe Psalms.' Meanwhile, the friend- 
liness between the Strassburg and the Swiss 
reformers increased, Bucer also placing him- 
self decisively on Zwingli'a side against ana- 
baptism, with certain milder [iha^es of which 
bis friend Cajiitn was not altogether out of 
sympathy {lb'27). At the ^reat Bern dispu- 
tation (January 1528) he distinctly declared 
in favour of the Zwinglism doctrine. Soon 
afterwards he dedicated to the Bern town 
council his 'Commentary on the Gospel of 
St. John,' prefaced by a summary of the pro- 
ceedings at the disputation. In March IG28 
apjieotwl the amplest ' Confession ' ever put 
forth by Luther cimeeruine the euchanat, 
and in June Bucer published a reply in dia- 
logue form, in whitn he proposed a personal 
conference between the leaders of tbe two 
parties. He had already entreali-d Zwingli 
to adopt OS conciliatory as possible a lone 


towsrck LuthiiT, but a« jret no aouiids except 
of iro Clime from Wittenberg, Sfeanwbire, 
Strofigburg conaummalej her revolt from 
Rome by the abolition of tlie mass (30 Feb. 
I ; see ' llede me and be nott Wrothe,' by 
IW and Barlow, Akbeb's Engluik JttprinU, 
1B71, where 'Butxer' la mentioned among 
the cliief odTeraariee of the mass). Bucer's 
Utivity waa of great service in liturgical 
not only at Stramburs;, but also at 
IS places in Suabia and Hesse. 
The position of affaire in 15l>g was so full 
of danger for the estates, including Strass- 
buTg, which had proteated at Speier, that a 
dose cohesion among them seemed impera- 
tive ; thia, however, it seemed clear to Philip 
. . of Hesae, Jacob Sturm, and others, must be 
r {receded by a theological agreement, the jim- 
[ motion of which now became the main object 
of Bucer's endeavours. In these he wits 
gruallyaidedby (E«nlaiapadiu8. Bucer'sown 
views were substantially Zwinglian, but his 

S Ian waa if possible to formulate the cardin&l 
□ctrine of the sucharist after a fashion 
which, without oflending against the laws of 
logic, might prove acceptable to both Lut her 
and Zwingli, At last the conference was 
brought about which opened at Marburg in 
1529 between Luther and Zwingli, with 
Bnoer and others intervening (I and 3 Oct. 
1629). Notwithstanding Biicer's efforts and 
canc«esions (Luther is said to have weU 
oomed him with the humorous reproach 'tu 
es nequam'), the one subject on which no 
agreement was arrived at was the crucial 
subject of the eucharist. Probably, however, 
some impression in favour of union had been 
made on Melanchthon ; and, at, all events, 
Bucer was more than ever marked out as the 
man most likely to conduct further negotia- 
tions to a successful issue. That he could 
hold his own when he chose is shown by his 
celebrated 'Apologetic Letter' published 
shortly afterwwds (1630), in answer to Eras- 
mus. Bucer was concerned' in the drawing 
up of the' ConfesaioTetrapolilAna 'presented 
at the diet of Augsburg in July IB-W by 
Straasburg, Constance, Memmingea, and Lin- 
dau, which differed most essentially from the 
' Augustana' in the article on the eucharist, 
though going aa far as possible in theLuthenin 
direction (when he published it after au inten- 
tional delay, in Augnst 1631, he accompanied 
it by a moat conciliatoty ' Apology '). An in- 
terview with Melanchthon, followed by alet- 
ter to Luther, having led to no result, Bucer 
on 2& Sept, 1530 courafeoualy presented him- 
self in p«rson before Luther at Coburg, and 
had the satisfaction of bringing him to ex- 
press a distinct hope of reconcUiation with 
*' '" " ' at all events, with 

ihe Stmssbui^rs. Henceforth his plan of 
action waa «o to put the desired agreement 
that Luther might appear to hnvn yielded 
nothing(cf.K6aTUif,ii. 248-9). Soon «il«- 
wards Bucer journeyed in the int^reot of 
j union througha series of lowna in the aouth- 
I west of Germany and in Switisrland, from 
I which he returned to Strassburg in October. 
Here we find him seeking to fbcililate a 
union with the Waldensian common! ties, but 
' his more important scheme still remuned 
unaccompUahed. While the Wittenbergen 
were now hoping through him to detach the 
South German towns from the Swim, tba 
Ziirichers, with the men of Bern and Con- 
stance, and even his own StraMburgers, bwan 
to suspect hia intentions. Among otlter 
things which helped to hamper his endeo' 
vouts WHS the publication at Ragenau in 
Alsace of Servetus's book about the Trinity 
(1531), which, after he hod in vain attempted 
to suppress its circulation, and after Servfr- 
tuH hod left Strassburg, Bucer censured in a 
confutation supposed to be still extant (Toir- 
Ltif, 33(1). His elforta for union were bv no 
means furthered by the death of Zwingli at 
Cappel(0ctoberl53l),but on almost heavier 
blow for him was the death of (Ecolampsdins 
(November), although he thereby became (lie 
acknowledged head of the South OennAn di- 
vines. At Strasaburg he now presided over 
the weekly clerical beard of the 'aemuitaof 
the Word.' He used his authority to indnoe 
the StraBsbiirgers at a meeting of theproIa»- 
t4nt estates held at Schweinf urt (April 1 582) 
to subscribe the Augustsna without abaa- 
doning the Tetrapolitona, and to accept the 
articles of agreement drawn up by him^ with 
a proviso safeguarding the maintenance of 
their simple ritual for ten years. This step 
was very ill received in Switzerland and 
elsewhere, and he waa left with few mjf 
porters of his union policv, while at this very 
time he was blamed at Strasaburg far draw- 
in^ too tight the reins of ecclesiastical diad- 

Eline against the 'prophets.' He suoc«adod, 
owever, both in introducing during onottwr 
tour a considerable measure of unifbrniitj 
among the Soul h German and Swiss chnrnliw, 
and at home in brin^i? about the eslaloliah- 
ment of an ecclesiastical constitution throvgfa 
a synod ( 1533) which may have averted frinn 
Straa»bui^ the fate of Miinster. The emm 
of Ihe church there was one among the manr 
Bubjects which about this time empioy«d hu 
pen. The continuation of his lectures on 
the New Testam^it (published in their firat 
"tion.l5a0. and second,153((), with Capito'a 
the (lid, was the beginning of BTatemntie 
ir?(fl of higher instruction whiob aA«r- 
wards developed into the imiversiiy of Straoa* 


bing; and it was be wba in 1538 brought 
John Sturm into tlio city wbieh owed so 
much to bis labours. Burer's interefita were 
not eonfinod to Slmssburg or Alaoce, tboueh 
nothing fame of his eftbrtH to further lie 
deBign of a relbrmatioa in France, iu which 
both be andMeliinchtbon wi-re to some extent 
iBTolved (KiiBTUB, ii. S7 1 , -102 ; cf. Michelbt, 
Sutoirt de Fivnix (2nd od. 1857).viii. 406- 
417), Nearer at home he eucce««fuJly Mertod 
himBelf for the institution of the church at 
Auseburg (1534-0). 

Meanwhile, he continued intent upon hii 
schemo of finding a basis for a farmulnted 
agreemeut/or concordia, between the Luthe- 
nas and tbe South Oermaiis and Swiss ; and 
alter holding a preliminary conference at 
ConatPince, he met Melancbtbon at Cas»el 

Uboimcontinued at Auffsburg and elsewhere. 
In April irj86, soon after bin return from 
Baael, where he bad aided in drawing up tbe 
euchaiiatic portion of tbe so-caUed First 
Helvetic Confee»on, be learned that Luther 
TFM prepared t« discuss in person the ques- 
tion ^ a concordia. Tbe meeting, which was 
to bavetalnin place at Eisenach, was actually 
held at Wittenberg 22-29 May, The con- 
cession on (be part of Bucer and his com- 
panions that the body in the eucliarist is 

'deal brethren in the Lord," and articles 
drawn up by Melanchtbon were signed by 
all (or nearly all) present, fiucer's work was 
accomplished, though he welt knew what 
UttDTiiess was to follow. His ' Hetractatio 
de Cosna Domini' was in the same year 
appended 1o tbe new edition of his Gospel 
' Comment aries.' Tbe concordia wsa not ap- 
poved at Ziiricli, and in Februan" 1&37 
Boeer presented to Lntber at Smalcald a 
BtAtement of doctrine which had been drawn 
up at Kaeel. Though it is said (Baiik, &18) 
tbat liutUer, whom a most dangerous illness 
obliged to lake his departure to Gotha, 
whither Bucer aflerwnrda followed bim, com- 
mitted to the latter tbe general care of tbe 
poor cbiireb, in tbe event of bis own death, 
hifl 'Smalcald Articles' again went beyond 
the Wittenberg concordia, and fiucer's work 
seemiH) nearly lost again, A conference at 
Ziiricb in April 1538 proved to him tbat he 
bad alienated ibe Swiss, while be only with 
difficulty obtained the adhesion of the South 
Q«iRnan towns, and all this in order that 
Luther in some of his last writings migbt 
inveigh more -vebemently than eTer against 
tie 'eacmmentarians,' At least, however, 
cbtbon's views had been materially 

modified, and the Calvinistic develo|)ment of 
Zwinglien doctrine bad been prepared. Witb 
Calvin himself Bucer lirst came into friendly 
contact at a synod held in Bern May 1537, 
and again during tbe »tav of tbe former at 
Slrassburg, 16.18-41. There wsa much sym- 

Sathy between Ihem on the subject of church 
iscipiine. Among the German rt>formers 
Bucer now took a leading position, Ilis sig- 
nature is appended to Ibe memorable opinion 
furnished by Luther and others in justifica- 
tion of resistance to the emperor on the ques- 
tion of religion (K6arLiH,ii. 411). And in a 
similnr capacity be became involved in the 
scandal of the Iiandgrave Philip of Hesse's 
'second' marriage (March 1540), which he 

Eromoted, witnessed, and even htjped to de- 
tnd, A far nobler, though an ineffectual 
work, was his share in the endeavours to 
bring about a reunion between the contend- 
ing religions in tbe empire, Bucer's inter- 
view with Witxel was followed in 15i0 by 
Ibe meeting of princes at Hagenaii, at which 
he and other protestant theologians attended, 
and of which be published an acmiint. An- 
other meeting at Worms was likewise broken 
up by the catholic side; but tbe most impor- 
tant of the series was held at Ratisbon on 
the occasion of tbe diet of 1541, where on 
tbe catholic side the legate Contarini and 
Julius Pflug, with Eck and Cropper, on the 
protestant Meloucbthon, Bucer, aiid the Hes- 
sian I^lorius, were the leading representa- 
tives. Of this interesting and, as it seemed, 
not wholly fruitless meeting, Bucer likewise 
put forth a narrative. On his return he found 
the plague raging at Strassburg; among its 
victims were several (three ?) of bis children, 
his wife, and his failhfu! associate Capito. 
A twelvemonth later be married Capito's 

In 1541 and tbe following years Bucer was 
much occupied in assisting tbe archbishop- 
elector of Colore (Hermann von WiedJ in 
his attempt to introduce reformed doctnnes 
and worship into his territories. With Me- 
lanchtbon he drew up a ' Book of Reformation ' 
(1543), to which Luther made objections. 
From this work, of which an English version 
was printed in London in 1547 (see Stbtte. 
Eecie/iiiutieal Memoriali, u, i. 41-4^, and 
which itself largelv borrowed from a liturgy 
previously eetablislied in Niimberg and Ana- 
poch, the services of the church of England 
are occasionally derived. Bucer defended 
bis proceedings in the Cologne electorate 
in two treatises published in 1543, but tbe 
collapse of Hermann von Wied's " 
well known. Before lbecatastrn_ 
Smalcaldic war Bucer attended o 

reunion held at Ratisbon ii 

"s attempt ia 
ropbe of tbe 


1&16, where the main dlKcuaaion was carried 
on between himEolf and the Spaniard Mnl- 
venda. After all was arer, and when early 
in 1648 the Interim was about to belaid be- 
fore the diet, he was summoned 1o Augsburg 
by the elector. Joachim II of Brandenburg, 
who, being deGirous for peace at any price, 
wished to oblain an authoritative opinion in 
favour of the propoaed settlement. He was 
detained in something like imprisonment for 
twenty-two days, but proved less pliable than 
had been expected, and ijtrassburg, though 
all but alone in licr resolution, declined to 
sign ihe Interim. In the resistance a^^inst 
the necessitv of accepting it which Strass- 
faurg maintained for mora than a year and a 
ball the preachers unanimously took part, 
with Bucer and Fagiua, Capito's BUecessor, 
at their liead. But it gradually becione evi- 
dent that the city must give way, and that 
its spiritual leaders must take their depar- 
ture. .\fter preparing, as a speeiea of pas- 
toral legacy, a 'Summary of the religion 
taught at S'trassburg during the last twenty- 
eight, years,' Bucet, Wgether with Fagius, 
applied for ' leave of absence,' and a. tempo- 
rary pension having been grant.ed them, and 
D>eiierou9 provision made for Bucer'a family 
during ilia peregrination, they quitted Slrass- 
buFgon6A.prin549. Bucer'had been offered 
hospitality by Melonchthon. Myconius, and 
Calvin, and hardlv had he and his companions 
departed when tfiey were invited to profes- 
sorial chairs at Copenhagen : but they had 
already bent their course to England. With 
England Bucer hadaconnection of longstand- 
ing, having been consulted by Henry VIII 
about his divorce, and more lately, in par- 
tial consequence perhaps of the hospituit^ 
shown to so many English protestant fugi- 
tives at Strassburi;, having been in frequent 
correspondence with Cranmer. The primate, 
who had already bestowed the regius profes- 
sorship of divinitv at Oxford upon Bucer's 
former colleague, Peter Martyr, now invited 
Bucer himself to England, doubtless with a 
view to his receiving a similar appointment 
at Cambridge (see Miscfllanamn Writinffi 
andLetteri of Cranmer, ed. J. E, Cos, Parker 
Society, 1946, 423-4). The travellers set sail 
tcova Calais on 23 April, and on the iwme day 
reached— hardly Cambridge, as Baum says, 
but — Canterbury (ef., as to Bucer's visiting 
Canterbury about this time, Stripe, u.s. ii, 
i, 123). 'Thence they proceeded to London, 
where ihev found Cranmer surrounded by 
foreign rei'iigees (see Bucer's letter, noting 
the want of Rood preachers and teachers in 
England, cited by Bauh, ii.ll). On 1 May 
they were most graciously received by the 
young king Edward VI and the great poraon- 



)ucbese I 
Somer- I 

Ts around him, among whom IJie Sucbese 
Suffolk soon showed special favour to 
Bucer. In the Erst instance he and his com- 
panion were, by desire of the king and Somer- 
set, employed upon a Latin version of the 
Scripturee, with ejcplanalions and doctrinal 
notes, the whole to ne afterwards translated 
into English. Bucer also warmly intereated 
himself in the affurs of the London congre- 
gations of French and German refugees, and 
corresponded with Pe(«r Martyr, whose pro- 
positions concerning the eucharist bethought 
too Zwinglian (cf. the plain-spoken note in 
HiLLAU, Conititutional Siitory, 10th ed. 
i. 90). His opinion was constantly asked by 
Cranmer, notably on the controversy about 
ecclesiastical vestments raised by Hooper on 
liis appointment to the see of Oloucest«r (see 
Cravueb, Miaoeltaneoae Writing), 428, and 
note ; cf. also FsorDS, Hittory of EafUttidf 
l2mo, iv. 559-60. Bucer's conciliatory reply, 
' De re vestiariA in sacris,' is printed in 
'Scripta Anglicana,' 705-10). At lut the 
arrangements were complete whicli mada 
it possible to summon Bucer and Fagiiu to 
Cambridge, the former as regius professor of 
divinity, the salary having been raised to 
100^ per annum, and Madew having retired 
in bis favour. Fagius, who had arrived at 
Cambridge in advance, died there on 11 Nov, 
in the arras of Bucer. who, though himself 
suffering, had followed his frieiid as soon as 
possible. He thus had to begin his new lifu 
ainne. He was treated with greiil resp«ct, 
aud soon afterwards created B.D., having 
been specially recommended by roral letter 
to the university (MiTLLiNG BR, ii. 11^). Itwa« 
on this occasion that be delivered a species 
of inaugural lecture, in which he modestly 
ptfiferrM a seasonable plea in favour of de- 
grees and examinations iSvripta AnffUtana, 
184-60). OnlO Jan.lfHJObeopeneda courae 
of lectures on the Epistle to the ESphesiaiia. 
Before the end of the winter he was joined 
by his wife and some of his children sad 
servants. He was frequently visited by Pa^ 
ker, Haddon, Bradford, aud othc-rs. He con- 
tinued to be frequently consulted by Cranmer, 
and was specially commissione<l with the re- 
vision of the first English booh of oonunon 
prayer, though but a small part of the in- 
provements suggested by him was ootnally 
carried out (see Ihe'Censum.'&c.,in Sa^ta 
Anglicana, 456-503, to which is prefixed ths 
Latin version of the prayer book hy Alesiua, 
erroneously described bv Strype in a powagn 
cited in this dictionary [^art. AlbsiusT wl^A 
should be corrected accordingly; cf. liAV- 
RENCB, SamjiUn Lecturu, 221 ; nee tS. 2*8- 
247 as to the alightness of Itucer's infiaeaCA 
upon tJie English liturgy. His share ia Uie 




forty-lwo Articlps of IS53 must, necessarily 
Tvmam a mailer of coiijt<cIure). In August 
1650 h<s took part iii & dieputalion on the 
Lutlienui doctrine of iuatification. to which 
he bad been challenKed by John Young, An- 
drew Peme, and Thomas Sudgwtck, and 
which excited much hitter controversy in the 
university. On his return to Cambridge from 
a visit to Peler Martyr, he foiind that Young 
hiul begun a £eries of lectures ogiiinat his 
ti^achin^, and, as his opponents would not 
cany on tlie discussion m ivriting. Bought 
)e«Te for another &nd final dispnlation, with 
what result is not known (bis account of the 
'Controversy" isin'Seripta Anglicf 
86!!; cf. MuLUITOBft, ii. 133). 

The winter of 1550-1 found Bucer belter 
prepared for meeting its rigour, and various 
speiual gifts were sent to li"" by the joimg 
king; bts salnn' was raised, and he wa« told 
t« spare bimseu, and not bold him^lf bound 
U> lecture. He was thus encouragiid to de- 
vote himself to the composition of a work 
desired by Edward VI as a new year's greet- 
W — Uie both comprehensive and practical 
' Do Repio Chrisli ' (in ' Scripts Anglicana,' 
1-170. It seems to have been firat published 
in 15S7,and was soon tranatated into French 
and German'). Scarcely had be completed and 
prexent^d thia work, and recommenced his 
fecturos (the ' Commentary on the Epistle to 
the Ephesions ' published at Basel in 1661 by 
TreYrelUufl only reaches the flilh chapter), 
wben ill-health, from which he had more or 
less Bufiered since his arrival in England, 
again overt<iok him. He soon perceived that 
his end was at hand. The sick man's house 
speedily filled with friends, among them the 
]>uchess of Suffolk, whose two young sons 
were atudyingatCombridge under his tuition, 
uid John Bradford tended him to the last. 
He died on 98 Feb. 1550-1, after expressing 
uixinty on his dejkthbed lest for lack of dis- 
cipline the English church should fall into 
the errors which had distracted that of his 
nMlveland (see &'. Cash's epistle, 'Be Obitu 
Boceri,' in Scrlpta Anglkana, 867-76). He 
■wtM faimed in Great St, Mary's Church, the 
wholB university and large numbers of bur- 
gesses, same three thousand persons in all, 
attending his funeraL Parker's funeral eer- 
mon and Wall«r Hoddon's speech as public 
orator are in 'Srripln .4nglieana' (886-99), 
followed by a flow of epitaphs and other 
testimonies in his honour; and the utmost 
kindness was shown to his family. 

During the visitation of the university 
under Queen Marj- on 6 Feb. 1657, the bodies 
of Bucer and FagiuB were exbumeil, and, with 
ftn olaborotu mock"rT of a real trinl and exe- 
ju, publicly burnt on Market Uill at Cam- 

bridge (see the lengthy account in Scripta 
Aaiflioana, 915-35). But three years after- 
wi^da, in July 1660, under the 
chancellor (Peme), who had, it was said, un- 
J willingly figured in this ghastly farce, the 
I universitir was Instructed to make amends 
1 by reslormg all their honours to Bucer and 
; Pagius (see the narrative, 1^.036-45). Que 
Elizabeth appears to have renewed the let- 
ters patent by which her brother had granted 
to any descendant of Bucer the privilege of 
settling in England with all the rights of an 
English Bulject ; and in 1593 a grandson of 
, his, afterwards pastor at Basel, was mun- 
tained at Trinity, Cambridge, by the com- 
bined liberality of the college and the crown 
(MuLLDiOBB, ii. 182). 

[The worst of the charges brought against 
' the dear potiticus and faDBticus of union,' as 
Bucer WHS called bj his friend Margaret Blnnrer, 
' will ho fonnd arrayed in the dedicatory epistle 
prefixed to the so-called Scripta Anglirann, or 
Torans AoglicniiUB (fol. Basel 1577), wilted by 
Uucer's friend, and for some time regular SBCre- 
tary and corapaaion, Conrad Hubert. This 
volume, thotigh inteiiilad to form part of a col- 
lective edition of all bii works, was not followed 
by any other. It contaiaa all those of his works 
which were publislisd in England, taeetbet with 
some of his patliec writings and various memo- 
riuls of faim. A complete list of his works, 
ninety^ixin aumber, ta given in the appendix t^ 
tbe extremely full and learned biography of him 
and his chief Straeaharg associate pnbliahed by 
the late Professor J. W. Baom under tbe title of 
'Capito nnd Bntzer, StnwBbnrg's Haformatoren,' 
OS pLiii.of Hnesnhacb's Lebou und ausgewahlte 
Sobriflan der Viter nnd Beifruador der refomdr- 
tenKirche(Elberreld, 1860), Among older bio- 
graphical sketcbes Melchior Adam's, in his Vlt« 
Xmditornm. is usoful ; amoDg tnodura. Scheokel's 
in Herzog's Kenl-Encyctopadie, Slc. vol. i., and 
HorEog'a in AllgamBina dentsche Biograpbie, 
vol. iv. See also, for the traasBctions between 
Luther and Bucer, KoBtliuH Martin Luther (here 
cited in the third Oemiaa edition, 3 vols. Elbei- 
feld, 1883) ; for the renlroverey with Erasmus, 
Druramond, Life of Erasmus (1873). ii. 322; 
A. Mnller, Leben des Emsmns (1828), 34<)-54. 
and note; and Erasmi Opera (1703-B), i. 1ST3 
seqq. ; for the relatjons with Serretus, and a 
very reniHrkable eiamination of the develop- 
ment of Bucnr'a views concerning the Trinity. 
ToOin's Michael Sarvet nnd Martin Butier (Ber- 
lin. 1880) ; for educational offitirB at StiHisburg, 
Smith's Ia Vis et les Trnvaux de Jean Storm 
(Strassburg. ISS&); for the qoeation of Philip of 
Hesss's bigamy, C. von Itummst's GeBchichtevoa 
Heesen (Cassel, 1830), iv. 230-S, aud appendix. 
20e-19, witb KoBT.Un; for Bocer's Cambridge 
life, Mullinger's UnivBrsity of Cambridge from 
the Roynl InjunetionB of Ifi3.) to the Aceogslon 
of Charles I (Cambridge, 1884), and Coopsr's 
Athan* Gmuib. i. 101.] A, W. W. 




BXJCCLEUCH, Dukes of. [See Scott.] ! entered the house of a relation, by whom 

BUCHAN, Eaki^ of. [See CoMrir and I *''^ ^Jf taught r^ing and sewing. During 
__„.-l-. T '- a visit to Greenock she made the aoquaintanoe 


of Robert Buchan, a working potter, whom 



of I)r. William Buclian, autlior of * Domestic : ^he Relief church at Irvine, nreach in GUa- 
Medicine* [q. ▼•] H« wns educated at the Rowat the April sacrament of 1783, she wrote 
high school and university of Edinburgh, ^jm a letter expressing her high approval of 
studied anatomv and medicine also in London ^^ sermons, and stating that no preacher she 
under the Hunters and Dr. George Fordyce. ^ad ever previously listened to had so fully 
and proceeded to l^evden, where he graduated satisfit'd her spiritual needs. The result was 
M.D. on 1 1 July 17'9,*J. Settling in London, tliat she removed to Ir\'ine to enjoy the pri- 
he became phvsician to the Westminster H08- vilege of his ministry, and converted both 
pital inl813,*but resigiuKl tliat office in 1818. l»in and his wife to the belief that she was 
He was re-elected in 1820, and died on 5 Dec. a saint specially endowed and privileged by 
1824. . heaven, White's final conclusion being that 

Buchan's works include * Enchiridion Sy- s^^e "^as the woman mentioned in the Reve- 
philiticum,' 1797 ; * Treatise on Sea Bathing, lation of St. John, whUe she declared him 
with Remarks on the Use of the AVarm ^o be the man cliild she had brought forth. 
Bath,* 1801 ; * Bionomia, or Opinions con- On account of his proclamation of these^ 
ceming Life and Health,' 1811 ; 'Symptoma- peculiar doctrines White was deposed from 
tology,* 1824; besides a translation of Dan- , the ministry by the presbytery. In May 1784 
bentoVs' Observations on Indigestion,* 1807; , ^l»e magistrate's banished the sect from the 
an edition of Dr. Armstrong's * Diseases of , burgh, and following the supposed guidance 
Children,* 1808 ; and the twenty-first edition o^ the star which led the wise men to Beth- 

lehem, they settled on the farm of New 
Cample, in the parish of Closebum, Dum- 
friesshire. They were joined here by one or 
two persons in good positions in life, and 
their numbers ultimatelv reached fortv-six. 

of his fathers * Domestic Medicine,* 1813. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. (1878), iii. 5.] 

G. T. B. 

BUCHAN, ANDREW op (d. l;5()9?), 

bishop of Caithness, was, ])r»'vious to liiseleva- Mrs. Buchan, whom they named their *spi- 

tion to the bislioi)ric, al)bot of the Cistercian ritual mother,* professed to have the power 

abbey of Cupar (Coupar) Angus, to which of conferring the Holy Ghost by breathing, 

he had been preferred in 1272. In the Rag- and also laid claim to certain prophetic gifts, 

man roll his name a])pt^arsas paying homage They believed in the millennium as close at 

to Edward at the church of Perth 24 July hand, and were persuaded that they would 

1291, and at Hervvick-on-Tweed 28 Aug. 129(3. not taste of death, but would be taken up to 

He was nominated to the bishopric of Caitli- meet Christ in the air. The following ac- 
ness by Pope BonifactJ VIll, 17 Dec. 1296 , count of them by Robert Bums, the jK>et, 

(TiiEiyEK, Vef. Mon. ed. 1804, No. ccclix. 
pp. 163-4). Spotiswood aflirms that he 
lived as bishop thirt(?eu years, but wrongly 
gives the date of his consecration as 1288. 

may l>e accepted as strictly accurate : * Tlieir 
tenets are a strange jumble of enthusiastic 
jargon ; among others she pretends to give 
them the Holy Ghosv by breathing on them, 

The date of his death is usually given as which she does with postures and gestures 

RWl, but this ap|x?ars to be mere conjecture, 
and there is no evidence to show that his 
successor Ferquhard was bishop before K^09. 

[Rental Book of rnpar-Aneus, ed. Charles 
Rogers (Grampian Club), i. 1.3-29; Anderson's 
Orkneyinga Saga, lxxxv-\'i.] T. F. H. 


(17iW-1791), the head of a religious sect 
generally known as * Ruchanitcs,' was the 
daughter of John Simpson and Margaret 
Gordon, who kept a wayside inn at Fat- 
mack(>n, between Banif and Portsoy. She 
was bom in 17.*V^. In early life she was 

that are scandalously indecent. Tliey have 
likewise a community of goods, and live 
nearly an idle life, carrying on. a great farce 
of pretended devotion in bams and wix)ds, 
wliere they lodge and lie together, and hold 
likewise a community of women, as it is 
another of their tenets that they can com- 
mit no mortal sin* (Bums to J. Bumess^ 
August 1784). It is affirmed that Bums 
had an attachment to a young woman who 
joined the Buchanites, and that ho spent a 
whole night and day in vainly endeavouring 
to persuade her to return. His song * As I 
was a walking * was set to an air to which, 

employed in herding cows, and afterwards according to him, the 'Buchanites had set 

Buchan 179 

some of their nonBensica! rhyinea,' for llie 
compoBilioa o( hymns wbb one of the gifts 
of Mra, Buchan. In ITSS White issued 
'The Divine Dictionary,' written by him- 
eelf aod 'revised and approven by Blspeth 
Simpson,' The death of Mrs. Buchan in 
M«y 1791 dissipated the faith of most of her 
followers. White pret^ndinl that shewas only 
in « truice, and had her buried clandestinely, 
but ha afterwurds renounced hia belief in her 
promise to rel um and conduct them to the 
New Jerusalem. The leat eurvivor of the 
MCt was Andrew Innee, who died in 1S48. 

[Four I/SlUrs betirceD the people oelled Bu- 
cbanitds and a teacher near ICdinburgh, (ogstbei 
vith two letters from Mrs. Buchan and one from 
Mr. White to n clorgymon in England, 1786; 
Train's The Bui^hiuiitee from First tuIuAt, 1846 ; 
Works of RuWrt Burns.! T, F. H. 

BUCHAN, PETER (1790-1854), collec- 
tor (if Scottieli ballads, bom at Peterhead in 
1790, traced hie descent from the Comyne, 
earls of Buchan. His parents discouraged 
his deeire to enter the navy, and an early 
marriage completely estranged his father. 
In 1814 he puolished an original volume of 
verse ('The Uecreation of Leisure Hours, 
being Songs and Verses in the Scottish 
Dialect,' Peterhead, 1814), taught himself 
copper-^Ute engraving, and resolved to open 
a printing-office for the first time at Peter- 
head. Early in 181Q he went to Edinburgh 
with an empty purse and 'a pocketful of 
flattering introductory letters.' HisHosman, 
the Earl of Buchan, sent him to Dr. Charles 
Wtn^te at Stirling, where he learnt the art 
of printing in the short apace of ten days. 
On his return to Edinbuivh, a gift of 50;. 
fVgm a iriend of the Earl of Buchan enabled 
blm to purchase thehusinessplant of a priiit- 
ing^lBc«, and on ^4 March 1S16 he set up 
hie press at Peterhead. In 1819 he con- 
structed a new press on on original plan. 
It wad worked with the feet instead of with 
the bands, and nrinted as well from shine, 
capper, and wood as from ordinary type. Bu- 
clikn also invented an indei-maclune showing 
the nmoberof sheets worked off by the press, 
but an Edinburgh press-maker borrowed this 
invention, and, taking it to America, never re- 
turned it to the inventor. Aboutl822BuchBn 
London, but in 1824 
r at Peterhead. His 
of his own compila- 
'&a prosperous enough 
his capital, 


ttunpomrily removed U 

he resettled as a printi 

chief publications were 

tiOD, and the business « 

to enable Buchan to 

Uld to purcboM a small property near Denny- 

loanhead, Stirlingshire, which be called Bti- 

ehoastone. A harassing and expensive law- 

eiut,howeTCT, with the superior landlord, who 

claimed the minerals on the estate, compelled 
him to sell the property in 1852. For the 
next two years lie lived in Ireland with a 

founger son at Stroudhill House, Leitrim. 
a 1^4 he came to London on business, and 
died there suddenly on 19 Sept. He was 
buried at Norwood. His eldest son, Charles 
Forbes Buchan, D.D., became minister of 
Ffirdoiin, Kincardineshire, in 1846. 

Buchan owes hia reputation to his success 
as a collector and editor of Scottish ballads, 
and intbisworkheapentlarge sums of money. 
In 1828 appearedin two volumes his 'Ancient 
Ballads and Soncs of the North of Scotland, 
hitherto unpublished, with esplanatory notes.' 
The book was printed and published for him 
in Edinburgh. More than forty ballade were 
printed there for the first time, and many 
others were published in newly discovered 
versions. Scott interested himacif from the 
6r8t in Buchan's labours, and spcnks highly 
of their value (' Introductory Remarks on 
Popular Poetry^ (1830); prefixed to later 
editions of the Border Minsfrelfi/), In 1834 
was advertised a second collection of Buchan's 
' North Countrie Minstrelsy,' hut Mr. Jerdan 
apparently purchased Buchan's manusc ript for 
the Percy Society, and in 1845 James Henrj 
Diion edited it for that society under the 
title of "ScoltiBh Traditional Versions of 
Ancient Ballads.' 

Buchan's other works were very numerous. 
The chief of them were: 1. 'Annals of 
Pelerheod,' Peterhead, 1819, 12mo. '2. ' An 
Historicid Account of the Ancient and Noble 
Families of Keiths, Earls Marischals of Scot- 
land,' n. d,, Peterhead. 3. ' Treatise proving 
that Brutes have souls and ore immortal,' 
Peterhead, 1824. 4. ' The Peterhead Smug- 
glers of the Lost Century ] or, William and 
Annie, an original melodrama, in three acts,' 
Edinburgh, 1834. 6. -The Eglinton Tour- 
nament and Gentlemen t'nmasked,' Glasgow, 
1839 (republished as 'Britain's BoasI, her 
Gloiy and her Shame ; or, a Mirror for all 
Hanks'). 6. 'An Account of the Chivalry 
of the Ancients,' Glasgow, 1840. 7. ' Man — 
Body and Saul-~as he was, as lie is, and as 
he shall be,' 1649. Buchan was also the 
author of many detached poems and stories, 
and of anti-radical political pamphlets, and 
was a contributor to George (Chalmers's ' Ca- 
ledonia.' Two unpublished volumes of his 
collection of ballade passed shortly before his 
death to Herbert Ingram, and afterwards to 
Dr. Charles Mackay. They are now in the 
British Museum (Add. M^. 3a408-if). 

(Anderson's Scottish Nation, iii. SDl-S; Scott's 
MiiMtrclay of the Scottish Border; Brit. Mua. 
Cut. : information from Dr. Charles Mofluiy.l 
S. L. L. 


1 80 


BUCHAN, THOMAS {d. 1720), general 
of the Jacobite forces in Scotland, was de- 
scended from a family which claimed con- 
nection with the earls of Buchan, and which 
had been proprietors of Auchmacoy in the 
parish of Logie-Buchan, Aberdeenshire, as 
early as 1318. He was the third son of 
James Buchan of Auchmacoy and Margaret, 
daughter of Alexander Seton of Pitmedden. 
Entering the army at an early age he served 
with subordinate rank in France and Hol- 
land, and in 1682 was appointed lieutenant- 
colonel in the Earl of Mar's regiment of foot 
in Scotland. From letters of thanks addressed 
to him by the pri^y council it would appear 
that in 1684 and 1685 he was actively en- 
gaged against the covenanters. In 1686 he 
was made colonel of the regiment. While 
serving in Ireland in 1689 he was promoted by 
King James to the rank of major^neral, and 
after the death of Dundee at £lliecrankie 
was appointed commander-in-chief of the 
Jacobite forces in Scotland. At a meeting ' 
of the highland chiefs held after his arriviu \ 
from Ireland, it was resolved to continue the | 
war with renewed vigour ; and meanwhile, 
till the muster of the clans was completed, ! 
it was arranged that Buchan, at the head of , 
1,200 men, should employ himself in harass- 
ing the enemy along the lowland border. 
On 1 May 1 690 he was surprised and totally 
defeated by Sir Thomas Livingstone at Crom- 
dale, as many as four hundred of his troops 
being taken prisoners. The catastrophe forms 
the subject of the humorous ballad, * The 
Haughs o' Cromdale,' the imaginary narrative 
of a fug-it ive highlander, who gives the result 
of the battle in the terse lines — 

Quo' he, tlio highland army rues 
That e'er we came to Cromdale. 

After being reinforced by a body of six himdred 
Braemar highlanders, Buchan entered Aber- 
deenshire, and presented so formidable an 
attitude to the Master of Forbes that the 
latter hastily fell back on Aberdeen. This 
was the last effective effort of Buchan in 
behalf of the Jacobite cause. He made no 
attempt to enter the city, but marched south- 
ward till threatened by the advance of Gene- 
ral Mackay, He then retreated northwards, 
with the purpose of attacking Inverness ; but 
the surrender of the Earl of Seaforth to the 
government rendered further active hostilities 
impossible. For a time he retained a number 
of followers with him in Lochaber,but finally 
dismissed them and retired, along with Sir 
George Barclay and other officers, to Mac- 
donald of Glengarry. After the submission 
of the highland chiefs, he and other officers 
were, on 23 March 1692, transported to France. 

Notwithstanding the failure of his efforts in 
behalf of the Stuarts, he retained their con- 
fidence, and did not cease to take an active 
interest in schemes to promote their restora- 
tion. He continued a correspondence with 
Mary of Modena after the death of James II, 
and in a letter dated 3 Sept. 1706 expressed 
his readiness to raise the nighlands as soon 
as troops were sent to his assistance (Hooke's 
Correspondence, Roxburghe Club, 1870-1, i, 
302). In 1707 he was commissioned by a 
person in the service of the Pretender to 
visit Inverness and report on its defences, 
and his letter to Hooke in June of that year 
reporting his visit, with plans of Inverlochy 
fort and Inverness, will be found in Hooke s 
'Correspondence' (ii. 828). At the rising 
in 1715 he appears to have offered his ser- 
vices in the nighlands, for the Marquis of 
Huntly, in a letter to him dated 22 Sept. 
1715, commends his 'frankness to go with 
me in our king and country's cause,' and ex- 
presses himself as ready 'to yield to your 
command, conduct, and experience.' On this 
account he is supposed to nave been present 
at the battle of Sheriffinuir, 13 Nov. fol- 
lowing; but it is not improbable that cir- 
cumstances prevented him joining the rebels, 
as had he been present he would in all like- 
lihood have held a prominent command. 
He died at Ardlogie in Fyvie, and was 
buried in Logie-Bucnan, in 1720. 

[Buchan 8 View of the Diocese of Aberdeen, 
1730, pp. 361-2 ; New Statist. Ace. of Scot. xii. 
806-7 ; Smith's New History of Aberdeenshire, 
903-5 ; Memoirs touching the Scots AVar car- 
ried on for their Majesties by Major-general 
Mackay against the Viscount Dundee, and after 
him Cannon, and at last Major-general Buchan, 
for the late King James (Bannatyno Club, 1833) ; 
Macpherson's Original Papers; Colonel Hooka's 
Correspondence (Roxburghe Club, 1870-1).] 

T. F. H. 

BUCHAN, WILLIAM (1729-1805), 
physician, was bom at Ancram in Roxburgh- 
shire, where liis father had a small estate, 
besides renting a farm. WTien yet a boy at 
school young Buchan was amateur doctor to 
the village; yet he was sent to Edinburgh 
to study divinity. But he supported himself 
to a considerable extent by teaching mathe- 
matics to his fellow-students, and gave up 
divinity for medicine, the elder Gregory show- 
ing him much countenance. Alter a nine 
years' residence at Edinburgh Buchan began 
practice in Yorkshire, and before long settled 
at Aclrvvorth, being appointed physician to 
the foundling hospital, supported by parlia- 
ment. Here he gained great skill in treating 
diseases of children ; but nia stay w^as abruptly 
terminated on parliament discontinuing the 



TAte of 60,000/. for IbuDdling huepitals. 
After ihii) ho practised some time at Shoffidd, 
but returned to Edinburgh about 1766, and 
practised for some yeam with success. Fer- 
ffUBon, the well-'hnown popular lecturer on 
natural philosophy, at his death left Ituchuu 
Lis valuable apparatus. Bucban thereupon 
began to lect ure on the aubjecl , and drew large 
claasea for eome j^ears. In 1769 appeared, at 
the low price of six shillings, tlie first, edition 
of his 'Domestic Medicine j or the Family 
Fbyaician,' the first work of its kind in this 
oountry. lis success was immedinle ond 
great. Nineteen large edilinns, aniountinff 
to at least eighty thousond copiee, were sold 
in Qreat Britain in the author's lifetime ; and 
the book OontJDUDB to be re-«dited, as well 
M largely copied in similar works. It was 
trMnslated into all the principal European 
languages, including Kusaian, and was more 
universally popular on the continent and in 
America than i-veu in England. The Em- 
preas of Russia sent Buchan a gold medal 
and a commendatory letter. It is said that 
Bucban sold the copyright for 700/., and that 
ibe publishers made aa much profit yearly 
by it. Having unsuccessfully sought to suc- 
ceed tbe elder Gregory on bis death, Buchan 
in 1778 removed to London, where he gained 
a considerable practice ; less, however, than 
bis fame might have brought bim but for his 
oonvivial and social habits. He regularly 
practised at the Cbapler Coffee-bouse, near 
St. Paul's, to which literary men were (ben 
wont to reaorl . Full of anecdot*, of agree- 
able mannera, benevolent and compassionate, 
be was unsuited Ui make or keep a fortime ; 
K tale of woe always drew tears ftom bis 
eyes and money from bis pocket. About a 
year before his death bis excellent constitu- 
tion began to give way, and he died at bis 
son's bouse in Percy Street, Ratbbone Place, 
on 25 Feb. 1805, in bis seventy-sixth year. 
He was buried iu Ibe cloisters at Westminster 

Among his minor works are ' Cautions 
concerning Cold Bathing and Drinking Mi- 
neral Waters.' 1786; 'Observations con- 
oemtng the Prevention and Cure of the 
Venereal Disease,' 1796 ; ' Ohservationa con- 
cerning the Diet of tbe Common People,' 
1797; 'On tbe Offices and Duties of a 
Mother,' 1800. 

[New Cataliigoa of Living English Anchors 
(1708). i. 3o2; UcDt, Mag, liiv. pt. i. 28S-8, 
378-811; European Mag. iWii. 167.] G. T. B. 

BUCHAUAN, ANDREW (1690-1759), 
of UrumpuUier. toril provost of Olasgow, was 
dettcendtM from a liranch of tbe old family 
of Buchanan of Buchanan and Leny. tie 

j was the second of four sons of George 
I Buchanan, maltster, Glasgow, one of Ibe 
, covenanters who fought at Both well Bridge, 
I and Mary, daughter of Gabriel Mo.'cwell, 
merchant, and was born in 1690. His name 
appears in M'Ure's list of the 'First Merchant 
Adventurars at Sea'( ri'ewo/(Ae CiVy o/Gi«- 
I ffow, p. 209), and by his trade with Virginia, 
j where he had a tobacco plantation, he be- 
come one of the wealtbiest citizens of bis day. 
I In 1736 be purchased the estate of Drum- 

Kllier, Lanarkshire, and the older portion of 
rumpellier house was built by bim in 1736. 
Adjoining Glasgow he purchased three email 
properties in what was then known as the 
' Long Croft,' ibe first purchase being mode in 
1719, the second in 1.33, and the third in 
1740 {GlatfoiP, Pa»l andFraent, ii. 196). 
Through his grounds be opened an avenue 
for gentlemen's houses, which he named 
^'irginia Street, and be jplonned a town 
house for himself called \irginia Mansion, 
which he did not live to iximplet«. Along 
with his three brulhers be founded In 1726 
the Buchanan Society for Ibe assistance of ap- 
prentices and the support uf widows of the 
name of Buchanan. He was also one of the 
original partners of the Ship Banlt, founded 
in 1750. He was elected dean of guild in 
17i8, and lord provost in 1740. When after 
the battleof Prestonpans John Hay, quarter- 
master of tbe Pretender, arrived at Glasgow 
with a letter demanding a loan of 15,000/., 
Buchanan and five others were chosen com- 
missioners to treat with him, and succeeded in 
obtaining a reduction to5,500/. {Memorabilia 
of Glasgow, p. 381). On account of his zeal 
in raising new levies onbehalf of the govern- 
ment, Buchanan made himself so obnoxious 
to the rebels that in December 1745 a special 
le\7 of 500/. was made on him under tfireats 
of plundering his house, to which he replied 
' tbey might plunder bis house if they pleased, 
but he would not pay one farthing (^ScoU 
Mag. viii. 30). He died 30 Dec. 1,59. By 
bis w*ife, Marion Slontgomer^', be left two 
sons and four daughters. 

[Old Country Houses uf the Old GlHsgow 
Gentry, and od. pp. 188-8 ; Cochrana Correspon- 
deace. pp. 107. lU, 132; Glaagow, Past aad Pre- 
sent, ii. 196 ; SnoKa Mag. viii. 30, xxi. S6S.] 
T. F. H. 

18t<2), diplomatist, only son of James Bucha- 
nan of Blairvadoch, Ardinconnal, Dumlmr- 
tonsbire, and Janet, eldest daughter of Jomoa 
Sinclair, twelfth earl of Caithness, was bom 
7 May 1807, entered the diplomatic service 
10 Oct. 1B25, and was attached lo the uu- 
baeay at Cooslantinople. On 13 Kov. 1880 




h« waft nAmt-A paid attach^ at Kio de Janeiro, , been intended tor the ministry In theSootcli 
but ]iH did not remain lonz in South Ame^ church, but at the age of twenty-one he 
rica, tm hn ii*:r\fA temporarily with Sir Strat- , abandoned the idea of taking holy orders, and 
fonJ Cunning**; special emliksiiy to Constan- , left Scotland with the intention of travelling 
tinopW; from :#1 Oct. l^S'M till 18 Sept. 1832, . through Europe on foot, supporting himself 
aft^;r which he becamff paid attache at Waf^h- ; by playing on the violin. Informing this wild 
ington on 9 Nov. He wan with Sir Charles scheme, which he carefully withheld from the 
Vau^'han*!i nyn-Ahl mi^j^ion to Constantinople knowledge of his parents, telling them that he 
fr^>m March f8:{7toSf;ptemlx;r 18^58, and then had been engaged by a ^ntleman to travel 
prrx.'eeded to St. Petersburg as paid attach^ . on the continent with his son, he appears to 
k Oct. of the same year. Pew men seem to have been fired by the example of Goldsmith; 
have gone through a greater number of changes , but Buchanan did not get beyond London, 
in the diplomatic t!*:T\'icf: ; he was secretaiy . where, after imdergoing sreat privations for 
of legation at Plon-nce 24 Aug. 1^1, and s^imemonths, he eventually obtained employ- 
cljarg6 d'affaires from Julv 1842 to October ment, on a very small salary*, in a solicitors 
184.'J, and frrnn March to Slay 1844. At St. j office. After a residence of nearly four years 

in London, he made the acquaintance of a 
young man whose conversation revived the 
religious feelings which he had imbibed earlier 
in life, and shortlv aftem'ards he introduced 
himself to the Rev. John Newton, then rector 
of St. Mary W'oolnoth, in the city, under 
whose influence a complete chan^ in his 
character sT)eedily took place. The intimacy 
with Mr. Newton led to his becoming ac- 
(^uainted with Mr. Henry Thornton, by whose 
liberality he was provided with funds, repaid 
a few years afterwards, which enabled uim 
to go to Cambridge and to qualify for ordina- 
tion. Entering Queens* College in 1791, 
l^uchanan speedily formed an intimacy with 
Clmrles Sime<in. HuchunaiKS studies at Cam- 
bridge were chiefly theological, lie did not 
compete for university honours, but won 
college prizes both in mathematics and in 
classics, lie took his degree in 1795, and in 
the same year was ordained a deaccm of the 
church of England, commencing his clerical 
life as a curate of Mr. Newton. In tlie fol- 
lowing year he was appoint (.hI to a chaplaincy 
in Bengal, and, having taken priest's orders, 
sailed for (^ilcutta shortlv aftenvards. 

On his arrival at Calcutta early in 1797 
Buchanan was hosjntably received by the 
K(*v. David Brown [see Brown, David, 1763- 
1812], then ]>residency chaplain, and after- 

Petersburg he was secretary of legation 1844, 
and U;twe«fn that time and I80I several times 
acted a-' c)iarg6 d'aflaires. He was then re- 
wardfKl for his various sen'ices by theappoint- 
mi-nt, \'2 Keb. iK'i^, of minister plenipoten- 
tiary to the Swiss Confederation. In the 
followiiij^ year, 9 Eeb., he was named envoy 
extraordinary to the king of Denmark, and he 
acted as her majesty's njpresentat ive at the 
conference of Coii«*nhagen in November 1855 
for the definite arrangement of the Sound 
dues quest ion. He was transferred to Madrid 
.•J I March 1858, and then to the Hague H Dec. 
1 WK). I le l^icame ambassador ext raordinary 
and plenipotentiary to the king of Prussia 
28 Oct. \t*i')2j ambassador ext raordinary to 
Rus.>^ia ]5S»*pt. 1M>4, and ambassador to Aus- 
tria fp)rn 10 Oct. 1871 to hiVrh. 1^78, when 
he retired on a pension. Previously to tliis 
lie bad b^en mad.- C.B. -J.'J Mav 1857,lv.C.B. 
25 F.-b. lHO(),f;.C.B. O.Tuly \m), and a privy 
councillor .'5 Vrh. l80.*>. . He was created a 
baron».'t 11 Dec. 187H, and died at C-raigend 
Castlr, Milnga>ie, near Cllasgow, 1'2 Nov. 
18X2. H.^ inarri.^d first, 4 April lx:39, Fran- 
ces Katharine, daughter of the \'ery Be v. 
Kdward Mellish, dean of Ilen.'ford (she died 
4 Dec;. 1^<51); and secondly, 27 May 1857, 
(ieorgiana Eliza, third daughter of Bobcrt 
Walter Stuart, eleventh baron lilantvre. 

Tiims, ];') Nov. 1HH2, j). 8.| 

(i. C.I3. 

IIIrrtKlrt's Foivijiri Offire List., 1882, P. 211 ; i ^^'"^^^'*' Buchanan\^ chief and colleague in the 

coUegeof Fort ^^ illiam. The jjrovision exist- 
ing at that t ime in India for ministering to the 
religious wants of the British community was 
extremely scanty. There was no episcojMite, 
few chaplains, and fewer churches. Bu- 
dianaii was sent to Barrackpur, where there 
was no cliurch, and, there being no British 
regiment quartered there, very little occupa- 
t ion for a cmiplain. He remained at Barrack- 


1815), Bengal chaphiiii and viire-])rovost of 
the college (if Fort William, was born (m 
12 March 1 7^(1 at Camhuslang, a village near 
(.Jla.-gow. His father, Alexander Buchanan, 
was a schoolmaster at Inverarv, and here 
Claudius <-ommeiiced his education. At the 

age of fourteen he became tutor in a gentle- ])ur for two years, passing much of his time 
man's family, an<l two years later entered the j in studying the Hcrii>tures in the original 
university of (ilasgow, where he spent the tongues, and also the Persian and Hindustani 
two following years, leaving the university 1 languages. He seems to have felt a good 
again to engage in private tuition. He had 1 deal the want of congenial friends and the 




f the HepKsging elimiile. In 1799 
onsferredW a in-esidency dinpliiiucy, 

«nfi aiifMlly nflerwarils was appomij!<l vics- 
provwt of the (»llegt^ estubliBued hy Lord 
Wellesley at Fort- 'Williain. Oim of tLe 
«ar1iMt rtatim vhicb Sticlianan was callnl 
upon to ili»cliarge aa praaidenev ptinjikin wua 
tut of jireactung a sennoii before tbe go- 
veinwr-geneml and the principnl officers of 
the Eovetnment on the occaaion of n gtiiprnl 
lluHiKsgiviiid for tlie aucceasaa nchieved in 
the iHtTi WOT in Mysore, For t)iig sermon 
Bnctiftnan received the thanks of the i^vur- 
ror-genHTftl in council, and it was directed to 
be prialed and circulated throughout India. 
During the next few veare ISuchnnon was 
much occupied with his iliitiea as vice-pmvoat 
of the oollege, and with the question of pro- 
moting the fornuit ion of a more odeqnate ec- 
«lMiii«ticBl eElabUshnient for India. Regard- 
ing the cotle^ he appears to have entertained 
viewa naBigning to it a wider scope than was 
generally ascribed to it, although not more 
comprehensive than that indicated in the 
minute of Lord Wellesley on the estubliah- 
ment of the colli^. His opinion was that 
It had been founded to 'enlighten the ori- 
«iDt»1 world, to give science, religion, and 

Sire morale to Asia, and to confirm in it the 
ritisb nnn'er and dominion ; ' and this was 
the aim lie continually Bet before him. The 
eoUege continued in existence for many ye«rs, 
but in 1807 the ajipo'intment of vice-provost 
WS discontinue, and the staff of teachers, 
and also the work, were reduced within 
nuTower limits than Ivjrd Wellesle^hadcou- 
lemplat^d. Although, as a chaplain of the 
coraptinv, Buchnnnn M-ae in a cTCHt measure 
debure^ from engaging directly in misaion- 
«ry operations, he laboured eealonslj^ and in 
various ways for the promotion of chriBtiaiiily 
and education among the natives of India. 
Out of his own means.which his emoluments 
OB rice-provost, of the college for a time 
rea deredcomparat ivel y easy , he ofTereflibenil 
money prixes to the universities and to some 
of the public schools of the United Kingdom 
for eBBBya and poetical composilionein Greek. 
Latin, and English, on 'the resloralion of 
leunlng in the East.' on ' the best means of 
civilitiing the subjects of the Itritish empire 
in India, and of diffusing the light of the 
christian religion throughout the Eastern 
world,' onti on other similar topics. The 
coUegii hail originally eomiirised a depart- 
mttnt for tranelating the scripluree into the 
languages of India, and the tirst version of 
tlie godpels into the Persian and Hindustani 
langiingHii, wlilch was printed in India, had 
iiBUed from 'he colltign press. When this 
dqmnment was Dbolishe<l, Buchanan, from 

I his private purse, paid the salary of an Ar- 
' meninn christian, a ualiveof China, who was 
I employed for three years at the miasionary 
establishment at Serampore in translating the 
I scriptiirea into Cliinese. But perhaps the 
most important services in connection with 
^ the propagation of Christianity in India in 
I which Buchanan was engaged were his tours 
through the south and west of India, under- 
taken forthe purpose of inveetigating the state 
I of superstition nt the most celebrated temples 
of the Hindus, examining the churches and 
libraries of the Itomish, Syrian, and protes- 
tant christians, asc^Haining the present state 
and recent liietoty of the Eastern Jews, uid 
discovering what persous might be fit instru- 
' meniB for the promotion of learning in their 
I respective countries, and for maiutuning a 
' future correspondence on the subject of ifis- 
seminatingthescrijitures in India (Christian 
Rertarchn in Asm, by the Kev. CLiCDICB 
, BtTCHAKAif, D.D., ed. 1840, p. 4). The first 
of these tours received the sanction of the 
' Marquis of Wellealey just before his depai^ 
ture from India, and an account of it and 
also of the second tour was embodied in tlie 
' above-mentione(lwork,which Buchanan pub- 
lished shortly after his return to England in 
' 181 1. In the first lour be visited &e cele- 
brated temple of Jogannitb, some of the 
temples in the northern districts of Madras, 
' Madras itself, and the missions in Tonjore, 
I Trichinopoly, Madura, Ceylon, Travancore, 
' and Cochin, from which latter place ha re- 
! turned to Calcutta in March 1807. At the 
I end of thai year he started on a second tour, 
I in the course of which he revisited Ceylon 
and Cochin, and touched at Ooa and several 
other places between Cochin and Bombay, 
uHitnce he embarked for England in March 
18CB/ after .B-reeidenee in .India of eleven 

His account of these tours is estremelv 
interesting, especially tlioae pprls of it whicn 
relate to his intercourSe 'Vitt the Syrian 
christians in Travancore and Cochin, and the 
narrative of his vieit to the inquisition at 
QoB. The residt of his visit to this part of 
India, in addilion to the information which 
it enabled him to supply, was a translation 
of the Xew Testament into Molavilam, the 
laugiiage of the British district of Malabar 
and of the native states of Travancore and 

Tlie remaining vears of liiiebannn's life, 
after his return to England in 1608, were 
spent in active efforts topromote the objects 
upon which he had been chieflir engaged 
while in India. Ho took a prominent part 
in the struggle in 1^13 which resulted in 
the establishment of the Indian episcopacy. 




Among other writiiij^s which he publisheil 
on this subject was n volume entitled * Co- 
lonial Ecclesiastical Establishment, being a 
brief view of the state of the Colonies of ' 
Great Britain and of her Asiatic Empire in 
respect to Religious Instruction, prefaced by 
some considerations on the national duty of 
ailbrding it/ While the contest was pro- 
ceeding he was vehemently attacked in par- 
liament as a calumniator of the Ilindus, and 
lis having given to the world an exaggerated 
t*tat^ment of the cruelty and immorality of 
tlieir superstitions ; but he was defended with 
vigour Dv Mr. Willwrforce and other pro- 
moters 01 the new legislat ion. Another work 
which he publishetl about this time was * An 
Apologj' for promoting Christianity in India, 
containmg two letters addressed to the Honor- 
able East India Company concerning the idol 
Jagannath, and a memorial presented to the 
Bengal Government in 1807 m defence of the 
(Christian Missions in India. To which are 
now added, Remarks on the Letter addressed 
])y the Bengal Government to the Court of 
Directors in reply to the Memorial — with an 
appendix containing various official papers, 
chiefly extracted from the Parliamentary 
Records relating to the promulgation of 
Christianity in India.' 

Buchanan received the degree of D.D. from 
the university of Glasgow, and also from that 
of Cambridge, lie dit^l in ISIT) at J5r(»x- j 
bourne in Hertfordshire, where he was en- ■ 
gagtM.l in revising a Syriiu; translation of the 
New Testament. 1 le was t wice married, and , 
left two daughters by his first wile. I 

[Poarsoii's Memoirs of the Life and "Writings 
of the Rt'v. Claudius Duchanan, D.D., 3rd ed., 
London, 1819; Christian Researches in Asia, with I 
notices of the TninsUition of the Scriptures into . 
the Oriental Languages, hy the Rev. Claudius j 
Huchanan, D.D., new edition, Loudon, 1840 ; 
Memorandum on the Svrian Church in Malahar, j 
11) Fob. 187'5, India Office Records.] A. J. A. 

BUCHANAN, DAVID (loa").^-l(>,-)i> P), 
Scotch writer, was, Sibbald says, descended 
from the same family as the famous George 
Buchanan. This statement is confirmed by 
William Buchanan of Auchmar {Jlisforical 
and Gcyiealof/iral Eftsay ii]>mi the Fainily and 
tSui^amc of Buchanan ^ 17-t3), who asserts 
that David was the second son of William 
Buchanan, son of the first Buchanan of 
Amprior, who was second cousin to George 
Buchanan. A David Buchanan was ad- 
mitted to St. Leonard's College at St. An- 
drews in 1610 (Irving, preface to Davidis 
Jiuchanani de Scrijitorihus Scofis). He ap- 
pears to have resided some time in France, 
for in 1636 he published at Paris a work 

of about seven hundred pages, entitled ' His- 
toria Humame AnimsB.' In 1638 he followed 
this up with ' LTEistoire de la Conscience, 
par David Buchanan/ which was probably 
printed also at Paris, though the place of 
publication is not mentioned. Between 1638 
and 1644 he appears to have returned to 
his native land, and in 1644 issued an edi- 
tion of John Knox's 'Historie of the Re- 
formation in Scotland/ to whicb he prefixed 
a life of the author and a pre&ce. in both 
the 'Historic' and the 'Life* he took un- 
usual liberties, and interpolated in the former 
a great deal of original matter, apparently 
with the view of adapting it to tne times. 
The preface, which professes to be a sketch 
of the previous historv, is historically worth- 
less. In 1645 a second edition was published 
at Edinburgh. In the same year he pub- 
lished at London ' Truth its Manifest ; or a 
short and true Relation of diyers main pas- 
sages of things in some whereof the Scots are 
particularly concerned.' This work was an 
account of the conduct of the Scotch nation 
during the civil war. It provoked consider^ 
able ire in England, was voted by both 
houses of parliament false and scandalous^ 
and ordered to be burnt by the hangman. 
A scurrilous refutation appeared entitled 

* Manifest Truths, or an Inversion of Truths 
Manifest/ London, 1646. Buchanan's pam- 
phlet, according to Baillie's letters (to Wil- 
liam Spang, 24 April 164(>), was really a 
collection of authentic state papers edited 
by him, with an introduction and a preface. 
Parliament, not being able to deny the au- 
thenticity of the papers, attacked the intro- 
duction, and declari'd the editor to be an 
incendiary. The next notice of him is to be 
found in tlie * Scottish Historical Library,' 
London, 1702. Here Bishop Nicolson men- 
tions that a great deal of the work in the 

* Atlas of Scotland,' published in 1655, was 
really done by Buchanan, and that he died 
before he had finished all he had projected. 
Xicolson also says that he wrote 'several 
short discourses concerning the antiquities 
and chorography of Scot land, which in bundles 
of loose papers, Latin and English, are still 
in safe custody;' and that these * discover 
their author's skill in the Hebrew and Celtic 
languages.' Perhaps these are what Bu- 
chanan of Auchmar refers to when he says 
that David wrote a large * Etymologicon ' of 
all the shires, cities, rivers, and mountains 
in Scotland, from which Sir Bobert Sibliahl 
quotes some passages in his * Ilistorj* of the 
Shires of Stirling and Fife.' Sibbald also 
states, in the * Memoirs of the College of 
Physicians,' that he received the greatest 
assistance from some manuscripts of Mr. 




David Buchanan, wlio has writ I en on the 
learned men of Scotland in excellent Lntin. 
Here he prnbBbl^ rtfers to the manuscript 
entitled 'De Scnptoribus Scotis,' prcsorved 
in the univeraity library at Edinburgh, and 
nttributed to David Buchanan, which waB for 
the first time edited bj Dr. David Irving, 
and printed for the Baiuiatyne Club in 1837. 
Id the appendix to this work there ia inserted 
the last teetament of a David Buchanan. 
Among the * Miscellanies ' of the Bsnnatyne 
Club (vol. ii.) is to be found a Latin ' Urbis 
Edinburgi Destriptio per Davidem Bucha- 
nanum/ dated circa 1048. The date of hia 
death can be more nearly fixed than that of 
his birth, for It appears to lie between 1652 
and IfiflS. Most of the anthorities agree in 
assigning the first year; but in a note to the 
' Deacriptio Edinburgi ' it is stated that ac- 
cording to theregistersof wills be must have 
died in 1653. 

[Anderson'a .Scottish Nation (articles ' Bu- 
cJiannn,' ■ David BocliBiittti.' ' Sir Robert Gordon 
tuid prefaCUi (Deacriptia Urbis Edinborgi; Bo 
f<eriptoribus Scotis] ; l^cottlsh Historical Library ; 
■William Buchanan's Ebbbv on the Faallj and Sur- 
DHmeofBuchamin; Baillie's Letters.] B.C.S. 

BUCHANAN, DAVID.the elder{1745- 
1813), printer and publifiher, a descendant of 
the ancient family of Buchanan of Buchanan, 
was bom at Montrose in 1746, and studied at 
the university of Aberdeen, where he (jro- 
duatedM.A. HebeganthebiutineEsnf print- 
ing in his native town at a time when tlieart 
WM pnwrtised in few of the provincial towns 
□fSwt land, and his enterprise as a publisher 
vna also shown by tbe issue of f^v>od editions 
of the dictionariee of Johnson, Bnjer, and 
Aingworth. Heabridgedjohnson'sdictlonarv 
for the earliest pocket edition ever printed. 
Among hia other publications special mention 
may be made of his miniature series of Eng- 
lidi classics, also revised and corrected bv 
himself. He died in 181:>. 


*B Scottish Naliou.] 


BUCHANAN, DA\"ID, the younger 
(1779-1848), journalist and author, son of 
David BuchBniin.primtiT and publisher [q. v.], 
was bom at Muutrose in 1779. He learned 
Ibe busineM of his father, and, li]<e Lim, also 
poeseneed iiitell»ctual Instee and sympathies. 
At nn early period of his life he contributed 
to Cobbett'i •Political Itegister'a reply to 
the«rlitor on a question of political economy. 
He also became n contributor to the ' Edin- 
burgh Review 'shortlv aft^T its commenee- 
mttnl. In 1807 he pu'llisbed a pamphlet on 
llie voluntwr syaiem uriginaied by Pitt, 

which attracted considerable attention. The 
following year be accepted an invitation to 
start in Edinburgh a liberal newspaper, the 
' Weekly Register.' The paper did not live 
above a year, and on its discontinuance be 
transferred his sen'lces to the 'Caledonian 
Mercury,' which he continued to edit from 
1810 to 1827, when he accepted the editor- 
shipof the 'Edinburgh Courant.' Thlspaper 
Ue edited until his death at Olasgoiv, 13 Aug. 

Amidst his editorial duties Buchanan found 

tine to de%-ote bis attention to a variety of 
literary projects. He made political economy 
his special study, and in 1811 he brought out 
an edition of Adam Smith's works, with life, 
notes, and a volume of additional matter, in 
which some of the more impartant suWed* 
treatedof by Smith were examined in tbe light 
of further profpsss and experience. A con- 
siderable portion of the volume was after- 
wards utilised by him in 'Inquiry into the 
Ta.TDtion and Commercial Policy of Qreat 
Britain, with Observations on the Principles 
of Currency and of Exchangeable Value,' 
published in 1844. Of this book the ni 
noticeable features are its arc 
taxes on manufactured gonili 
to the income-tax as inconsistent witti tue 
spirit of freedom, and its attempted refuta- 
tion of Ricardo's theory of rent, Buchanan 
also brought out an edition of the 'Edinburgh 
Goietteer,' in six volumes, contributed nu- 
merous geographical and statistical articles 
to the seventh edition of the ' Encycloptedia 
Britannica,' and supplieil a large portion of 
tlie lellerjiress for tne ' Edinbui^h Geogra- 
phical Atlas,' published in 1835. 

[Montrose Standard, 18 Aug. 1^48 ; AudcrBDa's 
Scottish NatioB.] T, ¥. U. 

BUCHANAN, DI:GALD (1716-1768), 
Gaelic poet, was boru at the mill of Ardocb 
in the valley of Strathtyre and parish of 
Balq^Lihidder, Perthshire, in 171H. After con- 
ducting a small school in a hamlet in his 
native cnunty, he procured, in 1755, the 
situation of schoolmaster and catechisl at 
Kinloch Rannoch in the parish of Fortingale, 
on the establisbment of the Society for Pro- 
po^ating Christian Knowledge in Scotland. 
IIjs accurate acquaintance with the Gaelic 
language enabled him to render essential 
service to the Rev. James Stewart of Eilliu 
in translating the New Testament. He die't 
on 3 July 1768, and was interred at Littlo 
Leny in the parish of Callander, the burial- 
place of the Buchanans of Leny and Com- 

Hia ' Laoidhibh Spiorodail' (Spiritual 
Hymns) were first published in 1707, and 




have been often reprinted in Gaelic. They 
have been translated into English by A. 
McGregor (Glasgow, 1840, 12mo), and by 
1j. Maclean (Edinburgh, 1884, 8vo). An 
English translation of his * Day of Judg- 
ment,' by J. Sinclair, appeared at Aberdeen 
in 1880, 8vo. 

Reid says that Buchanan's poetical genius 
was of the first order, and that he may ]i>e 
called ' the Cowper of the highlands.' His 
])oems are admitted to be equal to any in 
the Gaelic language for style, mattei; and 
the harmony of their versification. * Latha 
a' Bhreitheanis * (The Day of Judgment), * An 
Claigeann ' (The Skull), * Am Bruadar^ (The 
Dream), and ' An Geamhradh ' (The Winter) 
are the most celebrated, and are read with 
enthusiasm by all highlanders. 

Besides his 'Hymns' Buchanan left a 
* Diary,' which was published at Edinburgh 
in 1836, with a memoir of the author pre- 

[Memoir prefixed t« Diary; Beat ha agus 
lompachadh I)hugaill Bochaimain(Edinb. 1844); 
Beid's Bibl. Scoto-Celtica, 63 ; Mackenzie's S»ir- 
Obair namBardGaelach(1872),167-81 ; Rogers's 
Modern Scottish Minstrel, i. 323 ; Rogers's 
Monuments and Monumental Inscriptions in 
Scotland, ii. 161.] T. C. 

M.D. (1762-1829), a medical officer in the 
service of the East India Company, author 
of *A Journey from Madras through the 
countries of JNlysore, Canura, and Malabar,* 
of a 'History of Nepal,' and of other works 
on Indian subjects, was the third son of 
Thomas Buchanan of Spittal and Elizabeth 
I lamilton, heiress of Baraowie. He was born 
at Branziet in the parish of Callander, Perth- 
shire, on 1 i) Feb. 1 702. Having been educated 
for the medical profession, he took his degree 
at Edinburgh in 1783, and was shortly after- 
wards appointed a surgeon on board a man-of- 
war, but was compelled hv ill-health to relin- 
quish this appointment. Eventually, in 1794, 
he entered the East India Company's service 
as a surgeon on the l^ngal establishment. 
♦Shortlv after reaching India lie accompanied 
a mission to the court of Ava, and devoted 
liimself to botanical researches in Ava, Pegu, 
and the Andaman islands. On the return of 
the mission, being stationed at Jjakkipur, near 
the mouth of the Brahmaputra, he wrote an 
admira})le description of the fishes of that 
river, which was i)ublished in 1822. In 1800 
lie was (lei)uted by Ijord AVellesley, then 
governor-general of India, * to travel through 
and re])ort u])on the coimtries of Mysore, 
(.■anara, and Malabar, investigating the state 
of agriculture, arts, and commerce ; the re- 
on, manners and customs; the history, 

natural and civil; and antiquities in the do- 
minions of the Raja of Mysore, and the 
countries acquired by the honorable East 
India Company in the late and former wars 
from Tippoo Sultan.' This report, which is 
very voluminous and cast in the form of a 
loumal, was published in England in 1807 
Dy order of the court of directors, in three 
quarto volumes. A second edition, in two 
octavo volumes, was published at Madras in 
1870. It is full of valuable information on 
all the points which Buchanan was ordered 
to investigate, and is illustrated by explana- 
tory engravings, but it would have been far 
more useful if the matter contained in it had 
been entirely recast and condensed previous 
to publication. Buchanan's tour in southern 
India was followed by a visit to Nepal, in 
company with another British mission, in 
1802, which resulted in his writing a histoij 
of Nepal, and making large additions to his 
botanical collections. On his return he was 
appointed surgeon to the governor-general, 
and accompanied Lord Wellesley on his 
voyage to England in 1806. Shortly after- 
wards he was deputed by the court of di- 
rectors to make a statistical survey of the 
jiresidency of Bengal, an enormous work upon 
which he was employed for seven years, and 
which then was only partially accomplished. 
The results of this survey, which were for- 
warded to the East India House in 1816, do 
not appear to have been published, if we except 
a geographical and statistical description of 
Dinajpur, published at Calcutta after Bu- 
chanan's death. In 1814 Buchanan was ap- 
pointed superintendent of the Botanical Gar- 
den at (/alcutta, but returned to England in 
the following year. His latter years were 
spent principally in- Scotland, where, on the 
death of his eldest brother,' he succeeded to 
the estate which had been the property of his 
mother, and took the additional name of 
Hamilton. He was a fellow of the Royal 
Society, and a member of the Roval Asiatic 
Society. In 1826 he was appointetl deputy- 
lieutenant of Perthshire. The same year he 
made good his claims to be regarded the chief 
of the clan Buchanan. He died on 15 June 
1829, in his sixty-seventh year. 

[Buchanan's Mysore, Canara, and Malabar 
(Madras, 1870); Men whom India has known 
(Madras, 1871).] A. J. A. 

BUCHANAN, GEORGE (1606-1582), 
historian and scholar, third son of Thomas 
Buchanan, ajson of Buchanan of Drumnakill, 
a poor laird, and Agnes Heriot, was bom at 
the farm of Mid Leowen, or the Moss, in the 
parish of Killeam in Stirlingshire, in February 
1506. At an early age he lost his father. 




ine promiae of spliolurahip, he was a 
of fourteen wnt bj his uncle, J 

■, JemeB 
tferiot^ from the paruh ecLool of Killearn 
to PnnR, where he itndied chiefly Lnlin. In 
Ibbs thun two jcara he was forced to come 
home by the analh of his uncle and the 
poverty of hiamol her. H is health was re«ton>d 
by residence in the country, and when only 
seventeen he served with the French troop* 
brought by Alhony to Scotland, and was 
pti'stntat the ait'jreof Wert in October 1533. 
Campaignine barasbips brought on an illnese 
which kept liim in bed for the rest of the 
■winiei". In 1524 he went to St. Andrews to 
atlEnd the lectures of John Mair, or Major, 
& man of acute intellect, who, like Erasmus, 
did not embrace the reformed doctrine, but 
pTppored the way for it. His pupils did not 
stop where their master did, aJid Buchanan 
ungratefiiUy refers Ui him in the epigram — 

Cnm BCatcat nngis solo cogDomine Major, 
Nee »il in imnienso psgiun asDH libro, 

Jton mimm lifuUs quw u vjcncibuB oroat: 
Nee Hmpcr meiidax Rngcre CreU aotet. 

Mair went to Paris in 1525, whither Bucha- 
nan, after taking his degree of B.A. at St. 
AndrfrWB on 3 Oct. of that rear, followed him 
in luSO, and was admitted B.A. in the Scot- 
tish CuUe^ on 10 Oct. 1527. His eiegj, 
* Quam nusera eel conditio docenlium literas 
bumaniores LutetiCD,' bears the mark of pei^ 
sonal experience. Fie describes the spare diet 
and frequent fasts, the midnight ciil, the 

le perpetual ro 
lidden to the si 

Marriage is forbidden to the scholar who can 
ftfford no dowiT. Uld age comes awiftly and 
mooma a youth wasted in studiea. He ends 
with a farewell to the muses. In March 1 528 
he bMflme SM.A., and though defeated in a 
«Anteal for the officeof procurator of the Ger- 
nuin nation by Robert Wauchope, afterwards 
bishop of Armagh, on 3 June 1529, he was 
«IiMnnl to (his covi^led distinction. About 
Ilie Bnme time he began to teach grammar in 
the collegeof 81. Barbe, and became tutor of 
Gilbert, eari of Cassilis, with whom he re- 
mained for five ^fars in Paris and its neigh- 
bourhood. "Whde thus engaged he published 
a Latin Teraion of Linacre's ' Rudiments of 
Latin Grammar' nt the press of Robert Ste- 
phen, which he inscribed to his pupil, and 
wrote hia poem entitled ' Somnium,* an imi- 
l«li(ra of Ihinbar's ' Visitation of St. Francis,' 
din>cted like it against the Franciscans. Bu- 
chanan relumed to Scotland in 1536, and 
various gifts to him as servant (i.e. tutor) to 
' Lord Jamea'occur iu t he treasurer's accounts 
botwuen 16 Feb. 15^ and July 1538. This 
'Lord James' was not the future n^gent, but 
uotber of Kii^g James's natund eons, on 

whom the pap< conferral the abbacies of 
Melrose and Kelso. About this time the 
klug gave Buchanan a commission to wnia 
a shanier satire ngaiust the friars, B dangerous 
task fie tried to evade by the 'Palinodia,' 
which plea.ied neither bis patron nor his ad- 
versaries. The king having again applied to 
him he produced his 'FranciscAUUS el rratrcs.' 
Sir David Lindsay appealed to the people in 
the vernacular ; Buchanan addressed tbu 
learned, and both struck the Roman sarer- 
dolAl system in its most vulnerable point — the 
morals of the clergv — and hastaned the Scot- 
tish reformation. But James, who urged the 
literary attack for political ends, did not em- 
brace the new doctrines, and allowed Cardinal 
Beaton to persecute those who did so. In 
1539 five Scottish reformere were burnt and 
many driven into exile. Buchanan escaped 
from a window of his prison at St. Andrews 
to Ixindon, where be found Henry VIII in- 
tent on his own ends rather than on the purity 
of religion, burning, says Buchanan, men of 
opposite opinions at the same slake. Old 
habit and tne toleration of religion in Franco 
drew him to Paris. Here his implacable 
enemy, Beaton, who had alr«idj tried, be 
says, to purchase his life tram James V, was 
employed in an embassv, and to escape him 
Buchanan went toBonleaiiTonthe invitation 
of Andrew Govea, principal of the college of 
Guienne. The scholarahip of which he gave 
proof in a poem addressed to Charles V on 
his visit to that town gained him speedy em- 

iiloyment, and he taught Latin in the newly 
outtded college for three years. In Bor- 
dtiaiix he composed four tragedies,' Baptistes,' 
'Medea,' ' Jephtbes,' and 'Aleeslis, which 
wereaetedby the students, whom he desired 
to withdraw from the allegories then in 
fashion to classic models. In the 'Baptistea' 
especially the virtue of liberty, the fear of 
Godratherthanof man,and tbeinfatnyof the 
tyrant, are the themes. 'Let each judge for 
himselif,' he says in the prologue, '^whether 
this is an old or a new story. Among the 
pupils who took part in acting these trage- 
dies was Montaigne, in whose essavs there 
are several kindly notices of his old tutor; 
among his colleagues Govea, Muret us, Tevi us, 
and Tartnus ; among his friends the leading 
lawyers and magistrates of Bordeaux. At 
Agen, where he and some of his brolber pro- 
fessors spent vacation, he gained the friend- 
ship of the older Scaliger. To this period 
belong his verses, which are open to the 
censure of a license not excusable in a cen- 
sor of the morals of the clergy. The Amn- 
RUis of his poem, ' Deaideriiim Lutetin),' wtM 
iris, not a lady; but the hDrd-heart«d 
•Ne»ra' and the merelricious 'Lconor*,' 


1 88 


names borrowed fi*om classical masters, are 
realistic, probably real. It is possible that 
Milton's lines. 

Were it not better done, as others use, 
To Hport with Amar^'Ilis in the shade, 
Or with the tangles of Neaera's hair? — 

(Lycidas, 67) 

glanced at Buchanan as well as at the classic 
elegiacs. Between 1544 and 1547 Buchanan 
returned to Paris and taught in the coUeg^e 
of Cardinal le Moine, where the loss of liis 
liordeaux friends was compensated by the 
companionship of another circle of scholars, 
Tumebus, the great Grecian, Charles Stephen, 
the physician and printer of the family which 

gave its chief fame to the press of Paris, and 
^roscollius, and (lelida, less known scholars. 
Buchanan here became a victim of the gout, 
which never left him, and aggravated a tem- 

i)er naturally hasty. Govea, the principal at 
Bordeaux, was a Portuguese, antf was sum- 
moned by John III of Portugal to preside 
over the newly founded college at Coimbra. 
lie brought to his aid some of his learned 
friends, and umong them Buchanan and his 
l)rother Patrick. John of Portugal, the friend 
of learning, though not of the Reformation, 
liad already admitted the inquisition into his 
dominions, and on the death of Govea in 1548 
Buchanan was accused of tlie use of flesh in 
Lent, of writing against the Franciscans, and 
ol* the remark that Augustine would have 
favoured those whom the Boman church con- 
<lemned. Two secret witnesses reported tliat 
hv thought ill of Roman doctrine, and he was 
immured in a monastery for some months, in 
the hope that seclusion and the monks might 
reclaim him. lie occupied himself instead 
with translating the Psalms into Latin. On 
his release he was invited to remain in Por- 
tugal, but sailed for Knglandin 1552. There 
he remained only a short time, and returned 
to Paris in the following year. At the solici- 
tation of his friends he composed a poem on 
tlie raising of the siege of Metz, though with 
some reluctance, as Melinde de St. Gelais, a 
poet ofthe school ofMarot.had already written 
on t he subject. A graceful elegy on his return 
to France, * Advent us in Gallia m,' celebrates 
its praises in contrast with Portugal. After 
teaching a short time in the colh»ge of Bon- 
court he was engaged by Marechal de Brissac, 
governor of t he French territory on the Italian 
(M)ast, as t utor for his son, Timoloon de Coss6, 
Jiu ollice he held for five years, residing partly 
iu Italy and partly in I ranee. He was for- 
t unate in his pupil, who, short as his life was, 
acquired credit in letters as well as a place 
among Brantome's great captains of France. 
Brissac's confidence m Buchanan was so great 

that he was sometimes admitted to the coun- 
cil of war. During this period several of liia- 
works were first published; his 'Alcestls' 
and a specimen of nis version of the Psalms, 
which Ilenry Stephen brought out without 
his consent, alons with four other versions 
by scholars of difierent countrieSi among 
whom he gave Buchanan the palm, and his 
own Greek version. At this tune he wrote 
new poems on the * Taking of Calais ' and the 
' Epithalamium of the iJauphin and Mary 
Stuart.' He also studied the Bible that he 
might form an opinion on religious contro- 
versies. The dat« of his return to Scotland 
is not certain, but he was there in 1562, and 
in April Randolph writes to Cecil : ' The queen 
readeth daily aner her dinner, instructed by 
a learned man, Mr. George Buchanan, some- 
what of Lyvie.* He now openly embraced 
the doctrines of the reformed church, and 
at once took part in its government. He 
was a member of the general assembly at 
Edinburgh on 25 Dec. 1563, and of a com- 
mission for revising the * Book of Discipline.' 
He sat in the assemblies of 1564-7, and 
ser\'ed on their judicial committee. In that 
of June 1667 he was moderator, one of the 
few laymen who have held that office. The 
year before he had been appointed by Moray 
principal of the college of St. Leonard's, and 
m that, as well as the following year, his 
name occurs among the electors, assessors, 
and deputies of the rector. In the register 
he receives the epithet already given him by 
foreign scholars, * Hujus sieculi poetarum 
facile princeps.' He also appears as auditor 
of the accounts of the quaestor for the year 
1566-7, and as assessor of the dean of the 
faculty of arts in 1567-9. In the parliament 
of 1563 Buchanan was appointed one of the 
commissioners to inquire into the foundations 
of St. Andrews and other universities. No 
report of this committee is extant, but a 
sketch for it, of which a copy exists in the 
Advocates* Library, Edinburgh, is credited 
to Buchanan. It differs from the scheme in 
the * Book of Discipline,' but, like it, aimed 
at an organisation of the separate colleges 
of St, Salvator, St. Leonard, and St. Mary, 
which overlapped each other. According to 
his plan there was to be a college of huma- 
nity, with a principal, public reader, and six 
regents, for the teaching of languages on the 
model of the academy of Geneva ; a colle^ 
for philosophy with a principal, a reader in 
medicine, and four regents ; and a college of 
divinity, with a principal who was to read 
Hebrew, and a reader in law. Tliis inadequate 
scheme, in which languages were given too 
g^eat preponderance, was much improved by 
the reform projected and in part effected by 



Bucliaiuui'E niini), Andrew Melville, under 
A subsequent Miumission in IftTfi. AVhile 
chiefly ungnged in the ivffnirs of llie church 
And cducHtion Buchanan was employed by 

the prtTT coiucil to Iranslate 

pspeiB for the uie of the council. lie atill 


continued to esereise his talent for Latin 
feraes, celohratod the marriage of Mary and 
Dnmlej' in ' Strenie and Pompie,' dedicated hLs 
veraionof the PsnlnjB to the queen, composed 
YBlentinea in honour of the ladies Beaton and 
Fleming, two of the queen'g Maries, and the 
venea spoken by the BBtyra in the masque ait er 
the bapliBm of the young prince at Stirling. 
In rewurdforthege services ne receivedaiien- 
sioD of KOI. a year out of the revenues of the 
nbhey of Crossraguel : but the reeistance of 
the «8TBge Earl of CoMilis, son of his old 
pupil, made it impossible to obtain payment 
of this pension, his chief livelihood, without 
TM«ui»e both to the privy council and the 
courts. Buchanan was probably at St. An- 
drews during the months between Damley's 
murder (10 Feb.)'aud BothwelJ's marriage 
^15 May); and when he come to Edinburgh 
for the June assembly (25 June> Mary was a 
eaptive in Lochleven, and Bothwell in full 

ing the nobUity and otiiers to a meeting 
20 July, but transacted no other business of 
importance. It was only five days before 
the June assembly that the famous casket 
with the letters alleged to be written bv 
the queen is said to have been found, and 
talcen possession of by Morton; hut there is 
no proof that Buchanan at this time knew 
their contents. On 16 Sept. the casket was 
delivered by Morton to Moray, who was then 
preparing to go to the conference at York 
which QueenEliiabethhadsummoned. Bu- 
chanan went as the secretary of the commis- 
aion. At the conference, if not before he left 
Scotland, he must have become cognisant of 
the letters. On 37 Sept. the commissioners 
and Uucluuian started for Knglnnd, with a 
guard of S hundred horse. Narrowly escap- 
ing being waylaid by the Earl of Westmor- 
land, they arrived at York in the beginning of 
October. 'ITie real debate began on 8 Oct.. 
whan Mary's commis-iioners pive in hei 
complaint. On 10 Oct. Lelhington, Mac- 
gill, Bolnaris, and Buchanan were sent tc 
the English commisEionerB, and protesting 
tliey did not appear before them as commis- 
•ionen, but only for their instruction, ex- 
hibited a portion oftho contents of the casket. 
Letliington, who had been her secretory, and 
Buchanan, who bad been ber tutor, declared 
thai the letters were written by the queen. 
^J» difficult 10 believe that tntlieF was igno- 

rant 03 to her handwriting. The result of 
this disclosure was to lead Elizabeth and 
Cecil to transfer the conference to Westmin- 
ster. Buchanan went with the Scottish eom- 
nussioners. A tortuous diplomacy delayed 
the production of the proofs, whose enistence 
must now have been Known to all the prin- 
cipal parties, but C^il and Moray desired to 
use the letters so as to force Mary t o a com- 
promise rather than to close the door to it. 
At last, however, all reluctance was over- 
come, and on 6 Dec. Moray gave in I he 'Book 
of Articles,' in which the charge against Mary 
was first formulated. Tliis was long supposed 
to he the same document as the ' Detection ' 
which Buchanan afterwards published. A 
copy recently found among Lord Hopetoun's 
manuscripts jifovea it to have been Afferent, 
though many passages are in almost the some 
words, and the proof is the same as in the 
'Detection.' Two days after, with a renewed 
protest, the casket and aportion of ita contents 
were brought forward. The queen's commis- 
sioners lo^ed in her name an answer to the 
accusation, oliarging Moray and his part v with 
being the real authors of the murder. Elixa- 
beth a counsellors nowgave their opiniou that 
she ought not toadmit Mary to her presence. 
Finally on 11 Jan. 1668-9 the commissioners 
on both aides, of whom Buchanan is named 
as one, met for the last time face to Cice at 
Hampton Court, when Mary's commissioners 
repeated the accusation against Moray, but 
declined to take the responsibility of it on 
themselves, and Moray onered to go to Bow- 
ton to see whether Mary would stand by her 
accusation, an offer which her commisstonera 
declined. Elizabeth hod already on the 10th 
stated her decision through Cecil, refusing to 
condemn either Moray or Mary, and giving 
thu former license to return to Scotland. 
Mary's commissionerH were some weeks later 
allowed to return. Such was the impotent 
conclusion of tliBse long conferences. The 
unfairness to Mary, who was not allowed 
" by her commissioners ti 

see the principal documents brought forward 
a^inst her, is palpable. Buchanan must bear 
his shore in the discredit of these transac- 
tions. What that share is it is not so easy 
to determine. At best Buchanan's conduct 
must be regarded as that of a willing agent 
of Moray'a policy. But Mary's vindicators 
brought against him a much graver charge — 
the forgery of the documents produced fVom 
the casket. His life and cliaracter as re- 
presented hy the closest observers do not 
warrant this, nor are the best judges inclined 
to see his style in their composition. A letter 
written from London, it is supposed at the 
instigation of Cecil after the publication ot 

Buchaoan'e ' Detection,' esprassly anya that 
' the book was writteu by him, not us of him- 
self nor in hla own name, but acconling to 
the instructions to him girea W common 
conference of tbeprivie counsel of Scotland, 
by him only for lus learning' penned, but by 
them the matter ministered, and tliis, though 
coming from a aourcc not beyond suspicion, 
nppeiirs probable. As lo the letters them- 
aelves, the prepooderBting opinion of im- 
partiul writers now is acstnat tbeir genuine- 
neaa, though Mr. Hosack'a ingenious theory 
suggested by Miss Strickland that some 
ara letters to Damley is not more than a 
conjecture. The mystery cannot be said lo 
be solved until the forger is discovered. 
Assuming their blaity, it is difficult to slop 
short of the further concIusioQ, that liuchanan 
must have shut his eyes to the inquiry which 
would have produced the necessary know- 
led^. He returned to Scotland with Moray 
euTy in January 1668-9, tmd at once Tesiimed 
bis position as princiiial of St. Andrews. 
Buchanan does not r^fer either in his ' De- 
tection ' or in bis ' History ' to the examina- 
tion at St. Andrews, on 9 and 10 Aug., of 
Nicholas Hubert, commonly called French 
Paris, which attributes to Mary full know- 
ledge of the conspiracy to murder her hus- 
band, and even of the particular mode devised 
for carrying it out. It eaiinot, however, 
be reasonably concluded irom tlie omisuon 
that he disbelieved il; for it was not the 
method of either work to be precise in the 
citation of authorities, and the Latin edition 
of the 'Detection,' first printed in 1571, was 
probably written before PariB was examined, , 
as the ' Book of Articles ' on which it is 
founded certainly was. Before that publi- 
cation events occurred which heighlcjied if 
Kiaihle the virulence of the war of parties, 
thin Scotland and in England. OndSJsn. 
I6T0 the regent Moray, Buchanan'^ patron 
and Mend,was shot at Linlithgow by Hamil- 
ton of Bothwellhaugh. Shortly before this 
the plot for the marriage of Mary to the 
Diik" of Norfolk, and the rising in the north 
of England for her liberation, bad been dis- 
covered, and Norfolk had been sent to the 
Tower. It was at this jimcture that Bu- 
chanan produced his only writings in the 
vernaculof. lliese must be regardi^ as part^ 
pamphlets. One was entitled ' Ane udmoni- 
tion direct to the tre Lordis Maintenaris of 
Justice and obedience to the Kinfps Grace,' 
and tJie other ' Chamteleon,' a satire against 
Uaitland of Lethington, who had now openly 
ffone over to Mary's side. The ' Admonition ' 
uan invective against the house of Hamihon, 
the principal opponents of the late regent. one 
of whom was nia murderer, and an exhorta- 

tion to the true lords to support the cause of 
the young king, on which the great issue of 
proteBtaotiam agaiuBt papacy depended. Ths 
' Chamieleon ' is acurious sample of thoEudden 
changesofthisageofiutri^es, as little more 
than a yearbefore the satirist and the object of 
his satire bad acted together in the accusatiun 
of Mary. Shortly after the assassination of 
Moray, Buchanan, by an act of council dat^d 
August 1569 (Lord Uaddinston't MS., Ad- 
vocates' Library^, was appointed tutor to 
the king, then in lus fourth year; and aft 
it was necessary that he should reside at 
Stirling, where James was kept under the 
guardianship of tlte Earl of Mar, he resigned 
His office of principal. In the following year 
the ' Detection ' was published in Loimon, 
firat in Latin and then in the Scottish dialect. 
In it the charges against Mary in the ' Book 
of Articles,' in the form of a judicial paper, 
are reiterated and adapted to the purpoaea of 
a polemic. The date of the EngUsli edition 
is fixed by a letter of Cecil of 1 Nov. 1671, 
which slates that it is newly ' print«d in 
Latin, ajid I hear is to be translated into 
English, with many supplements of like 
condition.' Next year it was reprinttid in 
Scotch at St. Andrews by Lekprevik, and « 
French edition was put out, purportiiic to ba 
printed ' & Edinburg, ville capitale d'Ecoasei 
le 13 Fevrier 1572, par moi Thomas Watlera,' 
a fictitious name, for in reality it was pub- 
lished at Rocbelle by a Huguenot editor. After 
all allowance for party spirit and the 'well- 
founded belief of the reformers that Mary wi» 
I asublleanddangerousenemy, the' Detection' 
, mustbedeemedacalumniouawork, whiehnot 
' only sought out doubtful and trivial incidenia 
' to blacken her character, but invented otltar* 
for which there was no warrant. Buchanan 
charges Mary with an attempt to nuJn 
DanUey and Moray quarrel, in tlie hope of 
ridding herself of both; with encouraging 
Damley to seduce Moray's wife ; with ohame- 
Ies9 adultery with Botkwell, both ui Bdin- 
burgh and at Jedburgh ; with a design to 
poison Damley,Bnd with the intent ion, gw- 
dually formed, to murder not only Daml^ 
but ber own child. For theae oliargcfl thara 
is no evidence, and they have been tilentlj 
dropped even hy historians who believe her 
capable of any wickedness. We cannot wonder 
that she describes this work, when Elii^etll, 
with peculiar spite, sent her a copv of iha 
' Detection ' instead of the priest she aslted 
for, as 'a defamatory book bv an atheist, Bu- 
chanan, the knowledge of wliosn impiety hod 
modeherrequHSta year before that ht^^onld 
not be left near her son, to whoiu aha heud 
he bod been given as prvceptor' {LeUtr 
fi-otn SAfJifld to La Molie Ftntlon, 23N»r. 


ISn, IjABASoyp, iv. 5). The post of tutor 
euitvd Bucbuiaii better than that of a [loli- 
ticdl writer, and there cnnbe little doubt that 
lie devoted himitelf wllh diligence and xifal < 
to the diwhat^ of hid ofTice. Melville wrilcs 
ID his ' Memoirs ' that Quchanuu woa one of J 
Jomee'd 'four principnl mastere/aad 'that he 
lietd the king in great awe,' that imUlie an- 
other of these masters who carried ' hinuelf 
wftrily, aA a Dian who had a miad to hia own 
wea1( by beeping of hia laajeatys favour, Mr. 
GeOT^e wasa Stoickpbilaaoplier,who looked 
not far before him. A man of notable endow- 
ments for his learning and know ledge of Latin 
poesie. Mitch honoured in other countries, 
pleasant in cunvereatiou, rebearsing on all 
i>ccaBioua moralities abort and instructive, 
whereof he had abundance, inventing where 
be wanted. He waa a\rH> of good religion for i 
a. poet; hut be wa.s easily abujed, and BO facill 
thVt he waa led with any company that he 
haunted for the tym,quhilk maid him &ctious 
inbiaolddsyis; forhespolieand writ as they 
tli&t were about Uim for the tym informed 
him ; for be was become aliperie and care- 
less, and followed in many things the vulgar 
oppinions; forhe was naturally populair and 
extreme vengeable against any man that had 
offendit him, quhilk was his gratest fault.' 
Jiunea entertained a lively recollection of 
the discipline of his tutor, and wlien aperaon 
in high olfice whom be disliked came near 
lum he used to say ' he trembled at Ms np- 
ntoach, it reminded him so of hia pedagogue.' 
Yet his references to Buchanan are not so 
serere as miglit have been anticipated. He 
denounced his ' Hiatory,' indeed, as well as 
that of Knox, as an infamous invective, and 
coins for the author* the epithet ' Arcbibel- 
lonses of liebellion.' Dut on the ■ De Jure 
Itegni' he pronounces the curious judgmejit: 
'Buchanan I reckon and rnnk among poets, 
not among divinea, classical or common. If 
tlie man hath burat out here and there into 
some tracea of exceas or speech of bad temper, 
that must be imputed tn the violence of bis 
humour and beat of hia spirit, not in any 
wise to the rules of treu religion rightly 
by him conceived before.' In his speech at 
Eitirling to the nnirerBily of Edinburgh James 

Kiiaed his Latin learning, ' All the world 
OWB,' he said, ' that my master, George 
BuchJUian, waaa great master in that facultjr. 
I foUow his pronunciation, both of his Latin 
and Greek, and am sorry that my people of 
England do not the like ; for certainly their 
pronunciation utterly tails the grace (H these 
two Inamed languages.' 

The d.«th of Morton in 1578, and the 
anutncipatioa of the king from any regency, 

o emancipated him from hie tutors On 

3 May 1578, a new ' ordour of thy keeping 
of the king ' was framed, to which his own 
signature is attached. John, earl of Mar, 
was given the custody of his person, with 
an ityiuiction that he was not to be re- 

George Buchanan and Peter Young, hia 
present pedagoguis, or sic as sail be here- 
after electit by his Hineas , . , of his said 
counsale to that charge, aggreing in religion 
with the anidis Maisteria George and Peter." 
But though Buchanan still nominally held 
(his otGee, to which he refers in the dedica- 
tions of the 'De Jure Regui' and of hia 
' HJstoria Scotorum,' James was allowed to 
leave Stirling in the following year, and grow- 
ing age ana infirmity prevented Buchanan 
from acting personally as the king's tutor. 
His active spirit did not confine itself at any 
time to the education of the king. He had 
been rewarded for his services by the post of 
director of chancery in 1570, which he aeenis 
to have held only for a short time, since in 
the same year he was appointed to the higher 
office of keeper of the privy seal, which he 
held till lG78,when he resigned in favour of 
hia nephew Thomas. This office gave him a 
seat both in the privy council and in parlia- 
ment, and he acted on commissions for the 
digest of the laws, for the reform of ihe 
imiversitiea, and for the compilation of a 
Latin grammar, over which he presided, and 
for which he compiled a. abort prosody, 
printed in hia works. He was also one of 
the commisaion appointed by parliament in 
1578 to examine a book on the 'Policy of 
the Kirk.' In 1574 the general assembly 

?laeed under hia revision, along with Peter 
'oung, Andrew Melville, and James Lawson, 
Adomson's Latin version of the Book of Job, 
which was to be published if found agreeable 
to God's Word. 

So busy a life probably left little time for 
correspondence, and few of Buchanan's letters 
have been preaen-ed ; but those of his corre- 
apondent.B are of considerable interest from 
their various nationalities, and the light they 
throw on the literary commerce of the six- 
teenth century. They were the leading scho- 
lars who had embraced the reformed doctrines 
in England and the Low Countries, France, 
and Switierland, Allexpress the greilest in- 
terest in Buchanan's writings, oud request him 
to publish or revise them. Randolph presses 
him to write his own life; hut all that came 
of this request was the brief fragment prefixed 
to hia works, written in 1580, which unfortu- 
nately atops short at his return to Scotland. 
Among his friends whose letters have been 
preaen'ed ore Theodore Besa, Elius ^'iuet. 




Hubert Lancet , Roger Ascham, and Walter , me unfit/ he says, * to discharge in person 
Haddon. The greatest name in the list is the care of your instructions committed to 

that of TychoBrahe, whom Buchanan thanks 
for his present of his book on the new star, 
and mentions that ill-health has prevented 
him from completing his astronomical poem 
on the Sphere, which was only pubbshed 
after his death. A portrait of Buchanan, 
presented probably by King James to Brahe, 

me, I thought that sort of writing which 
tends to inform the mind would best supply 
the want of mj attendance, and resolvea to 
send to you faithful narratives from history 
that you might make use of trew advice in 
^our deliberations, and imitate trew virtue 
in your actions.' This book was at once 

was seen bv him when he visited the astro- i translated into the continental languages, 
nomer at L ranienberg on the occasion of his . and was long the chief, almost the only 
marriage. In the beginning of 1579 Bu- I source from which foreigners knew the bis- 
chanan published his tract ' De Jure Regni,' tory of Scotland. Nineteen editions attest 
the most important of his political writings. I the value which succeeding generations at- 
The contents of this work — in the form of a , tached to it, but it is significant that the last 
dialogue between Buchanan and Thomas was published in 1762. Judged by a modem 
Maitland, brother of Lethington — are a de- stanaard, the history of Buchanan is anti- 
fence of legitimate or limited monarchy, a quated not merely on account of its Latin, 
statement of the duty of monarchs and but from the absence of criticism in the ex- 

subjects to each other, in which he lays 
stress chiefly on tlie former, and a plea for 
the right of popular election of kings, and 
of the responsibdity of bad kings, in treat- 
ing which he does not shrink from uphold- 

amination of authorities. Its different parts 
are of unequal merit, probably because they 
were composed at different times. The first 
three of its twenty books contain its best 
portions, a description of the physical cha- 

ing tyrannicide in cases of extreme wicked- ; racteristics of the country, and an erudite 
ness. The book had an immense popularity; \ collection of passages from Greek and Latin 
three editions were publislied in tnree years, writers relating to Britain. Buchanan pro- 
Similar doctrine was then in the air of Europe. ! ceeds, in the steps of Hector Boece, to narrate 
* The three great sources of a free spirit in j the reigns of the eighty-five kings down to 
politics/ remarks Ilallam, * admiration of an- Malcolm Canmore, in a manner not more de- 
tiqnity, zoal for religion, and persuasion of serving of credit thautlieir portraits, painted 
positive right, which animated separately La . to the order of Charles II, \vhich hang in the 

Bo6tie, Langiiet, and I lot toman, united their 
stream to produce tlie treatise of George Bu- 
chanan, a scholar, a protestant, and the subject 
of a very limited monarchy.' Suppressed by 
an act of parliament in 1584, the ' De Jure 
liegni ' was a standard work in the hands 
of the men of the Long parliament, and the 
writer possesses a copy carefully indexed by 
Sir Koger Twysden. As miglit be expected, 
Buchanan's work was not allowed to pass 

gallery of Ilolyrood. But from Malcolm 
the history improves. The characters of the 
kings are well drawn, though the publication 
of the original record